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Bulletin of 

Wake Forest 
College 

and the School of 
Business and 
Accountancy 

The Undergraduate Schools 
of Wake Forest University 



WAKE FOREST 



UNIVERSITY 



1987-1988 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 



http://archive.org/details/bulletinofwakefo19871988 



New Series April 1987 Volume 82, Number 3 




Bulletin of 

Wake Forest 
College 

and the School of 
Business and 
Accountancy 

The Undergraduate Schools 
of Wake Forest University 

Announcements for 

1987-1988 

Bulletin of Wake Forest University is published monthly (February-August) bv the University at 

Winston-Salem, North Carolina 

Second class postage paid at Winston-Salem, North Carolina 

USPS 078-320 

Printed bv Winston Printing Company, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27105 



The Academic Calendar 



Fall Semester 1987 



August 
August 
August 



20 Thursday 



August 

September 

September 

September 

October 

October 

November 

November 
December 
December 

December 
December 



20-25 



22 



August 22-24 

August 23 

August 24, 25 



26 

1 

8 

22 

16 

23 

26-29 

30 

4 

7-9 

10 
11, 12 



December 14, 15 

December 16- 

Januarv 10 



Thursdav- 
Tuesday 
Saturday 

Saturday- 
Mondav 
Sundav 

Monday, 
Tuesday 

Wednesday 

Tuesday 

Tuesday 

Tuesday 

Friday 

Friday 

Thursday- 
Sunday 

Monday 

Friday 

Monday- 
Wednesday 

Thursday 

Friday, 
Saturday 

Monday, 
Tuesday 

Wednesday- 
Sunday 



Residence halls open at 8 a.m. for first-year 

students 
Orientation for first-year students 

Residence halls open at 10 a.m. for transfer 

students 
Orientation for transfer students 

Residence halls open at noon for returning 

students 
Registration for all courses 

Classes begin 
Opening Convocation 
Last day to add courses 
Last day to drop courses 
Midterm grades due 
Fall holiday 
Thanksgiving recess 

Classes resume 
Classes end 
Examinations 

Reading day 
Examinations 

Examinations 

Christmas recess 

1987 





JANUARY 










FEBRUARY 










MARCH 










APRIL 




S M 


T W T 


F 


S 


S 


M 


T W T 


F 

6 

13 


S 


S 


M 


T VV T 


F 

6 
13 


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5 


M 


T VV T 


F S 


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6 7 8 


9 


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9 


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14 


8 


9 


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14 


=; 


6 


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24 25 


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27 28 29 


30 


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29 


30 


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26 


27 


28 29 30 






MA\ 










IL'NE 










|LL> 










AUGUST 




S M 


T W T 


F 

1 


5 


S 


M 

1 


T VV T 
2 3 4 


F 


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6 


S 


M 


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1 2 


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3 


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4 


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T VV T 


F S 

1 


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L5 


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26 


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23 


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25 26 27 


28 29 


31 




























30 


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SEPTEMBEF 










OCTOBER 










NOVEMBER 








DECEMBER 




S M 


T W T 

1 2 3 


F 
4 


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S 


M 


T W T 

1 


F 


5 
3 


S 
1 


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2 


T W T 
3 4 5 


F 

6 


S 


S 


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1 2 3 


F S 
4 5 


6 7 


8 9 10 


11 


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9 


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13 14 


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27 


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Spring Semester 1988 



January 10 Sunday 

January 11, 12 Monday, 

Tuesday 
Janaury 13 Wednesday 

January 26 Tuesday 

February (date to be announced) 
February 9 Tuesday 

March 4 Friday 

March 5-13 Saturday- 

Sunday 
March 14 Monday 

April 4 Easter 

Monday 
April 29 Friday 

May 2-4 Monday- 

Wednesday 
May 5 Thursday 

May 6, 7 Friday, 

Saturday 
May 9, 10 Monday, 

Tuesday 
May 15 Sunday 

May 16 Monday 



Residence halls open at noon 
Registration for all courses 

Classes begin 
Last day to add courses 
Founders' Day Convocation 
Last day to drop courses 
Midterm grades due 
Spring recess 

Classes resume 
Regular class day 

Classes end 
Examinations 

Reading day 
Examinations 

Examinations 

Baccalaureate 
Commencement 







































1988 






IANUARY 










FEBRUARY 










MARCH 










APRIL 




s 


M 


T VV T 


F 


S 


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M 


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6 
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27 


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29 30 31 






24 


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MA\ 










|L\E 










ILLY 










AUGUST 




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6 
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M 


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10 11 12 


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7 8 9 


10 


11 


3 


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5 6 7 


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24 
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" 


26 27 28 


29 


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28 


29 


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SI I'll MM l< 










OCTOBER 








NOVEMBER 










DECEMBER 


S 


M 


T VV T 
1 


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s 

3 


S 


M 


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F 


s 
1 


S 


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S 


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1 


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2 3 


4 


5 


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9 


10 


2 


3 


4 5 6 


7 


8 


6 


7 


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11 


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9 10 


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30 31 



The Bulletin 



The Academic Calendar 2 

The University 8 

Buildings and Grounds 9 

Computer Center 10 

Libraries 11 

Recognition and Accreditation 12 

The Undergraduate Schools 14 

Wake Forest College 15 

Statement of Purpose 15 

History and Development 17 

Student Life 23 

Student Government 23 

Student Union 24 

Residence Hall Government 25 

Interfraternity and Intersocietv Councils 25 

Honor Societies and Professional Fraternities 26 

Academic Awards 26 

Intramural Athletics 27 

Intercollegiate Athletics 27 

Religious Activities 28 

Cultural Activities 28 

Career Planning and Placement 30 

University Counseling Center 30 

Student Health Service 30 

Procedures 32 

Admission 32 

Application 32 

Early Decision 33 

Admission of Handicapped Students 33 

Advanced Placement and CLEP 34 

Admission of Transfer Students 34 

Expenses 34 

Tuition 35 

Room Charges 35 

Food Services 35 

Other Charges 35 

Refunds 37 

Housing 37 

Academic Calendar 38 

Orientation and Advising 38 

Registration 38 

Classification 38 

Class Attendance 39 



Auditing Classes 39 

Dropping a Course 40 

Withdrawal from the College 40 

Examinations 40 

Grading 40 

Grade Reports and Transcripts 41 

Dean's List 42 

Graduation Distinctions 42 

Repetition of Courses 42 

Probation 42 

Requirements for Continuation 43 

Requirements for Readmission 44 

Summer Study 44 

Transfer Credit 45 

Scholarships and Loans 46 

Scholarships 46 

Federal Financial Aid Programs 54 

Exchange Scholarships 56 

Loans 56 

Concessions 57 

Other Financial Aid 58 

Special Programs 59 

Honors Study 59 

Open Curriculum 59 

Residential Language Centers 59 

Foreign Area Studies 59 

Study at Salem College 60 

Opportunities for Study Abroad 60 

London 60 

Venice 60 

France 60 

Spain 60 

India 61 

Independent Study 61 

Requirements for Degrees 62 

Degrees Offered 62 

General Requirements 62 

Basic Requirements 63 

Divisional Requirements 64 

Requirement in Health and Sport Science 65 

Proficiency in the Use of English 65 

Basic and Divisional Requirements 65 

Declaring a Major 65 

Maximum Number of Courses in a Department 66 

Options for Meeting Major Requirements 66 

Double Majors and Joint Majors 66 



Minors 67 

Interdisciplinary Minors 67 

Foreign Area Studies 68 

Combined Degrees in the School of Law 69 

Combined Degrees in Medical Sciences 70 

Combined Degrees in Medical Technology 71 

Degrees in the Physician Assistant Program 71 

Degrees in Microbiology 71 

Degrees in Dentistry 72 

Degrees in Engineering 72 

Degrees in Forestry and Environmental Studies 73 

Courses of Instruction — Wake Forest College 74 

Anthropology 74 

Art 78 

Asian Studies 82 

Biology 84 

Chemistry 89 

Classical Languages 92 

Economics 96 

Education 100 

English 107 

German and Russian 112 

Health and Sport Science 115 

History 120 

Humanities 124 

Interdisciplinary Honors 128 

Mathematics and Computer Science 130 

Military Science 135 

Music 136 

Natural Sciences 142 

Philosophy 144 

Physics 147 

Politics. 150 

Psychology 155 

Religion 160 

Romance Languages 165 

Sociology 176 

Speech Communication and Theatre Arts 180 

School of Business and Accountancy 187 

Objectives 187 

Admission 187 

Transfer of Credit from Other Schools 188 

Requirements for Continuation 188 

Requirements for Graduation 188 

Senior Honors Program 189 

Courses of Instruction 189 



Business 189 

Accountancy 191 

Degrees Conferred 193 

Honor Societies 203 

Enrollment 205 

The Board of Trustees 208 

The Board of Visitors 210 

School of Business and Accountancy Advisory Council 212 

The Administration 213 

The Undergraduate Faculties 222 

Emeriti 239 

The Committees of the Faculty 241 

Index 246 




Reynolda Hall 



The University 



Wake Forest University is characterized by its devotion to liberal learning and 
professional preparation for men and women, its strong sense of communitv and 
fellowship, and its encouragement of free inquiry and expression. 

Founded in 1834 by the Baptist State Convention of North Carolina, the school 
opened its doors on February 3 as Wake Forest Institute, with Samuel Wait as 
principal. It was located in the Forest of Wake County, North Carolina, on the 
plantation of Calvin Jones, near which the Village of Wake Forest later developed. 

Rechartered in 1838 as Wake Forest College, it is one of the oldest institutions of 
higher learning in the state. It was exclusively a college of liberal arts for men until 
1894, when the School of Law was established. The School of Medicine, founded in 
1902, offered a two-year medical program until 1941. In that year the school was 
moved from the Town of Wake Forest to Winston-Salem, became associated with the 
North Carolina Baptist Hospital, and was renamed the Bowman Gray School of 
Medicine in honor of the benefactor who made possible the move and expansion to a 
full four-year program. In 1942 Wake Forest admitted women as regular un- 
dergraduate students. 

A School of Business Administration was established in 1948 and for over two 
decades offered an undergraduate program of study in business. In 1969 the un- 
dergraduate school was succeeded by the department of business and accountancy 
and the department of economics in Wake Forest College; at the same time the 
Babcock Graduate School of Management was established. In 1980 the un- 
dergraduate program in business and accountancy was reconstituted as the School of 
Business and Accountancy- The Division of Graduate Studies was established in 
1961 . It is now organized as the Graduate School and encompasses advanced work in 
the arts and sciences on both the Reynolda and Hawthorne campuses in Winston- 
Salem. The summer session was inaugurated in 1921. 

In 1946 the Trustees of Wake Forest College and the Baptist State Convention of 
North Carolina accepted a proposal by the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation to relocate 
the non-medical divisions of the College in Winston-Salem, where the School of 
Medicine was already established. The late Charles H. Babcock and his wife, the late 
Mary Reynolds Babcock, contributed a campus site, and building funds were re- 
ceived from many sources. Between 1952 and 1956 the first fourteen buildings were 
erected in Georgian style on the new Winston-Salem campus. In 1956 the College 
moved all operations, leaving the 122-year old campus in the Town of Wake Forest to 
the Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary. 

The decade that followed was the College's most expansive, and in 1967 its 
augmented character was recognized by the change in name to Wake Forest Univer- 
sity. Today, enrollment in all schools of the University stands at over 5,000. Gov- 
ernance remains in the hands of the Board of Trustees, and development for each of 
the six schools of the University is augmented bv Boards of Visitors for the un- 
dergraduate schools and Graduate School, the School of Law, the Graduate School of 
Management, and the School of Medicine, and by the Advisory Council for the 
School of Business and Accountancy. A joint board of University Trustees and 



Trustees of the North Carolina Baptist Hospital is responsible for the Medical Center, 
which includes the hospital and the School of Medicine. Alumni and parents' 
organizations are also active at Wake Forest, and support by the Z. Smith Reynolds 
Foundation and other foundations and corporations is strong and continuing. 

Wake Forest's relationship with the Baptist State Convention is an important part 
of the school's heritage. Wake Forest's founders proposed to establish an institution 
that would provide education under Christian influences. Wake Forest and the 
Convention have a fraternal, voluntary relationship under which Wake Forest is 
autonomous in governance. The University is an associate member of the Conven- 
tion's Council on Christian Higher Education. Wake Forest receives financial and 
intangible support from Convention-affiliated churches. 

The College, School of Business and Accountancy, Graduate School, School of 
Law, and Graduate School of Management are located on the Revnolda Campus in 
northwest Winston-Salem. The Bowman Gray School of Medicine is about four miles 
away, near the city's downtown, on what is known as the Hawthorne Campus. The 
University also offers instruction regularly at Casa Artom in Venice, at Worrell 
House in London, and in other places around the world. 

The College offers courses in more than forty fields of studv leading to the 
baccalaureate degree. The School of Business and Accountancy offers courses of 
study leading to the baccalaureate in business and accountancy. The School of Law 
offers the Juris Doctor and the Graduate School of Management, the Master of 
Business Administration. In addition to the Doctor of Medicine degree, the School of 
Medicine offers through the Graduate School programs leading to the Master of 
Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in the basic medical sciences. The Gradu- 
ate School confers the Master of Arts, Master of Arts in Education, Master of Arts in 
Liberal Studies, and Master of Science degrees in the arts and sciences and the Doctor 
of Philosophy degree in biology and chemistry. 

Buildings and Grounds 

The Revnolda Campus of Wake Forest is situated on approximately 320 acres; its 
physical plant consists of over thirty buildings, most of which are of modified 
Georgian architecture and constructed of Old Virginia brick trimmed in granite and 
limestone. The Reynolda Gardens annex, consisting of about 150 acres and including 
Reynolda Woods, Reynolda Village, and Revnolda Gardens, is adjacent to the 
campus. The Graylvn Estate, an educational conference center, is nearby. 

Wait Chapel is named in memory of the first president of the College. Its main 
auditorium seats 2,300 and is also the home of the Wake Forest Baptist Church. The 
Wait Chapel tower contains the Janet Jeffrey Carlile Harris Carillon, an instrument of 
forty-eight bells. Wingate Hall, named in honor of President Washington Manly 
Wingate, houses the department of religion, the offices of the University chaplaincy 
and the Wake Forest Baptist Church, and other classrooms and offices. 

Reynolda Hall, across the upper plaza from Wait Chapel, is an administration 
building and student center. Most administrative offices for the Reynolda Campus 
are there, along with the Student Union, other student activities, and computer 
center. The Z. Smith Reynolds Library houses the main collection of books and 



10 

documents on the Reynolda Campus. Along with eight floors of open stacks, having 
a capacity for about 1,000,000 volumes, it has reading and reference rooms for study 
and some academic offices. The department of economics is also in the library. 

Winston Hall houses biology and psychology; Salem Hall, the chemistry and physics 
departments. Both buildings have laboratories as well as classrooms and special 
research facilities. Harold W. Tribble Hall accommodates the humanities and social 
science departments and has a curriculum materials center, an honors seminar room, 
a philosophy library and seminar room, and a larger lecture area, DeTamble Au- 
ditorium, with an adjacent exhibition gallery. The Museum of Man houses the an- 
thropology department. Instruction in business, accountancy, and mathematics is 
carried out in Charles H. Babcock Hall, which also houses the Babcock Graduate School 
of Management. The School of Law occupies Guy T. Carswell Hall. 

The James R. Scales Fine Arts Center is of contemporary design appropriate to the 
functions of studio art, theatre, musical performances, and instruction in art history, 
drama, and music. Off its lobby is a large gallery for special exhibitions. In the art 
wing are spacious studios for drawing, painting, sculpture, and printmaking, along 
with a smaller gallery and classrooms. In the theatre wing are design and production 
areas and two technically complete theatres, the larger of traditional proscenium 
design and the smaller for experimental ring productions. The music wing contains 
Brendle Hall for concerts and lectures, classrooms, practice rooms for individuals and 
groups, and the offices of the music department. 

The William N. Reynolds Gymnasium has classrooms for instruction in health and 
sport science, courts for indoor sports, a swimming pool, and offices for the depart- 
ment of health and sport science and for military science. Adjacent are tennis courts, 
sports fields, a track, an Indoor Tennis Center, and the Athletic Center for intercollegiate 
athletics. 

There are three residence halls which house only male students: Davis House, 
Taylor House, and Kitchin House. Four residence halls house onlv female students: 
Efird, Bostwick, Johnson, and Babcock Halls. Huffman Hall, Poteat House, South Hall, and 
West Hall are coeducational by floor or wing. Freshmen live in Davis, Taylor, Kitchin, 
Bostwick, and Johnson. Some male scholarship athletes live in Palmer Hall and Piccolo 
Hall. Just off the main campus are apartment buildings for faculty and married 
graduate students, and there is a town house apartment building on campus. 
Students may choose to live in theme housing in French House, Spanish House, or 
German House. 

Computer Center 

The computer center supports University instructional, research, and administra- 
tive needs. There are terminals for student and faculty use in various places on 
campus. The two main terminal clusters for students are in the computer center in 
Reynolda Hall and in the library. The University has two computers. A Hewlett 
Packard 3000 Series 70 system, used by the administration, has eight million bytes of 
memory and 1,142 million bytes of disc storage. The Prime 750 is used primarily for 
instruction and research. It has six million bvtes of memory and 1,275 million bytes of 
disc storage. 



11 

Computer languages available include FORTRAN, FORTRAN77, BASIC, 
COBOL, RPG II, Assembler, Pascal, and PL/1. Statistical packages such as SPSSX, 
BMDP, IDA, Minitab, and TSP can be used for data analysis, forecasting, and 
financial modeling. Two graphics software packages, TELLAGRAF and DISSPLA, 
are recent additions to the Prime. A graphics workstation, added in the fall of 1985, 
works with TELLAGRAF, DISSPLA, the GRAFIX PARTNER, LOTUS 1-2-3, and 
other graphics packages. The workstation includes a six-pen plotter and a Polaroid 
palette for making prints or slides of the screen contents. 

A recent acquisition for the Prime is the ORACLE relational database management 
system, which is compatible with industry and ANSI standards. 

In addition to the facilities at the computer center, a remote batch connection with 
the Triangle Universities Computing Center (TUCC) and its IBM 3081 makes access 
to other statistical packages (notably SAS) possible, and makes the programs pro- 
vided by the North Carolina Educational Computing Services (NCECS) available to 
Wake Forest computer users. Wake Forest is a member of the Inter-University 
Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) located at the University of 
Michigan. Membership in ICPSR provides faculty and students with access to a large 
library of data files, including public opinion surveys, cross-cultural data, financial 
data, and complete census data. Various departments on campus use microcomput- 
ers for research and teaching, and most use microcomputers for word processing. 

In the fall of 1986, two microcomputer laboratories for general student use were 
opened. Each lab has fifteen Macintosh microcomputers, two dot-matrix printers, 
and a laser printer. Both laboratories are located in residence halls, one in Poteat 
House and the other in West Hall. A third microcomputer laboratory will be built 
during the summer of 1987. This lab will contain fifteen Zenith microcomputers 
networked with an AT&T STARLAN network, two dot-matrix printers, and a laser 
printer. 

Libraries 

The libraries of Wake Forest Universitv support research in undergraduate educa- 
tion and in each of the disciplines in which a graduate degree is offered. An 
endowment provided bv a substantial gift from the Marv Reynolds Babcock Founda- 
tion and another from the late Nancy Reynolds has been assigned to the sustained 
expansion and development of library resources, especially to support the graduate 
program. The libraries of the University hold membership in the Association of 
Southeastern Research Libraries. 

The library collections total 1,002,022 volumes. Of these, 763,838 constitute the 
general collection in the Z. Smith Reynolds Library, 102,929 are housed in the School 
of Law, 119,958 in the library of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine, and 15,297 in a 
relatively new library in the Babcock Graduate School of Management. Subscriptions 
to 11,637 periodicals and serials, largely of scholarly content, are maintained bv the 
four libraries of the Universitv. The holdings of the Z. Smith Revnolds Library also 
include 31,235 reels of microfilm, 547,250 pieces of microcards, microprint, and 
microfiche, and 85,527 volumes of United States government publications. 

Special collections cover the works of selected late nineteenth and earlv twentieth 



12 



century English and American writers, and include pertinent critical material. 
Among the special collections are a Mark Twain collection, a Gertrude Stein collec- 
tion, and the Ethel Taylor Crittenden collection in Baptist history. The acquisition of 
the Charles H. Babcock Collection of Rare and Fine Books represents an important 
addition to the resources of the Z. Smith Reynolds Library. 

Another of the library's notable special collections is the Artom Collection. It is a 
clipping file which covers major national and international events from 1948 to the 
present. 

In addition to on-site resources, the library staff offers access to numerous data 
bases throughout the country for the instantaneous retrieval of information from a 
variety of sources. 

The library instructional program includes an orientation workshop in research 
methods, assistance in independent and directed studies, and bibliographic pre- 
sentations as requested by faculty. 



Recognition and Accreditation 

Wake Forest College was first accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges 
and Schools, the regional accrediting agency, in 1921. The reaccreditation of 1965 
included the master's and doctoral degree programs in the Division of Graduate 
Studies. The University's accreditation was last reaffirmed in December 1975. The 
University conducted a special self-study for the Southern Association which cul- 
minated in a visit by an Association committee in the fall of 1986. Reaffirmation of 
accreditation is anticipated in December 1987. 

The Bowman Gray School of Medicine is a member of the Association of American 
Medical Colleges and is on the approved list of the Council on Medical Education of 
the American Medical Association. The School of Law is a member of the Association 
of American Law Schools and is listed as an approved school by the Council of the 
Section of Legal Education and Admissions to the Bar of the American Bar Associa- 
tion and by the Board of Law Examiners and the Council of the North Carolina State 
Bar. The Babcock Graduate School of Management and the School of Business and 
Accountancy are accredited by the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of 
Business. The program in counseling leading to the Master of Arts in Education 
degree is accredited by the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Educa- 
tion. 

Wake Forest University is a member of many of the major institutional organiza- 
tions and associations at the national, regional, and state-wide levels, including the 
following: the American Council on Education, the Association of American Col- 
leges, the National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities, and the 
Council of Graduate Schools in the United States; the Southern Association of 
Colleges and Schools, the Southern Universities Conference, and the Council of 
Southern Graduate Schools; and the North Carolina Association of Colleges and 
Universities and the North Carolina Association of Independent Colleges and Uni- 
versities. In addition, many offices of the Universitv are members of associations 
which focus on particular aspects of University administration. 



13 



Wake Forest has chapters of the principal national social fraternities, professional 
fraternities, and honor societies, including Phi Beta Kappa and Sigma Xi. There is an 
active chapter of the American Association of University Professors on campus. 




University President Thomas K. Hearn Jr 



14 



The Undergraduate Schools 



There are two undergraduate schools at Wake Forest University: Wake Forest 
College and the School of Business and Accountancy. The undergraduate schools are 
governed by the Board of Trustees and by their respective faculties and administra- 
tion. Responsibility for academic administration is delegated by the President and 
Trustees to the Provost, who is chief academic officer of the University. The deans of 
the schools are responsible for academic planning and administration for their 
schools. Collaborating with the dean of Wake Forest College are associate and 
assistant deans and the vice president and assistant vice president for administration 
and planning, who coordinate student services. Other officers in the area of student 
services are the director of residence life and housing and the dean of students, who 
direct residential, social, and cultural life with the assistance of a professional staff; 
and the directors of the University Health Service and the University Counseling 
Center. A list of administrative offices is found in this bulletin beginning on page 213. 
In many administrative areas responsibility is shared, or advice is given by the 
faculty committees listed in this bulletin beginning on page 241. 




James Ralph Scales Fine Arts Center 



15 

Wake Forest College 

Wake Forest College is the undergraduate school of arts and sciences of Wake 
Forest University. It is the center of the University's academic life; through it the 
University carries on the tradition of perparing men and women for personal enrich- 
ment, enlightened citizenship, and professional life. 

Wake Forest College is a place of meeting. Its teachers and students are of diverse 
backgrounds and interests, and that diversity is crucial to the distinctive character of 
the College. Wake Forest continually examines its educational purpose and evalu- 
ates its success in fulfilling it. A formal statement of purpose was prepared as part of 
the school's decennial reaccreditation process and was adopted by the Board of 
Trustees. 



Purpose 

Following is the official statement of purpose of Wake Forest College. 



Statement of Purpose 

Wake Forest is a university dedicated to the pursuit of excellence in the 
liberal arts and in graduate and professional education. Its distinctiveness 
in its pursuit of its mission derives from its private, co-educational, and 
residential character; its size and location; and its Baptist affiliation. Each of 
these factors constitutes a significant aspect of the unique character of the 
institution. 

The University is now comprised of six constituent parts: two un- 
dergraduate institutions, Wake Forest College and the School of Business 
and Accountancy; the Graduate School; and three professional schools: the 
School of Law, the Bowman Grav School of Medicine, and the Babcock 
Graduate School of Management. It seeks to honor the ideals of liberal 
learning, which entail commitment to transmission of cultural heritages; 
teaching the modes of learning in the basic disciplines of human 
knowledge; developing critical appreciation of moral, aesthetic, and 
religious values; advancing the frontiers of knowledge through in-depth 
study and research; and applying and using knowledge in the service of 
humanity. 

Wake Forest has been dedicated to the liberal arts for over a century and a 
half; this means education in the fundamental fields of human knowledge 
and achievement, as distinguished from education that is technical or 
narrowly vocational. It seeks to encourage habits of mind that ask "why," 
that evaluate evidence, that are open to new ideas, that attempt to un- 
derstand and appreciate the perspectives of others, that accept complexity 
and grapple with it, that admit error, and that pursue truth. Wake Forest 
College has by far the largest student body in the University, and its 
function is central to the University's larger life. The College and the 



16 



Graduate School are most singularly focused on learning for its own sake; 
they therefore serve as exemplars of specific academic values in the life of 
the University- 
Beginning as early as 1894, Wake Forest accepted an obligation to provide 
professional training in a number of fields, as a complement to its primary 
mission of liberal arts education. This responsibility is fulfilled in the convic- 
tion that the humane values embodied in the liberal arts are also centrally 
relevant to the professions. Professional education at Wake Forest is char- 
acterised by a commitment to ethical and other professional ideals that 
transcend technical skills. Like the Graduate School, the professional 
schools are dedicated to the advancement of learning in their fields. In 
addition, thev are specifically committed to the application of knowledge to 
solving concrete problems of human beings. Thev are strengthened by 
values and goals which thev share with the College and Graduate School, 
and the professional schools enhance the work of these schools and the 
University as a whole bv serving as models of service to humanity. 

Wake Forest was founded by private initiative, and ultimate decision- 
making authority lies in a privately appointed Board of Trustees rather than 
in a public body. "Funded to a large extent from private sources of support, 
[Wake Forest] is determined to chart its own course in the pursuit of its 
goals. As a co-educational institution it seeks to 'educate together' persons 
of both sexes and from a wide range of backgrounds — racial, ethnic, 
religious, geographical, socio-economic, and cultural. ... Its residential 
features are conducive to learning and to the pursuit of a wide range of 
co-curricular activities. It has made a conscious choice to remain small in 
over-all size; it takes pride in being able to function as a community rather 
than a conglomerate. Its location in the Piedmont area of North Carolina 
engenders an ethos that is distinctively Southern, and more specifically 
North Carolinian .... As it seeks further to broaden its constituency and to 
receive national recognition, it is also finding ways to maintain the ethos 
associated with its regional roots." 

Wake Forest is proud of its Baptist and Christian heritage. For more than a 
century and a half, it has provided the University an indispensable basis for 
its mission and purpose, enabling Wake Forest to educate thousands of 
ministers and laypeople for enlightened leadership in their churches and 
communities. Far from being exclusive and parochial, this religious tradi- 
tion gives the University roots that ensure its lasting identity and branches 
that provide a supportive environment for a wide variety of faiths. The 
Baptist insistence on both the separation of church and state and local 
autonomy has helped to protect the University from interference and domi- 
nation by outside interests, whether these be commercial, governmental, or 
ecclesiastical. The Baptist emphasis upon revealed truth enables a strong 
religious critique of human reason, even as the claims of revelation are put 
under the scrutiny of reason. The character of intellectual life at Wake Forest 
encourages open and frank dialogue and provides assurance that the Uni- 
versity will be ecumenical and not provincial in scope, and that it must 



17 

encompass perspectives other than the Christian. Wake Forest thus seeks to 
maintain and invigorate what is noblest in its religious heritage. 

History and Development 

Since 1834 Wake Forest College has persevered — sometimes barely — through 
wars, economic crises, and controversy. In spite of these difficulties, perhaps be- 
cause of them, the College has developed its distinctive pattern of characteristics: 
tenacity, independence, a fierce defense of free inquiry and expression, and a 
concern that knowledge be used responsiblv and compassionately. 

That these qualities have often been passed along to Wake Forest's students is 
evident in the lives many have led. That these characteristics have served the school 
well is displayed by its growth from a small sectarian school to one of the nation's 
significant small private universities. 

A brief history of Wake Forest is useful in understanding the University as it is 
today and appreciating the process through which it developed. 

The founding of Wake Forest College in 1834 was one manifestation of the in- 
tellectual and humanitarian reform movement in North Carolina and the nation 
during the 1830s. The beginning of the College and the formation of the Baptist State 
Convention of North Carolina were closely interwoven: a leading motive for the 
organization of the Convention was that it serve as an agency for establishing an 
institution that would provide education under Christian influences. 

The leaders in the movement for Convention and College were ministers and 
laymen from diverse backgrounds: Martin Ross, a North Carolinian; Thomas Mere- 
dith, a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania; and Samuel Wait, a graduate of 
Columbian College in Washington, DC. The inspiration of Ross, the scholarship of 
Meredith, and the leadership of Wait combined to lead the Baptists of North Carolina 
into the formation of the Baptist State Convention on March 26, 1830. Wait was 
appointed as the Convention's agent to explain to churches, associations, and others 
the need for a college to provide "an education in the liberal arts in fields requisite for 
gentlemen." 

For nearly three years Wait traveled over the state in his wagon, speaking to a large 
number of the approximately 15,000 Baptists who lived in the Piedmont and coastal 
counties. Perhaps as many as one-half opposed missions, education, and other 
benevolences, but after two years of educational canvassing Wait reported enough 
sentiment in favor of the program of the Convention to proceed. 

A 600-acre plantation, located sixteen miles north of Raleigh, was purchased from 
Calvin Jones in 1832 for $2,000, and the North Carolina Legislature was asked to 
grant a charter for a literary institution based on the manual labor principle. The 
lobbying of opponents, both Baptist and non-Baptist, was effective; only the tie- 
breaking vote of William D. Moseley, speaker of the Senate and a graduate of the 
University of North Carolina, secured passage of the charter-granting bill. It was a 
meager charter, subject to various restrictions and limited to a period of twenty 
years, but the birth of Wake Forest had been achieved. Its subsequent growth would 
be the result of creative adjustments and successful responses to a series of other 
challenges. 



18 

After his sucessful three-year canvass of the state, Samuel Wait was elected 
principal of the new institution. Sixteen students registered on February 3, 1834; 
before the end of the year seventy-two had enrolled. The manual labor principle, 
adopted as partial means of financing the institution, was abandoned after five years, 
and the school was rechartered in 1838 as Wake Forest College. 

The economic crisis of 1837 had such an adverse effect that support for the College 
and student enrollment steadily declined; only a loan of $10,000 from the State 
Literary Fund in 1841 prevented bankruptcy. During these years of arduous struggle 
to keep the College alive, President Wait exhausted his physical strength and con- 
tracted an illness which forced him to resign the presidency in 1845. 

William Hooper succeeded Wait, and the prospects of the College became bright- 
er. Hooper, a grandson of one of North Carolina's three signers of the Declaration of 
Independence, had received his education at the University of North Carolina. As a 
native North Carolinian with familv connections extending over several generations, 
he was able to mobilize public opinion in support of the College. 

After Hooper's resignation the Trustees elected to the presidency professor of 
mathematics John B. White, a graduate of Brown University. Since the mortgages on 
the physical facilities had been paid during Hooper's tenure, fund raising efforts 
during President White's administration could be concentrated on increasing the 
College endowment. The Trustees authorized a capital campaign and selected as its 
leader Washington Manly Wingate, an 1849 graduate who within a year and a half 
raised approximately $33,000. 

But the temper of the times was unsuited to leadership by a Northerner, and 
President White resigned in 1854. The Trustees chose as his successor Wingate, then 
twenty-six years old and the first alumnus of the College to serve as president. Under 
his vigorous leadership, which spanned nearly three decades, the quality of students 
improved and new faculty members were added. During the first eight years of 
Wingate's administration, sixty-six students graduated — more than half of the total 
graduated during the first twenty-three years in the life of the College. In 1857 
President Wingate launched a campaign to produce an additional endowment of 
$50,000, over one-half of which was raised in a single evening during the 1857 
meeting of the Convention. 

This period of growth and expansion was cut short by the division of the nation in 
1861. The Conscription Act of 1863 did not exempt students, and for three years of 
the Civil War the College suspended operations. The buildings were used briefly for 
a girls' school; after 1863 the Confederate government used College facilities as a 
military hospital. 

Following Sherman's march through the South and Lee's surrender at Appomat- 
tox, a peace of desolation pervaded the region. Supporters of Wake Forest surveyed 
what remained; College buildings, now leaky and in poor repair; approximately 
$11,700 from a pre-war endowment of $100,000; the former president and faculty; a 
loyal group of Trustees. There was also something else: an indomitable spirit of 
determination that Wake Forest should emerge from the wreck of the war and fulfull 
its mission. 

The needs of the College were great and financial prospects poor, but in November 
1865, barely six months after the end of the war, nine members of the Board of 



19 

Trustees, acting with unwarranted courage, authorized the resumption of classes. 
Wingate was persuaded to resume the presidency, and on January 15, 1866, fifty-one 
students enrolled. The number increased as the South and its economy slowly 
recovered. 

President Wingate realized that the people of North Carolina had to be awakened 
to the need for education in the renascent south, and that they must be persuaded 
that Wake Forest could help serve that need. To launch this campaign, a Baptist- 
sponsored, statewide educational convention was held in Raleigh, but before funds 
could be collected, the financial crisis of 1873 ended all immediate hope for endow- 
ment. The failure of the 1873-74 fund raising campaign placed the College in a 
precarious position. The triple encumbrances of war, reconstruction, and financial 
panic made it evident that little money could be raised in North Carolina. The 
Committee on Endowment of the Board of Trustees appointed James S. Purefoy, a 
local merchant and Baptist minister, as agent to solicit funds in the Northern states 
for continued operation of the College. While serving as treasurer of the Board before 
the war, he had salvaged $11,700 from the pre-war endowment of $100,000 by 
persuading the Trustees to invest half of the endowment in state bonds. After two 
years of unrelenting and often discouraging labor, without remuneration, he placed 
in the hands of the Trustees the sum of $9,200. 

It was also in the bleak days of financial uncertainty that a Wake Forest student, 
James W. Denmark, proposed and founded the first college student loan fund in the 
United States. A Confederate veteran, Denmark had worked six years to accumulate 
enough money for his own college expenses. Soon after entering Wake Forest in 1871 
he realized that many students had the same great financial need. From his meager 
funds he spent five dollars for post cards and wrote to college presidents across the 
country asking how their loan funds were organized. When he found that the 
colleges had none, he enlisted the support of facultv and students at Wake Forest and 
in 1877 persuaded the Legislature to charter the North Carolina Baptist Student Loan 
Fund. Now known as the James W. Denmark Loan Fund, it is the oldest college 
student loan fund in the United States and has assests of $325,000 to serve the needs 
of students according to the purposes of its founder. 

Bv the close of President Wingate's second administration in '. 879, the College had 
been successfully revived. The endowment had been increased and new construc- 
tion had begun. Perhaps the greatest service President Wingate rendered was bring- 
ing to the College a facultv of highlv qualified scholars who served the College with 
distinction and dedication over many years. Among them were Professors William 
G. Simmons (1855-88), William Rovall (1859-70; 1880-92), William Bailey Royall 
(1866-1928), Luther Rice Mills (1867-1907), and Charles Elisha Taylor (1870-1915), 
who served as president from 1884 to 1905. Two other scholars who became tutors or 
adjunct professors in the last vear of President Wingate's administration were also 
destined to play important roles in the life of the College: Needham Y. Gulley, who 
established the School of Law in 1894 and served as its first dean for thirty-six years, 
and biologist William Louis Poteat, who served the College for fifty years, twenty- 
two of them as president. 

The administration of President Thomas Henderson Pritchard, which followed 
that of President Wingate, was brief and served principally to further Wingate's 



20 



efforts to persuade Baptists and other North Carolinians to improve the deplorable 
condition of education in the state. The second alumnus of the College to serve as 
president, Pritchard was an eloquent speaker whose prominent leadership among 
Baptists increased the patronage of the College and improved its image among its 
constituency. 

Charles Elisha Taylor, whom President Wingate had brought to the faculty in 1880, 
was elected in 1884 to serve as the sixth president. 

Tavlor's administration from 1884 to 1905 brought enrichment of the academic 
program in a variety of ways. Academic departments were increased from eight to 
thirteen, and the size of the faculty more than doubled. Two new schools were 
added: the School of Law in 1894 and the School of Medicine in 1902. Progress in 
other areas included the addition of buildings and the landscaping of the campus. 
Over 400 trees were planted, making Magnolia grandiflora almost synonymous with 
the Wake Forest campus. 

President Taylor was succeeded by William Louis Poteat. Affectionately known as 
"Doctor Billy" to students during and after his twenty-two-year administration, he 
continued to promote the general growth of all areas of College life. Special emphasis 
was placed on development in the sciences, reflecting in part the interests of the 
president and in part the need to enrich the pre-medical training required by the new 
School of Medicine. 

As student enrollment increased from 313 in 1905 to 742 in 1927, there was a 
corresponding increase in the size of the facultv. Registration in religion, English, 
education, and the social sciences required more administrative direction, and a 
dean and a registrar were employed along with a library staff. Propelled by the trend 
of the other colleges in the state, Wake Forest also gave more attention to sports and 
achieved an envied reputation in baseball and football. Also notable during Presi- 
dent Poteat's administration was the continued growth of the endowment. 

Beyond these significant material advances, President Poteat brought distinction 
in the form of state and national recognition. A devout Christian, an eloquent 
speaker, and an accomplished scholar, he became a national leader in education and 
probably the foremost Baptist lavman in the state. As a distinguished scientist he was 
among the first to introduce the theorv of evolution to his biologv classes. The 
Christian commitment in his personal and public life enabled him to defend suc- 
cessfully his views on evolution before the Baptist State Convention in 1922, in a 
major victory for academic freedom that attracted nationwide attention. Through his 
influence and that of Wake Forest alumni who supported his view, the North 
Carolina Legislature refused to follow other Southern states in the passage of anti- 
evolution laws in the 1920s. 

During the administration of Poteat's successor, Francis Pendleton Gaines (1927- 
1930), the academic program continued to improve. In 1930 the Trustees selected 
Thurman D. Kitchin, dean of the Medical School, to fill the presidencv. Kitchin was a 
member of a familv prominent in state and national affairs: one brother, William W. 
Kitchin, had served as governor of North Carolina; another, Claude Kitchin, had 
served as majority leader in the United States House of Representatives. Kitchin's 
twenty-year administration was one of progress in the face of many obstacles — 



21 



Depression, destructive campus fires (one of which destroyed venerable Wait Hall), 
the disruption caused by World War II, and a depleted student body. 

Notable accomplishments during this period were the approval in 1936 of the 
School of Law by the American Bar Association and in 1941 the removal of the School 
of Medicine to Winston-Salem, where it undertook full four-year operation in 
association with the North Carolina Baptist Hospital as the Bowman Gray School of 
Medicine, named after the benefactor whose bequest made expansion possible. 

World War II brought other changes. Although the College was able to remain 
open, enrollment dropped in 1942 to 474. The College met this crisis bv modifying its 
century-old admissions policy and becoming a coeducational institution that year. In 
the post-war period, enrollment mushroomed with the return of the veterans and 
reached a peak of 1,762 by 1949. Just before World War II a $7,000,000 capital 
expansion campaign for buildings and endowment had been launched bv President 
Kitchin. The war forced the postponement of construction, but out of the campaign 
came a proposal which offered another war-ridden Wake Forest an opportunity for 
yet another rebirth. The Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation proposed that up to $350,000 
a year of its income (an amount which has steadily increased over the years) be given 
in perpetuity to the College, provided that the entire College be relocated in Win- 
ston-Salem and that other friends of the College provide a campus site and buildings. 
In 1946 the Board of Trustees, the Convention, and the Baptist constituency of the 
state accepted the Reynolds proposal. Charles H. Babcock and his wife, Mary 
Reynolds Babcock, offered a 320-acre tract of their Reynolda estate as a site for the 
new campus. 

To move an institution over 100 vears old from its rural setting 110 miles to a new 
campus in an urban area required leadership of great vision, determination, and 
youthful vigor. To succeed President Kitchin, who retired on his sixty-fifth birthday, 
the Trustees in 1950 elected to the presidency Harold Wayland Tribble, then presi- 
dent of Andover Newton Theological Seminary and a noted Baptist theologian. 
President Tribble immediately began to mobilize alumni and friends of the College, 
and the Baptist State Convention, in support of the great transition. 

In the spring of 1951, William Neal Reynolds and Nancy Reynolds offered an 
anonymous challenge gift of $2,000,000 on the condition that the College raise 
$3,000,000 bv June 30, 1952. The deadline was extended and the challenge met by 
January 1953. Mr. Reynolds died in September 1951 (the Foundation assumed his 
$1,500,000 share of the challenge grant) and he willed Wake Forest $1,000,000, to be 
paid at the time of removal. In recognition of his bequest the new gymnasium was 
named for him. Because of the capital funds received from the Reynolds Foundation, 
the Trustees voted that the library be named the Z. Smith Reynolds Library and the 
administration building Reynolda Hall. 

Groundbreaking ceremonies were held in Winston-Salem on October 15, 1951, 
when a crowd of more than 20,000 watched President Harry Truman lift the first 
shovel of dirt to begin construction of the new Wake Forest campus. Between 1951 
and 1956 fourteen buildings were erected; the removal of the College to its new home 
was accomplished in time for the opening of the summer session in 1956. 

During the next eleven years of President Tribble's administration the College 
experienced many changes. It had revised its curriculum before moving to the new 



22 



campus, offering greater flexibility to students, whose number increased to 3,022. 
The size of the faculty expanded, reducing the student/teacher ratio to fourteen-to- 
one. 

Additional resources came to the College in its new home. In 1954 the will of 
Colonel George Foster Hankins provided over $1,000,000 to be used for scholarships. 
In 1956 the Ford Foundation contributed $680,000 to the endowment of the un- 
dergraduate program and $1,600,000 to the Bowman Gray School of Medicine. After 
the completion of a challenge gift of $3, 000,000 offered in 1965, the Foundation raised 
its annual contribution to $620,000. The holdings of the University's libraries more 
than tripled, and the Z. Smith Reynolds Library was awarded the income from an 
endowment fund of $4,500,000 contributed by the Mary Reynolds Babcock Founda- 
tion and Nancy Reynolds. 

Graduate work, first offered in 1866 but suspended during the removal program, 
was resumed in 1961 with the establishment of the Division of Graduate Studies. In 
1967, recognizing the augmented resources of the College, the Trustees officially 
changed the institution's name to the Wake Forest University. The Division of 
Graduate Studies became the Graduate School and the name Wake Forest College 
was retained as the designation for the undergraduate school. 

After seventeen years of strenuous effort, President Tribble retired in 1967, leaving 
as his lasting memorial the removal of the College from Wake Forest to Winston- 
Salem and its changed status from college to university, with enhanced resources 
and academic distinction. As his successor the Trustees chose James Ralph Scales 
(1967-1983), former president of Oklahoma Baptist University and former dean of 
arts and sciences at Oklahoma State University. His administration saw important 
new developments. The Guy T. and Clara H. Carswell Scholarship Fund, valued at 
$1,600,000 was established in support of the undergraduate College. The new 
Graduate School of Management was named in honor of Charles H. Babcock in 1969. 
Through the generosity of the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation and Nancy Reynolds, a 
building was constructed to house the Babcock School; a subsequent gift of 
$2,000,000 was received from the Mary Reynolds Babcock Foundation for endow- 
ment. The James R. Scales Fine Arts Center was opened in 1976, marking a major 
phase of the College's growth in comprehensive liberal arts education. An athletic 
center and additions to the School of Law building, Guy T. Carswell Hall, have 
further expanded the physical resources of the Reynolda Campus. 

Wake Forest has expanded its programs as well as its physical facilities. The 
University offers studv for the baccalaureate degree in over thirty areas listed on 
page 62. Exchange programs with local institutions and with universities abroad 
have further expanded the range of choice and opportunity. In addition, Wake 
Forest maintains residential language centers in Venice and London for foreign 
study within the College curriculum. 

President Scales left office on October 1, 1983 to return to teaching as the Uni- 
versity's first Worrell Professor of Anglo-American Studies. The Trustees selected 
Thomas K. Hearn Jr., a philosopher and former dean for non-medical affairs at the 
University of Alabama-Birmingham, as the University's twelfth president. He was 
inaugurated on November 4, 1983. 

Wake Forest celebrated its sesquicentennial anniversary in 1984. 



23 

Student Life 



Student life at the University is designed to offer a wide range of social, cultural, 
religious, and athletic resources to complement academic studies. The University is a 
community, and the sense of community is fostered by rich opportunities for per- 
sonal growth. 

Student Government has jurisdiction in certain areas over all undergraduate 
students. Its judicial branch includes the Honor Council, the Case Referral Panel, 
and the Judicial Board which hear cases involving violations of the honor system or of 
University rules. The Student Union plans, directs, and funds activities. Men's social 
fraternities and women's societies are members of the Interfraternity and Intersoci- 
ety Councils respectively. All students who live on campus are represented by the 
Resident Student Association. There are chapters of the major honor societies and 
professional societies for qualified students, and the University makes a number of 
academic awards for distinguished student achievement and service. Intercollegiate 
athletics for men and women and an intramural sports program are strong, dis- 
tinguished by tradition and by performance. Religious activities are central to the life 
of the University and, like campus cultural opportunities, are distinctive. The Uni- 
versity offers a number of additional services to students relating to their physical 
and mental health, spiritual growth, and preparation for life. 



Student Government 

The executive branch of the Student Government is comprised of the four student 
body officers — president, vice president, secretary, treasurer — and the executive 
advisory committees. Reporting directly to the officers are various committees which 
work on improving service to students. These committees are open to all students. 

The legislative branch of the Student Government is composed of seventy-one 
student representatives; the vice president of the student body serves as speaker. 
The Legislature represents the interests of students in social and academic matters 
and promotes and funds projects of benefit to the student body and the larger 
community. It oversees disbursement of funds to student groups and recommends 
the chartering of student groups seeking recognition bv the University. Major com- 
mittees are the Charter Commitee, the Committee on Committees, the Campus Life 
Committee, the Economic Committee, the Judicial Committee, the Academic Com- 
mittee, the Appropriations and Budget Committee, and the Student Relations Com- 
mittee. 

The honor system is an expression of the concern that students act with honor and 
integrity. It is an integral part of the Student Government as adopted by students and 
approved by the faculty. Its essence is that each student's word can be trusted 
impicitly and that any violation of a student's word is an offense against the whole 
community. The honor system obligates students neither to give nor receive un- 
authorized aid on academic work; to have complete respect for the property rights of 
others; to make no false or deceiving statements regarding academic matters to 
another member of the University community; not to interfere with the procedures 



24 



of the honor system; and to confront any student who has violated the honor system 
and to remind that student of the responsibilities dictated by the honor system. 

The Honor Council consists of fourteen members — two officers selected bv and 
from the Honor Council of the previous year plus three representatives from each 
class. There are three non-voting faculty advisers. 

It is the duty of the Honor Council to receive and investigate reports of honor 
system violations, to prefer charges where appropriate, and to arrange hearings for 
all charges of violations of the honor svstem. The minimum penalty for any violation 
of the honor system is a period of probation. A student who is found guilty of 
premeditated cheating is suspended or expelled from the University. Expulsion is 
normally automatic upon conviction for a second offense. All actions of the Honor 
Council are reported in writing to the dean of the College or the dean of the School of 
Business and Accountancy. 

Any student convicted of violating the honor system is ineligible to represent the 
University in any way until the period of punishment — whether suspension, proba- 
tion, or another form — is completed and the student is returned to good standing. A 
student who has been suspended can be readmitted to the College only on the 
approval of the faculty or its Committee on Academic Affairs. During the period of 
suspension the student cannot be certified to another institution as being in good 
standing. 

The Case Referral Panel receives reports from the office of the dean of students on 
student violations of University social regulations, conducts necessary inves- 
tigations, and draws up specific charges. When a plea of guilty is entered, the Case 
Referral Panel levies a penalty, if one is appropriate. If a plea of not guilty or no plea is 
entered, the case is forwarded to the Student Judicial Board. 

The Student Judicial Board is composed of twelve members, at least three men and 
three women, who are elected at large from the student body. It is the duty of the 
Board to receive, prefer, and trv all charges of social misconduct and violations of 
University rules and regulations for individual students as well as student organiza- 
tions not covered by the Honor Council, the director of residence life and housing, or 
the Traffic Appeals Board. A student who violates these regulations or who behaves 
in such a way as to bring reproach upon him/herself or upon the University is subject 
to penalties ranging from verbal reprimand to suspension on the first offense. For 
further offenses, explusion may occur. 

The interim judicial process, which provides trial before a five-person panel of faculty 
and students, is available at times when the normal processes are not functioning. 

The Judicial Council, a nine-person panel consisting of five faculty members, two 
administrators, and two students, hears appeals from the Honor Council, the Case 
Referral Panel, the Student Judicial Board, and the interim judicial process. The 
Judicial Council also supervises the undergraduate judicial system. 

Student Union 

Under the director of the Student Union there are meeting and recreation rooms, 
lounges, offices for student organizations, a coffee house, a gameroom, and an 
information center. The Student Union is responsible for scheduling entertainment 



25 



activities, developing and presenting programs to complement academic studies, 
assisting student organizations, and providing supporting equipment and services. 
The Student Union board of directors, representing all students, cooperates with the 
staff in daily operations and supervises the efforts of eleven committees and a large 
bodv of student volunteers. 



Residence Hall Government 

Each residence hall has a House Council which makes decisions about hall activi- 
ties and budget allocations. House Council meetings also are forums for discussion 
of issues affecting student life in the residence halls. The Councils are comprised of 
an executive board of resident student representatives from each floor. Although 
each floor elects a House Council representative, every resident is encouraged to 
attend and to participate in meetings and functions. 

The House Councils fall under the guidance and supervision of a larger student 
governing organization: the Resident Student Association (RSA). The RSA consists 
of representatives from each House Council and elected student executive officers. 
The RSA provides financial and programming support to the House Councils, and 
acts as a liaison between the Councils and the office of residence life and housing. 
RSA also sponsors campus-wide programs which serve the Wake Forest and Win- 
ston-Salem communities. 

The House Councils and RSA not only provide social and educational opportuni- 
ties for the University community, but give students valuable leadership experience. 



Interfraternity and Intersociety Councils 

The Interfraternity Council is the governing bodv of thirteen social fraternities: 
Alpha Phi Alpha, Alpha Sigma Phi, Chi Psi, Delta Sigma Phi, Kappa Alpha, Kappa 
Sigma, Omega Psi Phi, Pi Kappa Alpha, Sigma Chi, Sigma Nu, Sigma Phi Epsilon, 
Sigma Pi, and Theta Chi. The purpose of the Council is to govern and coordinate the 
campus Greek affairs and activities while promoting high standards of conduct, 
scholarship, community service, and fraternal operations. A student must have a C 
average for the previous semester or a cumulative C average to be pledged and 
initiated. By order of the faculty, students who are on probation for any reason may 
not be pledged and initiated into any fraternity until the end of their probationary 
period. 

The Intersociety Council is the governing body of seven societies for women, each 
of which has selective membership: Delphi, Fideles, Lvnks, Phoenix, SOPHs, 
Strings, and Thymes. 

Both the Interfraternity and Intersociety Councils must follow University regula- 
tions and the Interfraternity Council is subject to the rules of the national organiza- 
tion. 

The Greek system is an excellent opportunity for men and women to gain leader- 
ship experience, develop life-long friendships, serve the Wake Forest community, 
and perpetuate excellence in scholastic achievement. 



26 

Honor Societies, Professional Fraternities, and Clubs 

A number of nationally affiliated honor societies have been established: Beta Beta 
Beta (biology), Delta Phi Alpha (German), Eta Sigma Phi (classics), Anthony Aston 
Society (drama), Lambda Alpha (anthropology), Omicron Delta Epsilon (eco- 
nomics), Phi Alpha Theta (history), Pi Mu Epsilon (mathematics), Pi Sigma Alpha 
(political science), Phi Beta Kappa, Omicron Delta Kappa, and Mortar Board. There 
are student sections of the American Institute of Physics, the American Chemical 
Society, and the American Society of Personnel Administration. There are also 
chapters of the national service fraternities Alpha Phi Omega and Circle K, as well as 
an Accounting Society, an Anglican Student Fellowship, an Anthropology Club, the 
Baptist Student Union, a Black Christian Fellowship, a Black Student Alliance, a 
Catholic Student Association, the Circolo Italiano, the College Republicans, the 
College Democrats, a Dance Club, an Economics Society, an Equestrian Club, a 
Fellowship of Christian Athletes, a Frisbee Club, a Gospel Choir, an Intervarsity 
Christian Fellowship, an Intra-Faith Council, a Karate Club, a Literary Society, a 
Marketing Society, a Politics Club, a Pre-Law Society, a Presbyterian Fellowship, a 
Rugby Football Club, a Scuba Club, a Soccer Club, a Sociology Club, the Students for 
America, the Students for Life, the Student Alumni Council, and the Wesley 
Foundation. 



Academic Awards 

The following awards are made annually: the A. D. Ward Medal for the senior 
making the best address at commencement; the /. B. Currin Medal for the best oration, 
essay or work of music or art on the topic "Christ in Modern Life"; the D. A. Brown 
Prize to the student whose writing most merits recognition; the M. D. Phillips Prize to 
the outstanding senior in Greek or Latin; the John Y. Phillips Prize to the outstanding 
senior in mathematics; the H. Broadus Jones Award to the student whose paper shows 
greatest insight into the works of Shakespeare; the Ruth Foster Campbell Award to the 
student whose ability in the Spanish language and spirit of joyful inquiry into 
Spanish culture have been most outstanding; the Forrest W. Clonts Award to the 
outstanding senior in history; the Forrest W. Clonts Research Prize for the outstanding 
paper written by a junior or senior non-American history major; the C. Chilton 
Pearson Research Prize for the outstanding paper written by a junior or senior Amer- 
ican history major; the Phi Alpha Theta Research Prize for the best paper written by a 
junior or senior member; the Claud H. Richards Award to the outstanding senior in 
politics; the John Allen Easley Medal to the outstanding senior in religion; the American 
Bible Society Award for the outstanding senior biblical student; the Lura Baker Paden 
Medal to the outstanding senior in business; the Wall Street Journal Medal and a year's 
subscription to the Journal to the outstanding senior in finance; the A. M. Pullen and 
Company Medal to the senior with the highest achievement in accounting; the William 
E. Speas Award to the major in biology who writes the best paper on a subject selected 
by the national biology society; the Biology Research Award to the major in biology who 
does the best piece of original research; the Poteat Award to the student in first-year 
biology who plans to major in biology and is judged most outstanding. 



27 



The William C. and Ruth N. Archie Award, established by a grant from Ruth N. 
Archie and from the Archies' son and daughter-in-law, William Archie Jr. and 
Margaret Archie, is given each year to the graduating senior who, in the opinion of 
the dean of the College and a faculty committee appointed by the dean, has shown 
most conspicuously a commitment to liberal learning, to scholarship, and to the 
ideals of Wake Forest College. In odd-numbered years the award is presented to a 
woman student; in even-numbered years it is presented to a male student. 

Intramural Athletics 

The intramural program operates under the auspices of the department of health 
and sport science. It provides a variety of competitive activities for students, faculty, 
and staff. There are sports for male, female, and coed participation. Activities usually 
included in the intramural program are basketball, cross-country, football, golf, 
handball, racquetball, soccer, Softball, swimming, tennis, volleyball, water polo, 
wrestling, and weight lifting. 

Students occasionally organize club teams for other sports and activities, which are 
not taught or directed by the College, but which are conducted as student organiza- 
tions with the approval of Student Government and the faculty. Currently these 
include rugby, karate, equestrian, scuba diving, soccer, outing, and dance. Students 
who are interested in a sport not offered through the College may organize them- 
selves and petition the Student Government and faculty for approval. 

Intercollegiate Athletics 

For men: 

Under the director of athletics, Wake Forest is a member of the Atlantic Coast 
Conference of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and participates in in- 
tercollegiate football, basketball, baseball, golf, tennis, soccer, cross-countrv, and 
track. 

The full scholarship allowed by the National Collegiate Athletic Association covers 
tuition, fees, room, board, and books. Wake Forest offers several special scholar- 
ships and awards: the Brian Piccolo Award for the football player judged by the 
coaching staff to best exemplify the qualities of Brian Piccolo during the annual North 
Carolina game; the Brian Piccolo Scholarship for the Chicago-area high school football 
player entering Wake Forest who best exemplifies the qualities of Brian Piccolo; the 
Arnold Palmer Award for the Wake Forest Athlete of the Year, as judged by lettermen 
from each team; the Buddy Worsham Scholarship for one golfer or more; the John R. 
Knott Scholarship for one golfer or more. Recent additions are the Carl Tacy and Horace 
"Bones" McKinney Scholarships which are for basketball players. The George C. Mitchell 
and Claude and Anne Bruce Brewer Gore Scholarships are general athletic scholarships. 

For women: 

Under the director of women's athletics, Wake Forest is a member of the Atlantic 
Coast Conference of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and participates in 
basketball, field hockey, golf, tennis, cross-country, and track. 



28 



The full scholarship allowed by the National Collegiate Athletic Association covers 
tuition, fees, room, board, and books. 

Reserve Officers' Training Corps 

The Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) has served the nation with distinc- 
tion for almost seventy-five years. The Corps trains and commissions officers for the 
Army. 

The Wake Forest program was established in 1951 and is organized and adminis- 
tered by a student chain of command. Its graduates serve in the highest leadership 
positions in the Army, Army Reserve, and National Guard. Participation in ROTC 
develops self-confidence and leader competence, and instills the customs and tradi- 
tions of selfless service to the nation. Services provided include a four-year ROTC 
scholarship won in national high school competition, three- and two-year scholar- 
ships won in University competition, challenging academics, counseling, and 
mentoring. Activities enhance camaraderie and espirt de corps. Military Science 
100-level courses incur no obligation. 

Religious Activities 

The Campus Ministry provides a variety of opportunities for the spiritual develop- 
ment of students, faculty, and staff. Thursday Worship is a weekly service which 
addresses the needs of the community through scripture, prayer, preaching, and 
music. A pre-school conference for freshmen each fall, a church vocations day in 
winter, and a faith and reason forum each spring promote the integration of spiritual 
and educational concerns. The Campus Ministry sponsors a theme house for resi- 
dential students which focuses on the relationship between religion and the liberal 
arts. A volunteer service corps enables students to get involved in the needs of the 
Winston-Salem community. Nine student religious organizations provide regular 
programs, including Bible study, music, worship, and guest speakers on contempo- 
rary Christian concerns. The University chaplain, assistant chaplain, Baptist campus 
minister, Methodist chaplain, Roman Catholic chaplain, Episcopal chaplain, and the 
Intervarsity coordinator compose the Campus Ministry staff. The chaplains are 
available for counseling and spiritual direction, and also advise student religious 
organizations. The Wake Forest Baptist Church cooperates with the Campus Minis- 
try in both joint and individual efforts to serve the community. 

Cultural Activities 

The University Theatre presents four major productions and several lab plays 
annually, employing faculty, student, and visiting professional directors. Each year 
the Student Union, with the assistance of the University Theatre, sponsors a musical 
dinner theatre, directed and performed by students. WFDD-FM broadcasts year- 
round to the campus and Piedmont North Carolina as an affiliate of National Public 
Radio. In addition to student announcers, producers, and technicians, it has a 
professional staff. WAKE-AM, a completely student-operated radio station, plays 
popular music during a limited broadcast schedule. Intercollegiate debate at Wake 



29 



Forest has a long record of excellence, and the College hosts three annual debate 
tournaments, the Franklin Shirley Dixie Classic, the Pride in Tobacco, and the High 
School Tournament. 

Student publications include Old Gold and Black, a weekly newspaper; The Student, 
a literary magazine; and Howler, the yearbook. The Student Union sponsors a major 
speaker series throughout the academic year, and departments in the College engage 
specialists for other series. The Institute of Literature is a program of writers, critics, 
and scholars in English, classical languages, German, and Romance languages. The 
Hester Philosophy Seminar is an annual colloquium devoted to the major problems of 
philosphy and their impact on the Christian faith and is a joint undertaking of the 
department of philosophy and the Ecumenical Institute. The Robinson Lectures are 
held biennially and are administered by the department of religion. The department 
of psychology sponsors a colloquium series throughout the academic year. 

The Tocqueville Forum and the Luce Lectures bring nationally known speakers to 
campus — to lecture and teach — under major grants from the Smith Richardson 
Foundation and the Henry Luce Foundation. 

Student musicians perform for academic credit in the Choral Union, the Concert 
Choir, the Madrigal Singers, the Opera Workshop, the University Orchestra, the 
Deacon Marching Band, the Symphonic Wind Ensemble, the Jazz Ensemble, various 
chamber ensembles, and the Collegium Musicum. All student ensembles give public 
performances each semester. 

Major concerts by orchestras and artists from around the world are performed in 
Wait Chapel and Brendle Recital Hall in the Scales Fine Arts Center under the 
auspices of the Artists Series. The department of music also sponsors performances 
by faculty, students, and visiting artists, and, in cooperation with the University 
Theatre, presents musical theatrical productions. Visiting dance soloists and com- 
panies and other musical programs are held in Brendle Recital Hall. Recitals are 
played by both students and guest carillonneurs on the Janet Jeffrey Carlile Harris 
Carillon. Students in the Chapel Bell Guild play English handbells for convocations 
and services in Wait Chapel. 

All concerts are open to students and to others in the community. 

In addition to studio instruction in the department of art, visiting artists teach on 
campus and the nearby Southeastern Center for Contemporary Art. Reynolda 
House has frequent lectures related to its special collection in American art. The 
Student Union has an expanding collection of contemporary works of art, under 
student administration and exhibited in Revnolda Hall and elsewhere on campus. 
The T. J. Simmons Collection of paintings, etchings, lithographs, and sculpture also 
is on permanent display throughout the campus. An active group of student photo- 
graphers exhibits its own work and that of professional photographers in the Student 
Union gallery adjacent to DeTamble Auditorium. Cultural resources in the commu- 
nity, in addition to Reynolda House and the Southeastern Center for Contemporary 
Art, include the restored historic Moravian village of Old Salem, the Museum of 
Early Southern Decorative Arts, the North Carolina School of the Arts and its 
associated professional performing companies in theatre, dance, and music, and the 
Winston-Salem Symphony and Chorale. Folk art, professional art, and crafts fairs are 
frequent. 



30 



Career Planning and Placement 

The office for career planning and placement in Revnolda Hall offers a full range of 
career services, including placement counseling, library resources, and a computer 
program which helps students determine career and graduate or professional school 
interests. Other services include career exploration, choice of an academic major, 
resume writing and interviewing skills, and interviews with prospective employers. 
The office helps students choose careers and find full-time, part-time, and summer 
jobs. It also helps them arrange internships and plan graduate or professional 
studies. 

The office maintains a file on each registered student to help with on-campus 
interviews and off-campus job search. More that 200 companies, agencies, and 
colleges and universities interview registered undergraduate and graduate students 
during the vear. Job vacancy listings, employer directories, company profiles, and 
alumni contacts provide leads for the off-campus job search. 

Students are invited to take advantage of these services, beginning early in their 
college vears. The office resources are available on a walk-in basis during regular 
office hours and individual consultations are available bv appointment. 

University Counseling Center 

The University Counseling Center offers a complete range of counseling and 
psychological services. Students can discuss their personal, educational, and career 
concerns with a professional counselor or psychologist. A variety of tests is available 
to help students identifv their vocational aptitudes, educational interests, study/ 
learning skills, and personality traits. Special programs help students increase their 
self-confidence, manage their emotions, modify their behavior, or improve their 
relationships. Brochures on studving, stress management, substance abuse, and 
other topics are available. Psychological emergencies on campus are handled 
through the Center. Appointments are available Mondav through Friday between 
the hours of 8:30 a.m. and 12:30 p.m. and between 1:30 p.m. and 5:00 p.m. Con- 
fidentiality is assured and no fees are charged to students. 

Another service sponsored by the Counseling Center is the Learning Assistance 
Program. The Program's services include study skills training and computer-assisted 
instruction in a wide range of topics, including vocabulary and reading improve- 
ment. The Learning Assistance Program staff presents mini-courses and seminars in 
academic skills throughout the vear. Under certain conditions, tutorial assistance 
and academic counseling may be arranged. The Learning Assistance Program office 
is located in the west foyer of the Z. Smith Revnolds Librarv and is open Monday 
through Thursday from 8:30 a.m. to 9 p.m., on Fridav from 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m., and 
on Sunday from 3 p.m. to 9 p.m. 

Student Health Service 

The Student Health Service is located in Kitchin House and provides primary care 
services, including general health maintenance, diagnostic and treatment pro- 
cedures, and referral to specialists. It is open when residence halls are in operation 



31 



and requires a health information questionnaire on file for all students. The services 
of the clinical staff are covered by tuition; there are additional charges for injections, 
medications, laboratory tests, special physical examinations, and bed care. 




32 

Procedures 

All students are responsible for familiarizing themselves with the portions of this bulletin 
which pertain to their course of study. Statements concerning courses and expenses are not to 
be regarded as irrevocable contracts between the student and the institution. The University 
reserves the right to change the schedule of classes and the cost of instruction at any time within 
the student's term of residence. 

Admission 

Candidates for admission must furnish evidence of maturity and educational 
achievement. The Committee on Admissions carefully considers the applicant's 
academic records, scores on tests, and evidence of character, motivation, goals, and 
general fitness for study in the College. The applicant's secondary school program 
must establish a commitment to the kind of broad liberal education reflected in the 
academic requirements of the College. 

Admission as a freshman normally requires graduation from an accredited secon- 
dary school with a minimum of sixteen units of high school credit. These should 
include four units in English, three in mathematics, two in history and social studies, 
two in a single foreign language, and one in the natural sciences. An applicant who 
presents at least twelve units of differently distributed college preparatory study can 
be considered. A limited number of applicants may be admitted without the high 
school diploma, with particular attention given to ability, maturitv, and motivation. 

All persons admitted are required to submit a health history, along with the results 
of a physical examination and certain laboratory tests to the director of the Student 
Health Service. If a person who has been accepted but not yet enrolled has or 
develops a health problem which, in the judgment of the director of the health 
service, creates a danger to the safety and well-being of the student or others, that 
person may be required to delav matriculation until the problem is resolved. 

North Carolina law requires that all students enrolling in the College after June 30, 
1986 submit proof of immunization against diphtheria and tetanus (DT), polio, 
rubeola, and rubella before registration. There are exceptions; the student handbook 
has a detailed statement. A certificate from the student's high school, physician, or 
county health department director is acceptable proof of immunization. The Student 
Health Service will furnish a form for this purpose. In addition, North Carolina law 
requires that students who do not submit proper proof of immunization within thirty 
days of enrollment cannot attend Wake Forest University until these immunizations 
have been documented. 

Application 

An application is secured from the office of admissions in person or by mail (7305 
Reynolda Station, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109). It should be completed 
and returned to that office, if possible no later than January 15 for the fall semester. 
Most admissions decisions for the fall semester are made by March 15, with prompt 
notification of applicants. For the spring semester application should be completed 



33 

and returned, if possible, no later that October 15. Except in emergency the final date 
for applying for the fall semester is August 1 and for the spring semester January 1 . 
Application on this last-date basis is primarily for non-residential students. 

The admission application requires records and recommendations directly from 
secondary school officials. It also requires test scores, preferably from the senior 
year, on the Scholastic Aptitude Test of the College Entrance Examination Board. 
Accompanying Achievement Tests are optional. All test scores should be sent di- 
rectly to the University by Educational Testing Service. A $25 fee to cover the cost of 
processing must accompany an application. It cannot be applied to later charges for 
accepted students or refunded for others. The University reserves the right to reject any 
application without explanation. 

A $200 admission deposit is required of all students accepted and must be sent to 
the office of admissions no later than three weeks following notice of acceptance. It is 
credited toward first semester fees and is refunded in the event of cancellation of 
application by the student, provided a written request for refund is received by the 
office of admissions no later than May 1 for the fall semester or November 1 for the 
spring semester. (Students notified of acceptance after Mav 1 for the fall semester or 
November 1 for the spring semester should make the admission deposit within two 
weeks of notification.) Deposits made after May 1 and November 1 are not refund- 
able. Failure to make the admission deposit is taken as cancellation of application bv 
the student. No deposit is required for summer session enrollment. 



Early Decision 

An early decision plan is available to well-qualified high school students who 
decide by the close of their junior vear that their first college choice is Wake Forest. 
An early decision agreement is required with the application, which is sent to the 
office of admissions after completion of the junior year and not later than October 15 
of the senior year. Along with high school record, recommendations, and scores on 
the Scholastic Aptitude Test, at least one Achievement Test, especially in English 
composition, is strongly recommended. 

Candidates for early ciecision are normally expected to have completed, or be 
enrolled in courses to complete, all the natural science, foreign language, literature, 
and mathematics requirements of the secondary school; to offer a minimum 3.5 
quality point average in work of record; and to have achieved a minimum on the 
Scholastic Aptitude Test of 1200. 

Early decision applicants are notified of acceptance by November 1 for the fall 
semester, and the admission deposit is required by January 1 . Applicants not admit- 
ted are asked to submit a senior year Scholastic Aptitude Test score and first semester 
senior year grade record, or are advised to applv elsewhere. 



Admission of Handicapped Students 

Wake Forest College will consider the application of any qualified student on the 
basis of personal and academic merit, regardless of handicap. A system of ramps and 



34 

elevators makes all of the programs at Wake Forest accessible to those in wheelchairs 
or with limited mobility. The University will gladly help handicapped students make 
arrangements to meet special needs. Students who seek further information should 
consult the admissions office or the University's equal opportunity officer. 

Advanced Placement and CLEP 

Advanced placement credit for college level work done in high school is available 
on the basis of the Advanced Placement Examination of the College Entrance Ex- 
amination Board and supplementary information. Especially well-qualified appli- 
cants for advanced standing may also be exempt from some basic and divisional 
courses with credit on the authorization of the department concerned. Credit by 
advanced standing is treated in the same manner as credit transferred from another 
college. 

Under certain conditions especially well prepared applicants may be granted 
limited college credit through the subject tests of the College Level Examination 
Program (CLEP) of the Educational Testing Service. Such credit may be assigned 
with the approval of the department concerned or the dean of the School of Business 
and Accountancy. 

Admission of Transfer Students 

The number of transfer students who can be admitted each year depends upon the 
availability of space in the freshman (second semester), sophomore, and junior 
classes. An applicant for admission who has attended another college must be a 
graduate of a standard junior college or furnish a certificate of honorable dismissal 
stating eligibility in all respects to enter the college last attended, and must have an 
overall average of at least C on all college work attempted. A student who is admitted 
from another college before fully meeting the prescribed admissions requirements 
for entering freshmen must remove the entrance conditions during the first year at 
Wake Forest. 

The writing of transfer students is evaluated during the orientation period each 
semester, and students whose writing is deficient are given a composition condition. 
For removal of a composition condition the student is required to take English 1 1 during 
the first semester for which he or she registers following the assignment of the cc. 
Removal of the deficiency is prerequisite to graduation. 

Courses satisfactorily completed in other accredited colleges are accepted subject 
to facultv approval. In general, no credit is allowed for courses not found in the Wake 
Forest curriculum. The minimum residence requirement for a baccalaureate degree is 
two academic years, the senior and one other. 

Expenses 

Statements concerning expenses are not to be regarded as forming an irrevocable contract 
between the student and the University. The costs of instruction and other services outlined 
herein are those in effect on the date of publication of this bulletin, and the University reserves 
the right to change without notice the cost of instruction and other services at any time. 



35 



An admission deposit of $200, which is applied toward tuition and fees for the 
semester for which the student has been accepted, is required to complete admis- 
sion. Charges are due in full on August 1 for the fall semester and December 15 for 
the spring semester. Faculty regulations require that student accounts be settled in 
full before the student is entitled to receive a grade report, transcript, or diploma, or 
to register for the following semester or term. 

Tuition 

Per Semester Per Year 

Full-Time (twelve or more credits) $3,625 $7,250 

Part-Time $205 per credit 

Students enrolled in the College or in the School of Business and Accountancy for 
full-time residence credit are entitled to full privileges regarding libraries, labora- 
tories, athletic contests, concerts, publications, the Student Union, the University 
Theatre, and the health service. Part-time students are entitled to the use of the 
libraries and laboratories but not to the other privileges mentioned above. They may 
secure a part-time student ID card, admissions to games and concerts, and publica- 
tions by paying an activity fee of $125 per semester. 

Room Charges 

Per Semester Per Year 

Double occupancy $605 $1,210 

Most rooms available for first-year students are $605 per semester. Other room 
rentals range from $515 to $1,030. 

Food Services 

A cafeteria, soda shop, and table service dining room are located in Revnolda Hall. 
Board plans are available for $1,120, $1,280, $1,440, and $1,580 per year. The format 
of these plans is a credit card system in which the student is charged only for the 
amount of food purchased at the time it is purchased. The plan may be used at any 
University food services facility, and it allows a great deal of flexibility for eating off 
campus. 

Freshmen living in dormitories are required to participate in one of the board plans. 

Other Charges 

Admission application fee of $25 is required with each application for admission to 
cover the cost of processing and is non-refundable. 

Admission deposit of $200 is required of each student entering for the first time or 
returning after a period of non-attendance and must be sent to the director of 
admissions within three weeks after acceptance for admission or readmission. The 
deposit is credited to the student's charges for the semester for which he or she has 
been accepted for admission. It is refunded if the director of admissions is notified in 



36 



writing prior to May 1 for the fall semester and November 1 for the spring semester of 
cancellation of plans to enter the College. 

Applied music fees are required in addition to tuition for students enrolling for in- 
dividual class study in applied music in the department of music and are payable in 
the office of the controller. The fee for one credit per semester is $110 and for two 
credits per semester is $175. 

Hospital bed and board charges are made when the student is confined to the Student 
Health Service, at a rate of $44.50 per day. An additional charge is made for special 
services and expensive drugs. Students must have hospital insurance. A group plan 
is available through the University for those not covered by a family plan. A $2 charge 
is added to overdue bills. 

Key deposit of $5 is required for each key issued to a residence hall room and is 
refunded when the key is returned. 

Late registration fee of $10 is charged to students registering after the dates set by the 
faculty. 

Library fines are charged for lost books and for violation of other library regulations 
and are payable in the library. 

A tuition deposit of $200 is required, at a date set by the office of the controller, of 
students enrolled in the spring semester who expect to return for the fall semester. It 
is credited to the student's University charges and is refunded if the controller is 
notified in writing prior to June 1 that the student will not return. 

Room change fee of $5 is charged for authorized room changes made after February 15 
in the spring semester. The fine is $20 for any unauthorized change. 




37 



Special examination fee of $2.50 is required for each examination taken to remove a 
course condition. 

Student apartment rental is payable at $165 per month. 

Motor vehicle registration and traffic fines are $60 and $10 to $15, respectively. All 
students operating a vehicle on campus (including student apartments and Graylyn 
Conference Center) must register vehicles they are operating day or night, whether 
or not owned by the operator. All vehicle registrations must be completed within 
twenty-four hours from the first time the vehicle is brought to campus. Fines are 
assessed against students violating parking regulations, copies of which are obtain- 
able from the University public safetv office. Proof of ownership must be presented 
when applying for vehicle registratiom. 

Transcripts of a student's record are issued at a cost of $2 each. 



Refunds 

During the academic year, all students, full- and part-time, receive tuition refunds 
according to the following schedule. This policy applies to students dropping 
courses as well as those withdrawing. Withdrawals must be official and students 
must return their ID cards before claiming refunds. There is no refund of room rent. 



Number of Weeks 

Attendance 

(Including first day of 

registration) 

1 week 

2 weeks 

3 weeks 

4 weeks 



Percentage of Total Tuition 
to be Refunded 



Total Tuition Less $200 
75 percent 
50 percent 
25 percent 



Housing 



All unmarried freshman students are required to live in residence halls, except (1) 
when permission is granted by the dean of students for the student to live with 
parents or a relative in the Winston-Salem area or (2) bv special arrangement when 
space in not available on campus or (3) if the student has lost residence hall space 
because of a room contract violation or disciplinary action. Fifth-year students are 
ineligible for housing. Married students are not usuallv allowed to live in residence 
halls except when permitted by the director of residence life and housing. Residence 
halls are supervised bv the director of residence life and housing, the assistant 
director of residence life and housing, the housing manager, area coordinators, and 
hall directors. 

The following charges per year apply for each student in the residence halls: in 
Kitchin House, Poteat House, Davis House, Tavlor House, Huffman Hall, and Efird 
Hall, $940 for triple rooms, $1,030 for small double rooms, $1,210 for large double 
rooms, and $1,500 for single rooms; rooms in the new suites with interior lounges are 
$1,350 for large rooms and $1,080 for small rooms; in Johnson and Bostwick Resi- 
dence Halls, $1,210 for double rooms and $1,500 for single rooms; in Babcock 



38 

Residence Hall, $1,410 for double rooms and $1,640 for single rooms; in West 
Residence Hall, $1,540 for double rooms; in South Residence Hall, $1,510 for double 
rooms. Theme housing in French, German, Spanish Houses, faculty apartments, 
and town house apartments is $1,540. Housing in overseas houses is $770 per 
semester. For each of the married student apartments, the charge is $165 per month. 
For each of the ten apartments which are shared by single graduate students, the 
charge is $115 per occupant, or $230 per month. 

Academic Calendar 

The academic calendar of the College and the School of Business and Accountancy 
includes a fall semester ending before Christmas, a spring semester beginning in 
January and ending in May, and two five-week summer sessions. Semesters usually 
last fifteen weeks. 

Orientation and Advising 

A four-day orientation period for new students in the College precedes registra- 
tion for the fall semester. A faculty adviser and an upperclass student provide 
guidance during and between registration periods throughout the student's fresh- 
man and sophomore years. Advisers meet with students both individually and in 
small groups. Students are encouraged to take the initiative in arranging additional 
meetings at any time they feel a need for advice or other assistance. The adviser 
suggests and approves courses of instruction until the student declares a major in a 
field of study toward the end of the sophomore year. At that time a new adviser is 
assigned from the department or departments concerned. 

Registration 

A two-day registration period for all students in the College and the School of 
Business and Accountancy opens the fall semester and the spring semester. Registra- 
tion involves (1) payment of all tuition and fees in full to the controller, (2) obtaining a 
summary of prior record from the registrar, (3) consultation with the academic 
adviser, and (4) sectioning into courses at on-line registration. 

Classification 

Classification of students by class standing and as full-time or part-time is calcu- 
lated in terms of credits. Most courses in the College and the School of Business and 
Accountancy have a value of four credits, but others varv from one credit to five. The 
normal load for a full-time student is eighteen credits per semester, with a maximum 
of nineteen (twenty if only four courses are involved) permitted on registration day. 
A student wishing to register for more than twentv credits per semester must seek 
the permission of the appropriate dean or the Committee on Academic Affairs after 
registration day. 

Twelve credits per semester constitutes minimum full-time registration. (Recipi- 
ents of North Carolina Legislative Tuition Grants must be enrolled by the tenth day 



39 

of classes for least fourteen credits each semester. Recipients of veterans' benefits, 
grants from state government, and other governmental aid must meet the guidelines 
of the appropriate agencies.) A student may not register for fewer than twelve credits 
without specific permission from the Committee on Academic Affairs to register as a 
part-time student. 

A full-time student in fall semester of any year may not be a part-time student in 
the spring semester immediately following. Any student who petitions for part-time 
status within the semester in which he or she wishes to gain such status is not eligible 
for a tuition refund. 

The requirements for classification after the freshman year are as follows: sopho- 
more — the removal of all entrance conditions and the completion of not fewer than 
29 credits toward a degree, with a minimum of 58 grade points; junior — the comple- 
tion of not fewer that 60 credits toward a degree, with minimum of 120 grade points; 
senior — not fewer than 108 credits toward a degree, with minimum of 216 grade 
points. 

Class Attendance 

Attendance regulations place the responsibility for class attendance on the stu- 
dent, who is expected to attend classes regularlv and punctually. One of the most 
vital aspects of the residential college experience is attendance in the classroom; its 
value cannot be measured by testing procedures alone. Students are considered 
sufficiently mature to appreciate the necessity of regular attendance, to accept this 
personal responsibility, to demonstrate the self-discipline essential for such perform- 
ance, and to recognize and accept the consequences of failure to attend. Students 
who are deemed to be causing their work or that of the class to suffer because of 
absence or lateness may be referred by the instructor to the dean of the College or to 
the dean of the School of Business and Accountancv, as appropriate, for suitable 
action. Any student who does not attend classes regularly or who demonstrates 
other evidence of academic irresponsibilitv is subject to such disciplinarv action as 
the Committee on Academic Affairs mav prescribe, including immediate suspension 
from the College or the School of Business and Accountancy. 

The office of the dean of the College maintains a list of students who have been 
absent from class because of illness as certified by the Student Health Service, 
because of other extenuating circumstances, or as authorized representatives of the 
College whose names have been submitted bv appropriate officials fortv-eight hours 
in advance of the hour when the absences are to begin. Such absences are considered 
excused and a record of them is available to the student's instructors upon request. 
The instructor determines whether work missed can be made up. 

Auditing Courses 

When space is available after the registration of regularly enrolled students, others 
may request permission of the instructor to enter the course as auditors. No addition- 
al charge is made to full-time students in the College or the School of Business and 
Accountancy; for others the fee is $80 per course, and permission of the appropriate 



40 



dean, as well as that of the instructor, is required. An auditor is subject to attendance 
regulations and to other conditions imposed bv the instructor. Although an auditor 
receives no credit, a notation of audit is made on the final grade report and entered on 
the record of regularly enrolled students who have met the instructor's require- 
ments. In no case may anyone register for an audit course before the first meeting of 
the class. An audit course may not be changed to a credit course, and a credit course 
may not be changed to an audit course. 

Dropping a Course 

The last day in each term for dropping a class without a grade of F is listed in the 
calendar in the front of this bulletin. A student who wishes to drop any course before 
this date must consult the registrar and his or her faculty adviser. After this date, the 
student who wishes to drop a course must consult his or her faculty adviser, the 
course instructor, and the dean of the College or the dean of the School of Business 
and Accountancv as appropriate. If the dean approves the request, he authorizes the 
student to discontinue the course. Except in the case of an emergency, the grades in 
the course will be recorded as F. 

If, at any time, a student drops any course without prior, written approval of the 
appropriate dean, the student will be subject to academic probation for the following 
semester or to such other penalties as the Committee on Academic Affairs of the 
faculty may impose. 

Withdrawal from the College 

A student who finds it necessary to withdraw from the College or the School of 
Business and Accountancv must do so through the office of the appropriate dean. 
With the approval of the dean of the College or the dean of the School of Business and 
Accountancy, no grades are recorded for the student for that semester, but the 
student's standing in courses at the time of the withdrawal is taken into considera- 
tion when readmission is sought. If withdrawal is for academic reasons, failing 
grades may be assigned in all courses in which the student is doing unsatisfactory 
work. A student who leaves the College or the School of Business and Accountancy 
without officiallv withdrawing is assigned failing grades in all current courses, and 
the unofficial withdrawal is recorded. 

Examinations 

Final examinations are given at regularly scheduled times. All examinations are 
conducted in accordance with the honor svstem adopted bv the student body and 
approved by the faculty. Under it the student is expected to refrain from unfairness 
in any form and to report to the Honor Council any student he or she knows to be 
cheating. Examinations are turned in with a signed statement that no aid has been 
given or received. 

Grading 

For most courses carrying undergraduate credit there are five final and two 



41 



conditional grades: A (exceptionally high achievement), B (superior), C (satisfactory), 
D (passing but unsatisfactory), E (conditional failure), F (failure), and I (incomplete). 

Grade of E. The grade of E entitles the student to reexamination at any regular 
examination period within a year, or during the first week of the fall semester. A 
permit for reexamination must be obtained in advance from the registrar, and no 
grade higher than D may be assigned as a result of reexamination. A student who 
does not remove a conditional failure by reexamination must repeat the course to 
obtain credit for it. 

A candidate for graduation in the final semester who receives a grade of E in the 
previous semester may apply to the registrar for reexamination thirty days after the 
opening of the final semester but not less than thirty davs before its close. All 
conditions, including the grade of E, must be removed not less than thirty days 
before the end of the term in which the student graduates. The name of a candidate 
who has a condition after that date is dropped from the list of candidates. A 
candidate who receives a grade of E in the final semester or term of the graduation 
year is not allowed reexamination before the next examination period. 

Grade of I. The grade of I may be assigned only when a student does not complete 
the work of the course because of illness or some other emergency. If the work 
recorded as I is not completed within thirty days after the student enters for his or her 
next semester, the grade automatically becomes F. The instructor must report the 
final grade to the registrar within forty-five days after the beginning of that semester. 

Grade Points. Grades are assigned grade points for the computation of academic 
averages, class standing, and eligibility for continuation, as follows: for each credit of 
A, four points; for each credit of B, three points; for each credit of C, two points; for 
each credit of D, one point; for each credit of E or F, no points. 

Pass/Fail. To encourage students to venture into fields outside their major areas of 
competence and concentration, the undergraduate schools make available the op- 
tion, under certain conditions, of registering in courses on a Pass/Fail basis rather 
than for a letter grade. Courses taken under the Pass/Fail option yield full credit 
when satisfactorily completed but, whether passed or not, they are not computed in 
the grade point average. In no case may a student change from grade to Pass/Fail 
mode, or from Pass/Fail to grade mode, after the last dav to add a course, listed in the 
calendar at the front of this bulletin. 

A student may count toward the degree no more than twentv-four credits taken on 
a Pass/Fail basis. Freshmen and sophomores are not eligible to elect the Pass/Fail 
mode, but may enroll for courses offered only on a Pass/Fail basis. A student may 
during the junior and senior years only elect up to a total of sixteen credits on a 
Pass/Fail basis, but no more than five credits in a given semester. Courses used to 
fulfill basic, divisional, or major requirements may not be taken on a Pass/Fail basis 
unless they are offered only on that basis. Courses in the major(s) not used for 
satisfying major requirements may be taken on a Pass/Fail basis if the department of 
the major does not specify otherwise. 

Grade Reports and Transcripts 

A mid-term report and a final report of grades are issued to students by the 



42 



registrar in the fall and spring semesters. A final report of grades is issued for each 
summer term. 

Copies of a student's cumulative record are issued by the registrar, but only on the 
written authorization of the student and payment of $2 per transcript. 

Dean's List 

The Dean's List is issued at the end of the fall and spring semesters. It includes all 
full-time students in the College and the School of Business and Accountancy who 
have a grade point average of 3.0 or better for the semester and who have earned no 
grade below C during the semester. 

Graduation Distinctions 

Graduation distinctions are determined by the grade-point system. A degree 
candidate with a total average of not less than 3.80 for all courses attempted is 
graduated with the distinction summa cum laude. A candidate with a total average of 
not less than 3.50 for all courses attempted is graduated with the distinction magna 
cum laude. A candidate with a total average of not less than 3.00 for all courses 
attempted is graduated with the distinction cum laude. The entire record of a student 
is considered, with the understanding that a transfer student may receive no distinc- 
tion which requires a quality point ratio greater than that earned at Wake Forest 
University. Details are available in the office of the registrar. 

Repetition of Courses 

A student may not repeat a course in which he or she has received a grade of C or 
higher. When a student repeats at Wake Forest a course in which he or she has 
received at Wake Forest a grade of D or F, all grades received will be shown on the 
transcript, but the course mav be counted onlv one time for credit. For purposes of 
determining the grade point average, a course will be considered as attempted only 
once, and the grade points assigned will reflect the highest grade received. If a 
student fails a course previously passed, the credit originallv earned will not be lost. 

Probation 

A student is responsible at all times for knowing his or her academic standing. Any 
student who at the end of the fall semester does not have the grade average normallv 
required for continuation at the end of the following spring semester is automatically 
on academic probation. 

Any student who is placed on probation because of honor system or conduct code 
violations is placed on such special academic probation as the Committee on Aca- 
demic Affairs imposes. The Committee on Academic Affairs may at any time sus- 
pend or place on probation any student who has given evidence of academic 
irresponsibility, as, for example, by failing to attend class regularly or to complete 
papers, examinations, or other work on time. The Committee will suspend at the end 
of any semester any student who has earned no more than eight grade points in 



43 



courses other than Military Science 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 211, 212, 251, 252; 
Music 111-113 (ensemble courses); and elective 100-level courses in health and sport 
science. 

If a student's poor academic performance is attributable to circumstances over 
which the student clearly had no control (e.g., serious injury or illness), the student 
may, after consultation with one of the appropriate academic deans, petition the 
Committee on Academic Affairs for further consideration of his or her status. 

In deciding whether to permit an exception to the foregoing eligibility require- 
ments, the Committee on Academic Affairs will take into account such factors as 
convictions for violations of the College honor system or social conduct code, viola- 
tions of the law, and any other behavior demonstrating disrespect for the rights of 
others. 

Any student convicted of violating the honor svstem is ineligible to represent the 
University in any way until the period of suspension or probation is completed and 
the student is returned to good standing. Students who are on probation for any 
reason may not be initiated into any fraternity until the end of their probationary 
period. 

Requirements for Continuation 

Each student is expected to be aware at all times of his or her academic status and to 
be responsible for knowing whether he or she has met the University's minimum 
academic requirements for continuation as outlined below. 

On the basis of their cumulative records at the end of the spring semester, those 
students are academically ineligible to enroll for the following fall (1) who have 
attempted fewer than 54 credits in all colleges and universities attended and have a 
grade point average of less than 1 .35 on work attempted for a grade in the College or 
the School of Business and Accountancy; (2) who have attempted as many as 54 but 
fewer than 98 credits in all colleges and universities attended and have a grade point 
average of less than 1 .65 on work attempted for a grade in the College or the School of 
Business and Accountancy; (3) who have attempted as many as 98 but fewer than 135 
credits in all colleges and universities attended and have a grade point average of less 
than 1.85 on all work attempted for a grade in the College or the School of Business 
and Accountancy; (4) who have attempted 135 credits or more in all colleges and 
universities attended and have a grade point average of less than 1.90 on work 
attempted for a grade in the College or the School of Business and Accountancy. 
Non-credit courses, courses taken Pass/Fail, and CLEP and advanced placement 
credit are not computed in the grade point average. (For the purpose of determining 
eligibility for graduation, the grade point average is computed on all work attempted 
in Wake Forest College and the School of Business and Accountancy, and is also 
computed on all work attempted in all accredited colleges and universities.) 

Students who at the end of the spring semester have not met the above conditions 
to continue in the following academic year may — unless they are ineligible for other 
reasons — attend the first summer term. If successful in raising the grade point 
average to the required minimum, they may enroll for the following fall semester. 
Students may attend the second summer term if unsuccessful in the first, and if 



44 

successful they may enroll for the following spring semester. If unsuccessful in 
meeting the minimum requirements bv the end of the second summer term, the 
student may apply for readmission no earlier than the following summer session. 

Under unusual circumstances and after consultation with the appropriate dean, 
the student may petition the Committee on Academic Affairs for an exception to the 
foregoing eligibility requirements. 

The Committee on Academic Affairs may suspend at the end of any semester or 
term any student whose record for that term has been unsatisfactory, particularly 
with regard to the number of courses passed and failed, or any student who has not 
attended class regularly or has otherwise ignored the rules and regulations of the 
College or the School of Business and Accountancy. 

A student who has or develops a health problem which in the judgment of the 
director of the Student Health Service creates a danger to the safety and well-being of 
the student or others may be required to withdraw until the problem is resolved. 



Requirements for Readmission 

A student seeking consideration for readmission to the College must be in good 
standing and must meet the minimum academic requirements for continuation. 
However, a student who has not met the requirements (1) may apply for admission 
to the summer session only, (2) may apply for readmission after an absence from the 
College of at least a year and a half, (3) may apply for readmission after less than a 
year and a half if enrolled in another college or university, or (4) may apply for 
readmission if the failure to meet minimum requirements was due to circumstances 
over which the student clearly had no control. 

When applications for readmission to the College are considered, both academic 
and non-academic criteria will be taken into account. Non-academic grounds for 
possible denial of readmission may include convictions for violations of the College's 
honor system or social conduct code, for violations of the law, and other behavior 
demonstrating disrespect for the rights of others. If a student is readmitted, the 
Committee on Academic Affairs may impose on that student conditions designed to 
promote academic progress. The conditions may include but are not limited to the 
following: a reduced course load, choice of courses approved bv one of the appro- 
priate academic deans, and a specified number of courses satisfying basic and 
divisional requirements. 



Summer Study 

Courses taken in the summer at another college or university require the advance 
approval of the head of the department concerned and the registrar. Courses taken 
elsewhere on the semester-hour plan are computed as transfer credit at 1 . 125 credits 
for each approved semester hour. 

In addition to regular courses, a number of special summer programs for credit are 
described in the bulletin of the summer session. 



45 



Transfer Credit 

All work attempted in other colleges and universities must be reported to the 
registrar of Wake Forest University. Students wishing to receive transfer credit for 
work satisfactorily completed elsewhere must obtain facultv approval, preferably in 
advance. Students should be aware that the minimum grade point average (2.0) for 
graduation is computed on all work attempted in Wake Forest College and the School 
of Business and Accountancy, and is also computed on all work attempted in all 
accredited colleges and universities. 




46 

Scholarships and Loans 

Any student admitted to Wake Forest College who demonstrates financial need 
will receive assistance commensurate with that need. 

Bv regulation of the Board of Trustees, all financial aid must be approved by the 
Committee on Scholarships and Student Aid. Applications should be requested from 
the committee at 7305 Reynolda Station, Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109. 
Scholarships supported by funds of the undergraduate schools are not granted to 
students enrolled in other schools of the University. To receive consideration for 
financial aid, the applicant must either be enrolled as an undergraduate or have been 
accepted for admission. The financial aid program comprises institutional, state, and 
federal scholarship, loan, and work funds. Full-time students are eligible to apply for 
federal funds. Half- and part-time students are eligible to apply for limited in- 
stitutional funds. 

Need is a factor in the awarding of most financial aid, and each applicant must file a 
financial statement with the application for financial aid. After reviewing the stan- 
dard financial analysis, the Committee on Scholarships determines aid awards, and 
aid is credited, by semester, to the student's account in the office of the controller. 
The Committee on Scholarships reserves the right to revoke financial aid for un- 
satisfactory academic achievement or for violation of Universitv regulations or feder- 
al, state, or local laws. To be eligible for renewal of aid, a student must remain 
enrolled on a normal full-time basis and be in good standing, making satisfactory 
progress toward a degree. The committee does not award institutional scholarships 
to students earning less than a 2.0 grade average on all work attempted at Wake 
Forest. 

Scholarships 

The Reynolds Scholarships are awarded each vear to five extraordinarilv capable men 
and women entering the College as first-year students. Made possible through a 
grant from the Z. Smith Reynolds Foundation in honor of Nancy Susan Reynolds, 
these scholarships cover the cost of tuition, room, and board, and include an 
allowance for books and personal expenses. Scholars may receive up to $1,500 each 
summer for travel or studv projects approved by the Reynolds Committee. The 
Reynolds Scholarships are awarded without regard to financial need and will be 
renewed annually through the recipient's fourth year of college, subject to satis- 
factory performance. A separate application is required. 

The O. W. Wilson Scholarship, created under the will of O. W. Wilson of Yancey 
County, North Carolina, is awarded to an individual who demonstrates outstanding 
qualities\)f intellectual promise and leadership. The scholarship has a value equiv- 
alent to annual tuition and provides summer grant opportunities to encourage 
individual study projects. No separate application is required. 

The Doctor George E. and Lila C. Bradford Fund awards a full tuition renewable 
academic scholarship annually to a student possessing outstanding leadership and 
aptitude who intends a pre-medical course of study. No separate application is 
required. 



47 



The Guy T. Carswell Scholarships , made possible by and established in honor of the 
late Guy T. Carswell and his wife Clara Carswell of Charlotte, North Carolina, have 
an annual value ranging from a minimum stipend of $2,500 to a maximum stipend of 
$10,200, with awards for more than $2,500 determined on the basis of need. Each 
scholar may apply for at least one summer grant of up to $1,000 to fund travel and 
study projects of the student's design. A Carswell scholar must be a student applying 
to the College who possesses outstanding qualities of intellect and leadership. Up to 
forty scholars are selected annually. A separate application is required. 

The Alumni Scholarships, established by the University's alumni, award twenty 
renewable $2,500 scholarships on the basis of exceptional talent and leadership. 
Candidates must be students who will enrich and add to the diversity of life at Wake 
Forest through their special talents in the areas of the fine arts (including music, art, 
theatre, dance, film, and other arts), debate and public speaking, writing, leader- 
ship, public service, and entrepreneurial achievement. A separate application is 
required by December 1. 

The Wake Forest Minority Scholarships, established by endowment from the Uni- 
versity's Sesquicentennial Fund and gifts from the Z. Smith Revnolds Foundation, 
recognize the outstanding achievements of minority students and are awarded each 
year to entering freshmen who demonstrate academic promise and leadership 
potential. Wake Forest Minority Scholarships include seven full tuition scholarships 
and three $2,000 per year scholarships. All scholarships are renewable annually 
through the recipient's fourth year. Awards are made without regard to financial 
need. A separate application is required. 

The George Foster Hankins Scholarships for Freshmen, made possible by the late 
Colonel George Foster Hankins of Lexington, North Carolina, for residents of North 
Carolina or children of alumni living in other states, with preference given to 
residents of Davidson County, North Carolina, have an annual value of up to 
$10,200. Recipients must demonstrate need as well as academic promise. A separate 
application is required. 

The George Foster Hankins Scholarships for Llpperclassmen for students who have been 
enrolled for at least one semester, with preference given to applicants from Davidson 
County, North Carolina, vary in value according to need. No separate application is 
required. 

For all scholarships listed below, there is no separate application required except 
where noted. Students who complete the normal application for financial aid, 
including the Wake Forest application and an FAF (Financial Aid Form), will be 
considered for appropriate scholarships. 

The Alcoa Foundation Scholarship , donated by the Alcoa Foundation, is available to a 
freshman from the Piedmont area of North Carolina who is majoring in chemistry. 
The scholarship has a value of $2,000 and is awarded on the basis of need. 

The Charles F and Louise Allen Scholarship Fund, established under the will of Louise 
Lambeth Allen, is awarded on the basis of ability and need to a student who may be 
interested in pursuing a medical career. 

The Alpha Phi Omega Scholarship, established by the Kappa Theta Chapter of Alpha 



48 

Phi Omega, is made available in alternate years to a freshman who presents evidence 
of need and an excellent high school record. It has a minimum value of $200. 

The Camilla Artom Fund for Italian Studies was established in 1976 in honor of Camillo 
Artom, professor of biochemistry from 1939 to 1969. Scholarship aid is made avail- 
able, usually to one or two students each semester, to assist with their expenses. 
Well-qualified students who can demonstrate need are eligible to apply. (Interested 
persons should apply in the office of the provost.) 

The George M. and Daisy Olive Beavers Scholarship! Fund, donated bv Lvdia Beavers in 
memory of her parents, is for one scholarship awarded on the basis of leadership, 
good citizenship, and excellence of character. 

The Robert D. Bridger Jr. Scholarship, donated bv George R. Bridger in honor of his 
father, is made to a senior major in the School of Business and Accountancy. 
Selection of the recipient is based on demonstrated academic ability and financial 
need, with perference given to students from Bladen County or southeastern North 
Carolina. 

The Claude U. Broach Scholarship is awarded to a freshman or upperclassman with 
preference given to students from the St. John's Baptist Church of Charlotte, North 
Carolina. 

The J. Melville and Alice W. Broughton Scholarship Fund, established in honor of 
Governor, Senator, and Wake Forest Trustee J. Melville Broughton and his wife, 
Alice W. Broughton, bv the Broughton family of Raleigh, North Carolina, awards 
one scholarship annually to a North Carolina student on the basis of academic ability 
and financial need. 

The Eliza Pratt Brown Scholarship, donated by the late Junius Calvin Brown of 
Madison, North Carolina in honor of his wife Eliza Pratt Brown, is used to assist 
needy, worthy, and deserving students from North Carolina, with preference given 
to students from the town of Madison and Rockingham County, for a maximum of 
$2,000. 

The Dean D. B. Bryan Memorial Scholarship Fund was established in honor of D. B. 
Bryan, dean of Wake Forest College from 1923 to 1957. It awards a partial or full 
tuition scholarship to a student who plans to pursue a career in education, and who 
demonstrates financial need and academic ability. The recipient must pledge to work 
in the education field for a minimum of five vears following graduation or must repay 
the scholarship to the University. 

The J. G. Carroll Memorial Athletic Scholarship, donated in memory of J. G. Carroll, 
former associate professor of mathematics, is made to a deserving athlete who is not 
on a regular athletic scholarship, for a value of approximately $100. 

The James Lee Cancer Scholarship, donated by Jean Freeman Carver with her children 
James Lee Carver II and Elizabeth Jeanine Carver in memory of her husband James 
Lee Carver, is for deserving and promising students who demonstrate a need for 
financial assistance, with preference given to students from the Oxford Orphanage 
in Oxford, North Carolina, for a value of approximately $300. 

The J. D. Cave Memorial Scholarship is awarded to a North Carolina male student 
who demonstrates strong character, a willingness to grow intellectually, and evi- 
dence of need, for an approximate annual value of $600. 

TheNeal M. Chastain Memorial Scholarship, established bv June Booth of Charlotte in 



49 



memory of her son, is awarded to a senior business major exhibiting Christian ideals 
and good academic achievement. 

The College Scholarships, in the amount of $100 to $6,000 each, are available to 
freshmen and upperclassmen presenting satisfactory academic records and evidence 
of need. 

The Jennifer Rose Cooke and Laura Elizabeth Scales Memorial Scholarship, established by 
Charles H. Cooke of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma in memory of the daughters of 
Charles H. and Edith Cooke and James Ralph and Betty Scales, has a minimum 
stipend of $4,000 and is awarded on the basis of academic ability and commitment to 
serve in the field of international relations. Application is made to a special com- 
mittee. 

The William Henry Crouch Scholarship for ministerial students has been established 
by the Providence Baptist Church of Charlotte, North Carolina in honor of its pastor. 
The scholarship is valued at $3,000 per year and is available for a North Carolina 
Baptist ministerial student or students based upon merit or need. 

The O. B. Crowell Memorial Scholarship Fund, donated by Louise T. Crowell of 
Hendersonville, North Carolina in memory of her husband O. B. Crowell, is 
awarded on the basis of character, need, and promise, for a value of approximately 
$600. 

The Gary Franklin Culler Scholarship Fund, donated in memory of Gary Franklin 
Culler, is awarded on the basis of academic ability and outstanding leadership 
potential, with preference given to students from High Point, North Carolina, for a 
value of approximately $700. 

The Eleanor Layfield Davis Scholarship Fund awards a scholarship to a student with 
interest and ability in studio art, who has been recommended bv the chairperson of 
the art department, to exemplify the talents and interests of Eleanor Layfield Davis. 

The Thomas H. Davis Business Scholarship, established by employees of Piedmont 
Aviation Inc. in honor of its founder and retired chairman, is awarded to a senior 
business major based on academic achievement, financial need, and potential for 
business leadership. 

The J. B. Dickinso)i Jr. Sclwlarship, donated bv Bonders Inc. of Dunn, North Carolina 
in memory of John Brewer Dickinson Jr., is awarded to a rising senior accounting 
major on the basis of academic excellence and professional promise. 

The Lecansey P. and Tula H. Freeman Scholarship, donated by Mr. and Mrs. G. H. 
Singleton of Raleigh, North Carolina in memory of the parents of Mrs. Singleton, is 
available to a freshman, sophomore, or junior whose home is within the West 
Chowan Baptist Association of North Carolina, with preference given to Bertie 
County students, on the basis of need and ability. Residents of the Roanoke Associa- 
tion may be considered for the scholarship, which is renewable on the basis of need 
and ability except for the senior year, for a value of approximately $200. 

The Charles A. Frueauff Scholarships are provided annually by the Charles A. 
Frueauff Foundation for middle-income students who live outside North Carolina. 
Amounts vary according to need, up to $1,500. 

The F. Lee Fulton Scholarship Fund, established by friends and associates of F. Lee 
Fulton, is awarded on the basis of leadership, citizenship, moral character, academic 
ability, and need. 



50 

The Gaddy Scholarship Fund awards a need-based scholarship each year to a North 
Carolina student, with preference given to residents of Anson, Union, and Wake 
counties. 

The Lewis Reed Gaskin Scholarship Fund, established by E. Reed Gaskin and Jean H. 
Gaskin in honor of Lewis Reed Gaskin, is awarded to a freshman or upperclassman 
with preference given to a pre-medical student. The award shall be made on the basis 
of academic ability and potential as a physician. Recipients shall be known as Lewis 
Reed Gaskin scholars. 

The David Eugene and Beulah B. Gateioood Scholarship in Accountancy , given by Beulah 
B. Gatewood in honor of her husband, is awarded to an undergraduate accounting 
major based on academic merit and financial need. 

The A. Royall Gay Scholarship is awarded on the basis of scholarship, character, and 
high ideals to a graduating senior from Youngsville High School. 

The James W. Gill Scholarship, donated by Ruth R. Gill in memory of her husband 
James W. Gill, provides a scholarship for a deserving student, with preference given 
to students from Montgomery and Prince Georges counties, Maryland, for a value of 
approximately $600. 

The Eugene Basil Glover Memorial Scholarship is awarded to an incoming or enrolled 
student based on ability and need, with slight preference given to students from 
Halifax County, North Carolina. 

The Wallace Barger Goebel Scholarship, made possible through a donation from 
Miriam M. Goebel, is based upon ability and financial need, with first preference 
given to a student with an interest in literature, second preference given to a student 
with an interest in history, and third preference to a student enrolled in the pre- 
medical program, for a value of approximately $400. 

The Stanley McClayton Guthrie Scholarship Fund awards one scholarship each year to 
a needy student, with preference given to students from Halifax County, Virginia. 

The Fuller Hamrick Scholarship, created under the will of the late Everett C. Snyder of 
Wake Forest, North Carolina in memory of Fuller Hamrick, is used to educate 
students from the Mills Home in Thomasville, North Carolina, for a value of approx- 
imately $550. 

The George G. and Georgeine M. Harper Charitable Trust awards scholarships of 
varying stipends annuallv to students with high academic potential and financial 
need, with preference to a North Carolinian. 

The Margaret S. Hasty Memorial Scholarship Fund, established by Judge Fred H. 
Hasty in memory and honor of his beloved wife, is for one or more female un- 
dergraduate students with good academic ability and financial need. The scholarship 
is renewable if the student places in the upper third of her class. 

The Frank P. Hobgood Scholarship, donated by Kate H. Hobgood of Reidsville, North 
Carolina in memory of her husband, is available to those who qualify on the basis of 
character, purpose, intelligence, and need, with preference given to those who plan 
to enter the ministry, do religious work, become teachers, or become lawyers, the 
preference being in the order named, for the residents of the Reidsville, North 
Carolina area recommended by the deacons of the First Baptist Church of Reidsville, 
and for a value of $500. 

The W. D. and Alberta B. Holleman Memorial Scholarship Fund, established by Robert 



51 



D. Holleman in memory of his parents, is awarded on the basis of academic ability, 
need, Christian commitment, and leadership to a student from Durham County with 
the advice and counsel of the minister of the Brasstown Baptist Church of Durham, 
North Carolina. 

The Forrest H. Hollifield Scholarship, donated by Mr. and Mrs. H. H. Hollifield in 
memory of their son Forrest H. Hollifield, is awarded to upperclassmen with evi- 
dence of character and need, with preference given to natives of Rowan and Ruther- 
ford counties, North Carolina, and to members of the Delta Nu Chapter of Sigma Chi 
fraternity. 

The Jones-Holder Business Scholarship Fund, awarded upon the recommendation of 
the dean of the School of Business and Accountancy, recognizes a rising senior 
business major who has demonstrated a high level of achievement. 

The George W. Kane Scholarship, established bv the George W. Kane Company in 
honor of George W. Kane, former member of the Wake Forest College Board of 
Visitors, is awarded on the basis of academic merit and need to students interested in 
pursuing a degree in business or accountancv. 

The }. Lee Keiger Sr. Scholarship is an academic scholarship awarded annually to a 
North Carolina student, with preference given to students living in the ALLTEL- 
Carolina Telephone Company service region, for a value of $750. 

The Sarah C. and C. A. Kent Scholarships are awarded to freshmen and upperclass- 
men on the basis of leadership, academic merit, and financial need, without regard to 
race, religion, sex, or geographical origin. 

The Kirkpatrick-Howell Memorial Scholarship Fund, donated bv the Delta Nu Chapter 
of Sigma Chi Fraternitv, makes available one or two scholarships, with preference 
given to members of the Sigma Chi fraternity, upon recommendation of the Kirkpat- 
rick-Howell Memorial Scholarship Board, for a value of approximately $800. 

The Charles L. Little Scholarship Fund, established bv Charles L. Little, is given to 
upperclass students. Preference is given to pre-medical students from Anson Coun- 
ty and immediatelv adjacent counties in North Carolina who provide satisfactorv 
evidence of a willingness to give serious consideration to practicing medicine in 
Wadesboro, or Anson Countv, North Carolina. 

The James C. Mason Scholarship Fund, created under the will of Oscar W. McManus 
of Laurinburg, North Carolina, is awarded to a worthv student for an annual value of 
approximated $900. 

The Burke M. McConnell Management Excellence Scholarship, established by Pace 
Communications, Inc. of Greensboro, is given to the senior in the School of Business 
and Accountancy who holds the highest grade point average for his or her first three 
years at the Universitv. 

The Wilma L. McCurdy Memorial Fund Scholarship is awarded on the basis of char- 
acter, academic standing, and need, in the amount of $750 per academic year. 
Application must be made annually. 

The Thane Edzoard McDonald and Marie Dayton McDonald Memorial Scholarship Fund, 
made possible bv the late Thane Edward McDonald, professor of music, is available 
to a deserving and qualified music student for a value of approximately $125. 

The McGladrey , Hendrickson, & Pullen Scholarship, granted bv the public accounting 
firm, McGladrey, Hendrickson, & Pullen, is awarded to a senior accounting major 



52 



designated by the accounting faculty on the basis of merit, financial need, and 
interest in public accounting, has a value of $750. 

The Robert Lee Middleton Scholarship, donated by Sarah Edwards Middleton of 
Nashville, Tennessee in memory of her husband, is awarded on the basis of char- 
acter, purpose, intelligence, and need, with preference given to the student planning 
to enter the field of literature, accounting, teaching, or the gospel ministry or other 
full-time religious work. 

The Mildred Bronson Miller Scholarship Fund, donated by Mildred B. Miller of Atlan- 
ta, Georgia, is awarded to students on the basis of leadership, dedication, com- 
petitiveness, and citizenship. 

The Hiram Abif Myers III Scholarship Fund, established in memory of Hiram Abif 
("Bif") Myers who died early in his freshman year at Wake Forest, awards one 
scholarship to a senior from Roswell High School, Roswell, Georgia, who best 
exemplifies the ideals and characteristics of Bif Myers. The candidate is recom- 
mended by the Roswell High School principal. 

The Norfleet Scholarships, donated by Mr. and Mrs. Eustace Norfleet of Wilmington, 
North Carolina in memory of his parents John A. and Mary Pope Norfleet, are 
available to deserving and promising students needing financial assistance, for a 
value of $200. 

The North Carolina Scholarships are made available by the North Carolina General 
Assembly and are awarded on the basis of financial need to full-time students who 
are bona fide residents of North Carolina. 

North Carolina Student Incentive Grants are available to undergraduate residents of 
North Carolina with exceptional financial need who require these grants in order to 
attend college, for a value of from $200 to $1 ,500 per year. The amount of assistance a 
student may receive depends upon need, taking into account financial resources and 
the cost of attending the college chosen. 

The Benjamin Wingate Parham Scholarship, donated by Kate J. Parham of Oxford, 
North Carolina in memorv of her husband, is awarded on the basis of ability and 
need and mav be renewed for succeeding years. 

The Thomas F. Pettus Scholarships, administered by the North Carolina Baptist 
Foundation under the terms of the will of the late Thomas F. Pettus of Wilson 
County, North Carolina, make two or more scholarships available each year in 
memory of Mr. Pettus and are awarded on the basis of merit and need, with 
preference given to North Carolina Baptist students. 

The William Louis Poteat Scholarships, valued at $2,500 per year, are available to 
eleven freshmen, one from each Congressional District of North Carolina. To be 
eligible a student must be an active member of a Southern Baptist Church in North 
Carolina, must be likely to make a significant contribution to church and society, and 
must be appreciative of the quality of education available at Wake Forest University. 
A separate application is required by December 15. 

The H. Ray Pullium Scholarship Fund, established by Mrs. H. Ray Pullium in honor 
of her husband, is awarded on the basis of ability and need. Preference is given to 
students from North Carolina Baptist Children's Homes. 

The Kenneth Tyson Raynor Scholarship, donated bv friends of the late Kenneth Tyson 
Raynor, professor of mathematics, is awarded annuallv by the mathematics facultv. 



53 

The award is made on the basis of academic ability to an individual majoring in 
mathematics who has achieved junior standing. 

The Kate B. Reynolds Memorial Scholarships, donated in memory of Kate B. Reynolds, 
are for residents of Forsyth County, North Carolina who, without financial aid, 
would be unable to obtain education bevond high school. At least four scholarships 
are awarded, with a value up to $2,400. 

The Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTO Scholarships, made available bv the US 
Army, are awarded for academic and personal achievement. The four-, three-, and 
two-year scholarships, each with an annual value of more than $8,000, cover tuition, 
fees, books, and classroom materials. A monthly stipend of $100 is also given during 
the academic year. Recipients must participate in the ROTC program and maintain 
satisfactory academic progress. Four-year scholarships must be applied for in the 
junior or senior vear of high school. Other scholarships must be applied for through 
the department of military science, Wake Forest University. Some preference is 
given to students of biology, chemistry, mathematics, and phvsics. Two-vear schol- 
arships for rising juniors are also available on the basis of academic accomplishment 
and outstanding performance at the six-week ROTC Basic Camp. 

The Franklin R. Shirley Debate Scholarship, established in honor of the late Franklin R. 
Shirlev, professor emeritus of speech communication, is awarded to a student who 
has debate experience and who successfully participates in the University's debate 
program. 

The James F. Slate Fund provides an annual scholarship or loan to a student who 
plans a ministerial career. It is renewable upon evidence of a continuing need and 
interest in the ministry. 

The Robert Forest Smith III Scholarship Fund, donated bv the Rev. Mr. and 
Mrs. Robert Forest Smith Jr. and other citizens of Hickorv, North Carolina in mem- 
ory of Robert Forest Smith III, is awarded to an entering freshman who qualifies on 
the basis of need and on distinction in high school government, with preference 
given to those who plan to enter government service, and with strong preference 
given to students exemplifving positive Christian principles, for a value of $1,000. 

The Sigmund Sternberger Scholarships, donated bv the Sigmund Sternberger Founda- 
tion, are for needy North Carolinians, with preference given to undergraduate 
students from Greensboro and Guilford Countv, for a value of $2,000. 

The John Belk Stevens Scholarship in Busi)iess, donated bv the Belk Foundation in 
honor of John Belk Stevens, is given to senior business majors with particular 
interests in retailing or marketing and is based on academic merit and financial need. 

The Edna and Ethel Stozoe Scholarship is awarded to a freshman or an upperclassman, 
with preference given to female students who have a physical handicap. 

The /. W. Straughan Scholarship, donated by Mattie, Mable, and Alice Straughan in 
memory of their brother J. W. Straughan of Warsaw, North Carolina, with prefer- 
ence given to students from Duplin Countv, North Carolina who are interested in 
pursuing a medical career, especially in the field of familv practice, is for those who 
need financial assistance to continue their education. 

The Gilbert T. Stephenson Scholarship, established by Grace W. Stephenson in mem- 
ory of her husband, is awarded on the basis of abilitv and need to a student from 
Kirby Township or Northampton Countv, North Carolina. 



54 

The Saddx/e Stephenson and Benjamin Louis Sykes Scholarship, donated bv Charles L. 
Sykes and Ralph J. Sykes in memory of their mother and father, is awarded on the 
basis of Christian character, academic proficiency, and financial need, with prefer- 
ence given to freshmen from North Carolina, renewable for a value of approximately 
$400. 

The Harold Wayland and Nelle Futch Tribble Scholarship Fund, established to honor 
President Emeritus and Mrs. Tribble, provides a scholarship to students enrolled in 
the College who demonstrate superior academic ability. 

The Tyner-Pitman Scholarship Fund, donated by Cora Tyner Pitman, makes available 
at least one scholarship for needy North Carolina students. 

The Jesse A. Williams Scholarships, created under the will of the late Jesse A. Williams 
of Union County, North Carolina, with perference given to deserving students of 
Union County, have a value of up to $1,200. 

The James Bennett Willis Scholarship Fund, established by James B. Willis of Hamlet, 
North Carolina, gives preference to North Carolina Baptist students interested in the 
ministry and Christian education. It is awarded on the basis of need. 

The Maria Thornton and Miriam Carlyle Willis Scholarship Fund, established by James 
B. Willis in memory of his wife and daughter, gives preference to North Carolina 
Baptist students who are interested in all phases of the ministry of music. It is 
awarded on the basis of need. 

The Charles Littell Wilson Scholarship , created under the will of Jennie Mayes Wilson 
in memory of her husband Charles Littell Wilson, is for a freshman, with a value from 
$200 to $600. 

The O. W. Wilson-Yancey County Scholarships, created under the will of O. W. 
Wilson of Yancey County, North Carolina, are awarded to students from Yancey 
County who have excellent academic records and who demonstrate need. 

The Matthew T. Yates Scholarship Fund awards scholarships to the children of 
missionaries of the Foreign Mission Board of the Southern Baptist Convention on the 
basis of merit and need. The applicant must notifv the office of financial aid of his or 
her eligibility to be considered for this award. 

The William Luther Wyatt III Scholarship Trust, donated by Mr. and Mrs. William L. 
Wyatt III, with preference given to a male student entering the junior year who has 
shown an interest and an ability in the field of biology, is based on need and ability, 
for a value of approximately $500. 

Federal Financial Aid Programs 

The Federal Government, through the Department of Education, sponsors five 
programs to help pav college costs. These programs are Pell Grants, Supplemental 
Education Opportunity Grants (SEOG), College Work/Study, National Direct Stu- 
dent Loans (NDSL), Guaranteed Student Loans (GSL), and Parent Loans for Un- 
dergraduate Students (PLUS). To receive assistance through these programs, a 
student must complete the necessary applications, meet basic eligibility require- 
ments, and maintain satisfactorv academic progress. (See the statement in bold face 
on page 56). The five programs are outlined as follows: 

Pell Grants are federal funds awarded to undergraduate students with exceptional 



55 

financial need who require these grants to attend college, for a value of from $150 to 
$2,300 per year. The amount of assistance a student may receive depends upon need, 
taking into account financial resources and the cost of attending the college chosen. 

The Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grants are available to a limited number of 
undergraduate students with exceptional financial need who require these grants to 
attend college and who show academic or creative promise, for a value from $200 to 
$2,000 a year. The amount of financial assistance a student may receive depends 
upon need, taking into account financial resources and the cost of attending the 
college chosen. 

The College Work/Study Program makes on-campus employment available to stu- 
dents who show evidence of financial need. Students work during the academic year 
for campus minimum wage or above, at an average of ten to fifteen hours per week in 
the Z. Smith Reynolds Library, Reynolda Hall, Student Union, Reynolda Gardens, 
and other places on campus. 

The Carl D. Perkins National Direct Student Loan Program makes available loans for 
students in need of financial assistance with an interest rate of 5 percent. These are 
examples of typical repayment schedules: 

Aggregate Loan 

$2,500 
5,000 
7,500 

Aggregate undergraduate sums mav not exceed $4,500 for the first two years or 
$9,000 for four years, but may be extended to $18,000 for those who also borrow for 
graduate or professional study, with an interest rate of 5 percent. 

The Guaranteed Student Loan Program makes available loans up to $2,625 for the first 
two years of undergraduate study and $4,000 for subsequent undergraduate study. 
Aggregate undergraduate sums may not exceed $17,250, but mav be extended to 
$54,750 for those who also borrow for graduate or professional study. The maximum 
loan per year for graduate students is $7,500. Loans are insured by the federal 
government or guaranteed bv a state or private non-profit guarantee agency. The 
federal government pays the 9 percent interest during in-school and grace periods. 
Application and information mav be obtained from state guarantee agencies or from 
the appropriate regional office of the United States Office of Education. 

The North Carolina Insured Student Loan Program makes available loans up to $2,625 
for the first two years of undergraduate study and $4,000 for subsequent un- 
dergraduate study for legal residents enrolled full-time. Aggregate undergraduate 
sums may not exceed $18,000, but mav be extended to $54,750 for those who also 
borrow for graduate or professional study. The maximum loan each year may not 
exceed $2,625 for undergraduates or $7,500 for graduate or professional students. 
Loans are insured by the North Carolina State Education Assistance Authority and 
are processed by the College Foundation. Under certain conditions the United States 
Office of Education pays the 9 percent interest during the in-school and grace 
periods. 



Quarterly 


Amount of 


Total Interest 


Total 


Payments 


Payment 


Paid 


Payment 


35 


$ 90.00 


$ 590.22 


$3,090.22 


40 


159.61 


1,384.27 


6,384.27 


40 


239.41 


2,076.44 


9,576.44 



56 



Financial aid under the Federal Title IV Program is available to eligible students 
enrolled in a course of study leading to a degree. The normal time in which the 
course should be completed is four years. Federal regulations specify that the 
student maintain satisfactory progress in order to receive federal financial aid. 
Satisfactory progress is defined as meeting the University's minimum academic 
requirements for continuation, outlined as follows: On the basis of cumulative 
records at the end of the spring semester, students are academically ineligible to 
enroll for the following fall (1) who have attempted fewer than 54 credits with a 
grade point average less than 1.35, (2) who have attempted as many as 54 but fewer 
than 98 credits with a grade point average of less than 1.65, (3) who have attempted 
as many as 98 but fewer than 135 credits with a grade point average of less than 1.85, 
or (4) who have attempted 135 credits with a grade point average of less than 1.90. 
Students who do not meet the minimum requirements at the end of the spring 
semester may be allowed to continue with the permission of the Committee on 
Academic Affairs. Such students may be granted federal financial aid for a period 
of one additional semester. Failure to bring the grade point average to the stated 
minimum will result in termination of all federal financial aid. 

Exchange Scholarships 

The German Exchange Scholarship, established in 1959 with the Free University of 
Berlin, is available to a student with at least two years of college German or the 
equivalent who has junior standing bv the end of the semester in which application is 
made, but who need not be a German major. It provides 750 German marks per 
month for ten months, remission of fees, 200 marks per semester for books, and 250 
marks per month for rent. (Interested students should communicate with the chair- 
man of the department of German and Russian.) 

The Spanish Exchange Scholarships are available for study at the University of the 
Andes in Bogota, Colombia, and at the University of Salamanca in Spain. The Bogota 
scholarship may be awarded to two students for one semester's studv each or to one 
student for two semesters. Applicants must have completed at least two vears of 
college Spanish or the equivalent. Scholarships provide remission of fees and the 
cost of books, board, and accommodations. (Interested students should com- 
municate with the chairman of the department of Romance languages.) 

The French Exchange Scholarships, established with the Universitv of Dijon, France, 
is available to a graduating senior, who receives a graduate teaching assistantship at 
a lycee in Dijon for two semesters. (Interested students should communicate with 
the chairman of the department of Romance languages.) 

Loans 

The James F. and Mary Z. Bryan Foundation Student Loan Plan is for residents of North 
Carolina enrolled full-time for a value of up to $7,500 for undergraduate study. The 
amount of each loan is determined by the College Foundation, with an interest rate of 
1 percent during the in-school and grace periods and 7 percent during the repay- 
ment period. 



57 

The Bushnell Baptist Church Loan Fund, established in 1945 with funds supplied by 
the Bushnell Baptist Church of Fontana Dam, North Carolina, is for needy students. 

The Council Fund, established in 1935 bv C. T. Council of Durham, North Carolina, 
is for the aid of senior students. 

The James W. Denmark Loan Fund, originated in 1875 bv James William Denmark of 
Dudley, North Carolina, is available to qualified students, with preference given to 
students from North Carolina, for an amount not exceeding $2,500 each year and 
$10,000 during the entire period of enrollment. 

The Olivia Dunn Student Loan Fund, established under the will of Birdie Dunn of 
Wake County, North Carolina in memory of her mother, is for needy students. 

The Duplin County Loan Fund, donated in 1942 bv anonymous friends of the 
College, is limited to students from Duplin County, North Carolina. 

The Elliott B. Earnshaiv Loan Fund, established bv the Board of Trustees, is a 
memorial to the former bursar. 

The Friendly Student Loan Fund, established in 1948 by Nell E. Stinson of Raleigh, 
North Carolina in memory of her sister Marv Belle Stinson Michael, is for the benefit 
of worthy students who need financial aid. 

The George Foster Hankins Loan Fund, established under the will of George Foster 
Hankins of Lexington, North Carolina, gives preference to applicants from Davidson 
County, North Carolina. 

The Harris Memorial Loan Fund, established by the late J. P. Harris of Bethel, North 
Carolina in memory of his first wife Lucy Shearon Harris and his second wife Lucy 
Jones Harris, is for students who have demonstrated ability to apply educational 
advantages to the rendition of enriched and greater Christian service in life and who 
require financial assistance to prevent the disruption of their education. 

The Edna Tyner Langston Fund, established in 1942 bv Henry J. Langston of Danville, 
Virginia in memory of his wife, is available to a student agreed upon by the donor 
and the College. 

The Watts Norton Loan Fund, established in 1949 by L. Watts Norton of Durham, 
North Carolina, is for worthv students enrolled in the department of religion who 
need financial assistance. 

The Powers Fund, established in 1944 bv Frank P. Powers of Raleigh, North Carolina 
in memory of his parents Frank P. and Effie Reade Powers, is for the benefit of needy 
students, with preference given to orphans. 

The Grover and Addy Raby Loan Fund, established in 1945 by J- G. Raby of Tarboro, 
North Carolina in memorv of his parents, gives preference to applicants from the 
First Baptist Church of Tarboro. 

The James F. Slate Loan Fund, established in 1908 bv J. F. Slate of Stokes County, 
North Carolina, is available for ministerial students who have been licensed to 
preach. 

Concessions 

North Carolina Legislative Tuition Grants. The North Carolina General Assembly 
provides yearlv grants to all legal residents of North Carolina. To be eligible a student 
must be enrolled for at least fourteen credits each semester (by the tenth day of 



58 

classes) and complete a Residency Form 100. The student must not have received a 
bachelor's degree previously. To receive the grant, the student must also complete 
an NCLTG application and return it to the financial aid office. 

Ministerial students receive an $800 concession per year if thev (1) have a written 
recommendation or license to preach from their own church body and (2) agree to 
repay the total amount, plus 4 percent interest, in the event that they do not serve 
five years in the pastoral ministry within twelve years of attendance in the College. 

Children and spouses of pastors of North Carolina Baptist churches receive an $800 
concession per vear if they are the children or spouses of (1) ministers, (2) missionar- 
ies of the Southern Baptist Foreign Mission Board, (3) officials of the Baptist State 
Convention of North Carolina, or (4) professors in North Carolina Baptist colleges or 
universities who are ordained ministers. Pastors themselves are also eligible. 

Children of other ministers who are not eligible for the above concession receive a 
$150 concession per year if their parent makes a living chiefly by the ministry and 
they have a demonstrated need. 

Other Financial Aid 

Church Choir Work Grants, given by the College and Wake Forest Baptist Church to 
encourage outstanding music students, are awarded on the basis of talent, reliability, 
and interest in the church on the recommendation of the music committee of the 
church and the department of music, for the value of $300. (Interested students 
should communicate with the chairwoman of the department of music.) 

The Ministerial Aid Fund, established in 1897 by the estate of j. A. Melke, is avail- 
able to pre-ministerial students on a loan or grant program on the basis of merit and 
need, and, particularly in the case of grants, academic achievement. 

Student/Student Spouse Employment is possible for part-time, on-campus and off- 
campus work, for a recommended maximum of twentv hours per week for full-time 
students. Summer employment may also be available. (Interested students should 
communicate with the office of career planning and placement.) 

Veterans' Benefits are administered bv the Office of the Veterans' Administration in 
the Federal Building at 251 North Main Street in Winston-Salem. Records of progress 
are kept by this institution on veteran and non-veteran students alike. Progress 
records are furnished the students, veterans and non-veterans alike, at the end of 
each scheduled school term. 

Outside Assistance 

Students who apply for financial aid from Wake Forest must advise the College if 
they receive any assistance from outside organizations, including but not limited to 
National Merit or Achievement Scholarships; College Scholarship Service- 
sponsored scholarships; local, state, and national scholarship and loan programs. 
This outside assistance will be considered when the financial aid award is calculated. 



59 

Special Programs 

For students of special ability or interest and for students who can take advantage 
of off-campus study opportunities, the College offers a variety of programs. These 
are in addition to programs that combine study in the College with work in a number 
of pre-professional curricula as described in this bulletin. 



Honors Study 

For highly qualified students, a series of interdisciplinary honors courses is de- 
scribed under Courses of Instruction. Under the supervision of the coordinator of the 
Honors Program, students participate in three or more honors seminars during the 
freshman, sophomore, and junior years. Those who complete four seminars with a 
superior record and who are not candidates for departmental honors may complete a 
final directed study course. With a superior record in that course and a grade point 
average of 3.0 in all work, a student may be graduated with "Honors in the Arts and 
Sciences." 

For students especially talented in individual areas of study, most departments in 
the College offer special studies leading to graduation with honors in a particular 
discipline. The minimum requirement is a grade point average of 3.0 in all work and 
3.3 (or higher in some areas) in the major. Other course, seminar, and research 
requirements vary from one department to another. 

Open Curriculum 

For students with high motivation and strong academic preparation, the Open 
Curriculum provides the opportunity to follow a course of study planned within the 
framework of a liberal arts education but not necessarilv fulfilling all basic and 
divisional requirements for the degree. Under the Committee on Open Curriculum a 
limited number of students is selected before or during the freshman vear by 
previous record of achievement, high aspirations, abilitv in one or more areas of 
study, strength of self-expression, and other special talents. The course of study for 
the degree is designed by the student and his or her adviser. 

Residential Language Centers 

For students prepared to speak French, German, or Spanish on a regular basis with 
other students studying the same language, the University offers residential lan- 
guage centers coordinated bv members of the Romance languages department and 
the German and Russian department. Such students attend regular classes on the 
campus. Organized social and conversational programs also are available in Italian 
and Russian. 

Foreign Area Studies 

The Foreign Area Studies program enables students who wish to do so to choose 



60 

an interdisciplinary concentration in the language and culture of a foreign area. For a 
full description of these programs, see page 68. 

Study at Salem College 

For full-time students, Wake Forest and Salem College share a program of ex- 
change credits for courses taken at one institution because they are not offered at the 
other. An application must be approved by the academic adviser and the dean of the 
College or the dean of the School of Business and Accountancy. Except in courses of 
private instruction, there is no additional cost to the student. Grades and grade 
points earned at Salem College are evaluated as if thev were earned at Wake Forest. 

Opportunities for Study Abroad 

London 

A program of study is offered each semester at Worrell House, the University's 
residential center near Regent's Park in London. Courses typically encompass 
aspects of the art, theatre, literature, and history of London and Great Britain. (See, 
for example Art 2320: English Art, Hogarth to the Present, and History 2260: History of 
London , in the course listings of those departments. ) Each term a different member of 
the faculty serves as the director of the program, which accommodates sixteen 
students. Further information may be obtained in the office of the provost. 

Venice 

For students wishing to spend a semester in Italy, a program of study is available at 
Casa Artom, the University's residential center on the Grand Canal in Venice. Under 
various members of the faculty, approximately twenty students focus on the heritage 
and culture of Venice and Italy. (Courses offered usually include Art 2693: Venetian 
Renaissance Art, Italian 2213: Spoken Italian, and other courses offered by the faculty 
member serving as director.) Students selected for the Venice program are normally 
required to have completed elementary training in Italian. Limited scholarship aid is 
available to one or two students each semester to assist with expenses. Further 
information may be obtained in the office of the provost. 

France 

For students wishing to study in France, arrangements are made for a semester's 
instruction at the University of Dijon. Under a faculty residential adviser from the 
department of Romance languages, courses are taken at the University of Dijon by 
student groups of varying levels of preparation. (A major in French is not required, 
but French 221 or its equivalent is recommended.) 

Spain 

For students wishing to study in Spain, arrangements are made for a semester's 
instruction at the University of Salamanca. Under a faculty residential adviser from 



61 



the department of Romance languages, courses are taken at the University of Sala- 
manca by student groups of varying levels of preparation. (A major in Spanish is not 
required, but Spanish 221 or it equivalent is recommended.) 

India 

For students who can spend a semester in India, arrangements are made for 
instruction in an Indian college or university and travel in the countrv for a period of 
about three months. (Written approval from the dean of the College is necessary for 
fulfilling basic, divisional, or major requirements.) 



Independent Study 

For students who wish to spend one or more semesters in an approved college or 
university abroad, arrangments must be made with the head of the department of 
the major and the dean of the College, and an approved application for studv abroad 
must be filed with the registrar. Up to thirty-six credits for a full-year program may be 
granted by the College upon satisfactory evaluation of the work taken, but this credit 
is not guaranteed. Students in programs other than those offered bv Wake Forest 
must apply for readmission to the University. Credit is computed as transfer credit at 
1.125 credits for each approved semester hour taken abroad. 

In addition, the Independent Studv Program of the Experiment in International 
Living is recognized by the College. To participate in this program a student must be 
regularly enrolled and plan to return to the College after studv abroad, and arrange- 
ments must be made with the chairperson of the department of the major and the 
dean of the College. Up to fourteen credits for a one-semester program may be 
granted upon evidence of satisfactorv completion of work taken, but this is subject to 
evaluation by the dean of the College. 

Students may seek assistance with choosing an overseas program in the office of 
the dean of the College. 




62 

Requirements for Degrees 

Degrees Offered 

The College offers undergraduate programs leading to the Bachelor of Arts and 
Bachelor of Science degrees. The Bachelor of Arts degree is conferred with a major in 
anthropology, art, chemistry, classical studies, economics, English, French, French- 
Spanish, German, Greek, history, Latin, music, philosophy, physics, politics, psy- 
chology, religion, sociology, Spanish, or speech communication and theatre arts. 
The Bachelor of Science degree is conferred with a major in biology, chemistry, 
computer science, health and sport science, mathematical economics, mathematics, 
or physics. The Bachelor of Arts degree is available with a major in intermediate 
education or education with a state teacher's certificate in social studies, and the 
Bachelor of Science degree is available with a major in education with a state teacher's 
certificate in science. The Bachelor of Science degree may be conferred in combined 
curricula in dentistry, engineering, forestry and environmental studies, medical 
sciences, medical technology, microbiology, and the physician assistant program. 
The School of Business and Accountancy offers undergraduate programs leading to 
the Bachelor of Science degree with a major in accountancy or business. (See page 187 
of this bulletin.) 

A student who receives the Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree may not 
thereafter receive the other of the two degrees. 



General Requirements 

Students in the College have considerable flexibilitv in planning their course of 
study. Except for two semesters of required health and sport science courses, only 
three specific courses are required, one in English composition and two in a foreign 
language. To complete preparation for more specialized work in a major field or 
fields, students select three courses in each of the four divisions of the undergraduate 
curriculum: (1) literature and the arts; (2) the natural sciences and mathematics; 
(3) history, religion, and philosophy; and (4) the social and behavioral sciences. 
Normally the basic and divisional requirements are completed in the freshman and 
sophomore years and the requirements in the field or fields of the major are com- 
pleted in the junior and senior years. 

All students must complete (1) the basic and divisional requirements (unless 
accepted for the Open Curriculum), (2) a course of studv approved by the depart- 
ment or departments of the major, and (3) elective courses for a total of 144 credits. 
No more than sixteen credits toward graduation may be earned from among all of the 
following courses: Education 353; all military science courses; Music 111-123 
(ensemble courses); and elective 100-level courses in health and sport science. 

All students must earn a C average on all work attempted at all colleges and 
universities. Of the 144 credits required for graduation, at least 72 must be completed 
in the undergraduate schools of Wake Forest University, including the work of the 
senior year (except for combined degree curricula). 



63 



A student has the privilege of graduating under the requirements of the bulletin of 
the year in which he or she enters, provided that course work is completed within six 
years of entrance. After six years, the student must fulfill the requirements for the 
class in which he or she graduates. 

Basic Requirements 

All students must complete three required basic courses (unless exempted 
through procedures established by the departments concerned): 

English 110 (composition) or 111 (composition and literature) 
Foreign language 153 (intermediate level) 
Foreign language (literature) 

French 213, 214, 216, 217, or the equivalent 

Spanish 215, 216, 217, 218, or the equivalent 

Italian 215, 216, or the equivalent 

German 215 or 216 

Russian (any literature course) 

Greek 211 or 212 

Latin 211, 212, or 216 

Hebrew 111 

Hindi 111 

No credit is given for any language course below the one recommended by the 
department on the basis of the placement test unless the student is given permission 
to earn such credit bv the Language Placement Appeals Board. 




64 

Divisional Requirements 

All students must complete three courses in each of the four divisions of the 
undergraduate curriculum (unless exempted by completion of advanced placement 
requirements or bv participation in the open curriculum): 

Division I. Literature and the Arts (three courses; not more than one course from any 
one of the four groups) 

1. English literature (English 160 or 165) 

2. American literature (English 170 or 175) 

3. Foreign literature (other than the one used for the basic require- 
ment) 

Classical languages 

Greek 211, 212, 231, 241, or 242 

Latin 211, 212, 216, 221, 225, or 226 

Classics 253, 254, 263, 264, 265, or 272 
German 215 or 216 

Romance languages (French, Italian, or Spanish literature) 
Russian literature 
Humanities 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, or 218 

4. Fine Arts 

Art 103 or 111 

Music 101, 102, 181, or 182 

Theatre Arts 121 

Division II. The Natural Sciences and Mathematics (three courses, selected from two of 
the four groups) 

1. Biology 111, 112, 212 

2. Chemistrv 108, 111, 112 (unless advanced preparation indicates a 
higher course; if one course, 108 or 111; if two courses, 111, 112) 

3. Physics 101, 111, 112, 113, 114, 121, 122 (Physics 101 may not be 
paired with anv other physics course) 

4. Mathematics 108, 109, 111, 112, 117, Computer Science 173 (any 
one; if two, the pair must include 108 or 111 but not both) 

Division III. History, Religion, and Philosophy (three courses; no more than one course 
from each group) 

1. History 101 or 102 

2. Religion (anv 100-level course) 

3. Philosophy 111, 171, or 172 

Division IV. The Social and Behavioral Sciences (three courses, no more than one from 
any one department) 

1. Anthropology 151 or 152 

2. Economics 150 

3. Politics 113, 114, 115, or 116 

4. Psvchologv 151 

5. Sociology 151 



65 

Requirement in Health and Sport Science 

All students must complete Health and Sport Science 111 and one additional 
course selected from the 100-series of health and sport science courses. The require- 
ment must be met before enrollment in additional health and sport science elective 
courses, and in any case before the end of the second year. 

Proficiency in the Use of English 

Proficiency in the use of the English language is recognized by the faculty as a 
requirement in all departments. A composition condition, indicated by cc with the 
grade for any course, may be assigned in any department to a student whose writing 
is unsatisfactory, regardless of previous credits in composition. The writing of 
transfer students is checked during the orientation period each term, and students 
whose writing is deficient are given a composition condition. For removal of a composi- 
tion condition the student is required to attempt English 11 during the first semester 
for which he or she registers following the assignment of the cc. Removal of the 
deficiency is prerequisite to graduation. 

Basic and Divisional Requirements 

The basic and divisional requirements are intended to introduce the student to 
various fields of knowledge and to lay the foundation for concentration in a major 
subject and related fields during the junior and senior vears. For these reasons, as 
many of the requirements as feasible should be taken in the freshman and sopho- 
more years. 

No course requirements may be set aside or replaced by substitutes except through 
regular procedures already established by the faculty, or through a specific vote of 
the faculty in regular session. 

Declaring a Major 

To enter upon a major, a student should have earned at least sixty credits. The 
normal time for reaching this point is the end of the second semester of the sopho- 
more year. Thirty days before the end of the sophomore year each student who will 
have attained the requisite credits by the end of the semester or the end of the 
summer school is required to indicate to the registrar and to the department or 
departments concerned the selection of a major for concentration during the junior 
and senior years. Before this selection is recorded by the registrar, the student must 
present a written statement from the authorized representative of the department or 
departments indicating that the student has been accepted as a candidate for the 
major in that department. An adviser is available to assist the student in planning a 
course of study for the junior and senior vears. A department which rejects a student 
as a major must file with the dean of the College a written statement indicating the 
reason(s) for the rejection. 

If thirty days before the end of the sophomore year a student sees that he or she 



66 



will begin the fifth semester without attaining sixty credits, he or she should consult 
the registrar's office about the proper course to follow. 

A student wishing to major in business or in accountancy should make application 
to the School of Business and Accountancy. (See page 187 of this bulletin.) 

The undergraduate schools try to provide ample space in the various major fields 
to accommodate the interests of students. It must be understood, however, that the 
undergraduate schools cannot guarantee the availability of space in a given major 
field or a given course, since the preferences of students change and there are limits 
to both faculty and facilities. 

After the beginning of the junior year a student may not change from one major to 
another without the approval of the departments concerned. The student's course of 
study for the junior and senior years includes the minimum requirements for the 
departmental major, with other courses selected by the student and approved by the 
adviser. 

At least half of the major must be completed at Wake Forest University. Students 
preparing for the ministry are advised to elect three courses in religion beyond the 
course included in the divisional requirements. 

The following fields of study are recognized for the major: accountancy, an- 
thropology, art, biology, business, chemistry, classical studies, computer science, 
economics, education, English, French, French-Spanish, German, Greek, health and 
sport science, history, Latin, mathematical economics, mathematics, music, philoso- 
phy, physics, politics, psychology, religion, sociology, Spanish, and speech com- 
munication and theatre arts. 

Maximum Number of Courses in a Department 

Within the College, a maximum of 48 credits in a single field of study is allowed 
within the 144 credits required for graduation. Fifty-six credits toward graduation are 
allowed in anv department authorized to offer two fields of studv or more. 

These stipulations exclude required related courses from other departments. They 
further exclude, for students majoring in English, English 110 and 112; for students 
majoring in mathematics and minoring in computer science, Mathematics 111 and 
112; and, for students majoring in a foreign language, elementary courses in that 
language. These limits may be exceeded in unusual circumstances only bv action of 
the dean of the College. 

Options for Meeting Major Requirements 

For purposes of satisfving graduation requirements a student must select one, and 
only one, of the following options, which will receive official recognition on the 
student's permanent record: (1) a single major, (2) a joint major, (3) a single major 
and a minor, (4) a double major. In addition to the options above, a student may complete 
the requirements of a foreign area studies program. 

Double Majors and Joint Majors 

A student may major in two departments in the College with the written permis- 



67 

sion of the chairperson of each of the departments and on condition that the student 
meets all requirements for the major in both departments. For administrative pur- 
poses, the student must designate one of the two fields as the primary major, which 
appears first on the student's record. 

A joint major consisting of fifty-six credits in two fields of study is available in 
classical studies, in mathematical economics, and in French-Spanish. 

Minors 

A minor is not required. Those students, however, who select a single major — not 
those working toward a double or joint major — may choose a minor field from 
among the following: anthropology, art, biology, chemistry, computer science, 
educational studies, professional education, English, French language and culture, 
French literature, German, Greek, health and sport science, history, Latin, 
mathematics, music, philosophy, physics, politics, psychology, religion, Russian, 
sociology, Spanish language and culture, Hispanic literature, and speech com- 
munication and theatre arts. 

For details of the various minors, see the appropriate departmental headings in the 
section of this bulletin that lists course offerings. 

Interdisciplinary Minors 

A Minor in Cultural Resource Preservation. The departments of anthropology, art, 
history, and sociology offer an interdisciplinary minor in cultural resource preserva- 
tion (CRP) which will give students preliminary 7 training in the field of historic 
preservation and cultural resource management aimed at the protection and 
enhancement of archeological, historical, and architectural resources. 

The minor requires the following twenty credits: Anthropology 310, Museum 
Design and Operation; Anthropology 361, Conservation Archeology; Art 223, American 
Architecture; History 366, Studies in Historic Preservation; and Sociology 333, The Urban 
Community. It is recommended but not required that students take some of the 
following courses: Anthropology 151, General Anthropology I: Archeology and Human 
Evolution (may count as a Division IV requirement); Sociology 151, Principles of 
Sociology (may count as a Division IV requirement); Anthropology 356, Old World 
Prehistory; Anthropology 359, Prehistory of North America; Art 294, Modern Architecture; 
Art 393, Practicum; Anthropology 261, Museum Practician; and History 398, Individual 
Study. Students should consult the adviser for the minor in CRP before declaring 
such a minor. Students are strongly advised to declare their intention to minor in 
cultural resource preservation during the first semester of their junior year. Success- 
ful completion of the minor in cultural resource preservation will be noted on the 
student's transcript. 

A Minor in International Studies. The minor in international studies consists of a total 
of twenty credits. Candidates for the minor are required to take Politics 116, In- 
ternational Politics, and one of the following: Economics 251, International Trade; 252, 
International Finance; 253, Economics of Communism; 254, Capitalism and Planning; or 
Politics 253, The Politics of International Economic Relations. In addition, students must 



take twelve other credits in international studies from an approved list on file in the 
office of international studies. No more than eight of the twenty credits for the minor 
may be taken in a single department. Study of a foreign language beyond the basic 
requirements is strongly recommended. Formal advising of minors is not required 
but the director of international studies is responsible for certifying the successful 
completion of requirements for the minor. 

A Minor in Women's Studies. The interdisciplinary minor in women's studies re- 
quires a core course (Humanities 121) and five other courses. At least two of the five 
courses must be in the humanities and two must be in the social sciences, and the 
courses must be distributed among at least three departments, for a total of twenty- 
four credits. It is recommended that one of these courses be the upper division 
seminar, Humanities 321. This structure gives students an understanding of the 
interdisciplinary nature of women's studies within the context of the traditional 
liberal arts curriculum. A student minoring in women's studies might take 
Humanities 121 as a sophomore, one humanities and one social science course as a 
junior, and Humanities 321, another humanities course, and another social science 
course as a senior. 

The following courses may be included in the minor: 

Humanities: Art 251, Women and Art; Classics 252, Women in Antiquity; 
English 340, Women and Literature; English 376, American Poetry from 1855 toWOO; 
History 365, Women in American History; Music 208, Women and Music; 
Religion 334B, Feminist Theology; Speech Communication and Theatre Arts 357, 
The Rhetoric of The Women's Rights Movement. 

Social Sciences: Psychology 265, Human Sexuality; Psychology 270L, Sex 
Stereotypes and Roles; Psychology 358, Psychology of Woman; Sociology 248, Mar- 
riage and the Family; Sociology 305, Male and Female Roles in Society; Sociology 309, 
Sex and Human Relationships; Sociologv 311, Women in Professions. 
Students intending to minor in women's studies should consult the adviser 

appointed from one of the participating departments and listed with the registrar. 

Students are strongly urged to consult the adviser during the sophomore year. 

Successful completion of the minor in women's studies will be noted on the student's 

transcript. 

Foreign Area Studies 

The foreign area studies programs enable students to choose an interdisciplinary 
concentration in the language and culture of a foreign area. An area studies concen- 
tration may include courses in the major and also in the minor field, if a minor is 
chosen. Foreign area studies do not replace majors or minors; they may supplement 
either or both. A faculty adviser coordinates each foreign area studies program and 
advises interested students. Further questions may be directed to Richard Sears, 
director of International Studies. These programs are currently available: 
East European Studies. Coordinator, Carl Moses (politics) 

Russian 215 or 216 is required, plus twenty-four credits from the following: 
Russian 215 or 216, Historv 331, History 332, Politics 232, Economics 255, An- 



69 

thropology 371, Humanities 215, Humanities 218, and relevant seminars, col- 
loquia, or independent studies in any of the departments above. 
German Studies. Coordinator, Donald Schoonmaker (politics) 
Twelve or thirteen credits from German 153, 211, 212, 217, or 220 are required. 
In addition, the student should take four courses from the following groups, at 
least one from each group: (1) History 320 and History/German 231; (2) Politics 
233 and 273; (3) Philosophy 241 and 242. Appropriate credit in the above areas 
could be satisfied by study abroad in Germany. 
Italian Studies. Coordinator, Bianca Artom (Romance languages) 
Italian through the 215 level is required, plus three courses from the following 
groups, at least one each from 2 and 3. (1) Literature: Italian 216, Classics 251, 
Classics 272, and Religion 277; (2) Fine Arts: Art 245, 267, 268, 296C, and 2693; 
and Music 181, 201, 206, 220, and 221; (3) History and the Social Sciences: 
Classics 271; History 221, 222, 223, and 398. A semester in Venice or another 
approved course of study in Italy is also required. 

Latin American Studies. Coordinator, Margaret Snook (Romance languages) 
History 272, Politics 236, and Spanish 218 and 223 are required, plus twelve 
credits from the following: Anthropology 305, Anthropology 342, Eco- 
nomics 252, Politics 235, Spanish 219, 221, and 229. Students are asked to take 
either Spanish 230, 264, 265, or 266 to fulfill the foreign literature requirement in 
Division I and are strongly urged to spend a semester studving in Latin 
America. 

Spanish Studies. Coordinator, Kathleen Glenn (Romance languages) 
History 2019, Sociology 2029, Spanish 217, and Spanish 224 are required, plus 
twelve credits from the advanced courses in Spanish language and literature 
offered bv the department of Romance languages or from the courses offered at 
the University of Salamanca. Students are required to participate in the semester 
in Spain program at Salamanca and are strongly urged to live at the Spanish 
House for at least one semester. 

Senior Testing 

All seniors are required to participate in a testing program designed to provide 
objective evidence of educational development and employing measures of academ- 
ic achievement such as selected portions of the Graduate Record Examination and 
other tests deemed appropriate bv the Committee on Academic Affairs. The tests are 
administered during the spring semester, and relevant results are made available to 
the student for his or her information. The primary purpose of the program is to 
provide the University with information for assessing the total educational process. 
The program does not supplant the regular administration of the Graduate Record 
Examination for students applying for admission to graduate school. 

Combined Degrees in the School of Law 

A combined course makes it possible for the student to receive the two degrees of 
Bachelor of Arts and Juris Doctor in six academic years or their equivalent, instead of 



70 



the usual seven years. The first three years of the combined course are in the College 
and the last three are in the School of Law. 

A student pursuing this plan must (1) complete the basic and divisional course 
requirements and become qualified for admission to the upper division; (2) initiate 
an application for admission to the School of Law and secure through the law school 
adviser, who is a member of the law faculty, permission to pursue the combined 
course plan; (3) perform the junior year of study in the College under the supervision 
of a departmental academic adviser and the law school adviser; and (4) complete at 
least 110 credits in the College with a minimum average of C and the first full year of 
law in the School of Law with an average sufficient to remain in the School of Law. 
(Admission to the School of Law is based on the applicant's entire undergraduate 
record, Law School Admission Test scores, and other criteria, and permission to 
pursue the combined degree program does not constitute admission to the School of 
Law.) 

The last year of required college academic work must be taken in the College. A 
student who transfers from another college or university at the end of the first or 
second year must maintain a minimum average of C on all academic work un- 
dertaken in the College. 

A student who completes the program successfully is eligible to receive the 
Bachelor of Arts degree at the end of the first full year in the School of Law; the Juris 
Doctor degree is awarded to the student who, having received the Bachelor of Arts 
degree, also fulfills requirements for the Juris Doctor degree. The quantitative and 
qualitative academic requirements set forth here are minimum requirements for the 
successful completion of the combined degree program; satisfying the requirements 
of the three-year program in the College does not necessarilv entitle an applicant to 
admission to the School of Law. 

Combined Degrees in Medical Sciences 

A limited number of students may receive a Bachelor of Science degree with a 
major in medical sciences. 

Under this plan the student fulfills the requirements for the degree by completing 
three years of work in the College with a minimum average grade of C and by 
satisfactorily completing the first full vear of medicine (at least thirty semester hours) 
as outlined by the faculty of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine, with a record 
entitling promotion to the second-year class. (Under current scheduling, successful 
candidates receive the baccalaureate degree in August rather than in May.) At least 
one year (thirty-six credits) of the required academic work must be completed in the 
College. 

Before entering the School of Medicine for the fourth year of work, candidates for 
the Bachelor of Science degree with a major in medical sciences must complete the 
basic course requirements; the divisional course requirements in Divisions I, III, and 
IV; the health and sport science requirement; Biology 111, 112, 212 (any two courses); 
Biology 312, 320, 321, 326, 351, 360, 371 (any two courses); Chemistry 111 and 112; 
Chemistry 221 and 222; Physics 113 and 114; mathematics (one course); and electives 
for a total of 108 credits. 



71 



The completion of the prescribed academic subjects does not necessarily entitle an 
jpplicant to admission to the School of Medicine. (All other factors being equal, 
applicants who have done all their work in the College are given preference.) 

Combined Degrees in Medical Technology 

Students may qualify for the Bachelor of Science degree in medical technology by 
:ompletion of the academic requirements outlined in the following paragraph and bv 
satisfactory completion of the full program in medical technology offered by the 
Division of Allied Health Programs of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine. A grade 
)f at least C is required in all courses taken in the program in medical technology. At 
east one year (thirty-six credits) of the required academic work must be completed in 
he College. (Under current scheduling, successful candidates receive the baccalau- 
•eate degree in August rather than in May.) 

Students seeking admission to the program must file application in the fall of the 
unior year with the division of Allied Health Programs of the School of Medicine. 
Selection is based upon recommendations of teachers, college academic record, 
\llied Health Professions Admissions Test score, impressions made in personal 
nterviews, and work experience (not essential, but important). Students must 
complete the basic course requirements; the divisional course requirements in Di- 
/isions I, III, and IV; the health and sport science requirement; Biology 111, 112, 212 
three courses or equivalents); Biology 326; Chemistry 111, 112, 221, and 222; 
nathematics (one course); and electives for a total of 108 credits. Desirable electives 
mtside the area of chemistry and biology include physics, data processing, and 
personnel and management courses. (Interested students should consult a biology 
lepartment faculty member during the freshman year for further information.) 

Degrees in the Physician Assistant Program 

Students may qualify for the Bachelor of Science degree in the physician assistant 
urogram by completion of three years (108 credits) in the College with a minimum 
iverage grade of C, and by satisfactory completion of the full twenty-four-month 
.ourse in the physician assistant program offered by the Division of Allied Health 
Programs of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine. At least one year (thirty-six 
:redits) of the required academic work must be completed in the College. Candidates 
or the degree must complete the basic course requirements, the divisional course 
equirements, the health and sport science requirement, and at least four courses in 
Oology (including one course in microbiology), at least four courses in the social 
sciences (sociology, psychology, and economics), a course in statistics, and three or 
our courses in chemistry are recommended. Applicants to the program must have a 
ninimum of six months of clinical experience in patient care services. (Interested 
students should consult a biology department faculty member during the freshman 
'ear for further information.) 

Degrees in Microbiology 

Students may qualify for the Bachelor of Science degree in microbiology by com- 



72 



pletion of three years (112 credits) in the College with a minimum average grade of C, 
and bv satisfactory completion of a thirty-two hour major in microbiology in the 
Bowman Gray School of Medicine. At least one year (thirty-six credits) of the 
required academic work must be completed in the College. Candidates for the de- 
gree must complete the basic course requirements, the divisional course require- 
ments, and the health and sport science requirement; Microbiology 302, 304 (or 
Biologv 462), and Biology 371; additional courses to complete the major will be 
selected from Microbiology 402, 403, 404, 405, 408, 410, 411, 413, 414, 432, 433, 434, 
Biology 321, 360, 372, 373, 380, and 391, 392. Required related courses are two 
courses in physics and at least two courses in organic chemistry. Additional chemis- 
try and mathematics courses may be suggested by the major adviser for students 
progressing toward advanced work in microbiology. The student should consult the 
microbiology adviser during the sophomore year to establish a program of study. 
Work on the major must begin no later than the fall semester of the junior year. 



Degrees in Dentistry 

A student may fulfill the requirements for the Bachelor of Science degree with a 
major in dentistry by completing three years of work in the College with a minimum 
average grade of C, and by satisfactorily completing the first two years of work in one 
of certain approved dental schools designated bv the University, with a record 
entitling advancement to the third-year class. 

For this degree the requirements in the College are the same as those for the degree 
with a major in medical sciences. 



Degrees in Engineering 

The College cooperates with North Carolina State University and other engineer- 
ing schools in offering a broad course of study in the arts and sciences combined with 
specialized training in engineering. A program for outstanding students covers five 
years of study, including three years in the College and approximately two years in 
one of the schools of engineering. (Depending upon the field chosen, it may be 
advisable for a student to attend the summer session in the engineering school after 
transfer.) Admission to Wake Forest does not guarantee admission to the engineer- 
ing school. Those decisions are based on the student's transcript, performance, and 
status at the time of application. Upon successful completion of the five years of 
study, the student receives the degree of Bachelor of Science from the University and 
the degree of Bachelor of Science in one of the specialized engineering fields from the 
engineering school. 

The curriculum for the first three vears must include the basic and divisional 
requirements. Suggested courses for the freshman year are English 110 and 160 (or a 
foreign literature); foreign language courses 211, 215, or 216; Mathematics 111, 112; 
Physics 121, 122; and Health and Sport Science 111, 112. Suggested courses for the 
sophomore year are English 170 (or a foreign literature); Philosophy 111; Mathe- 
matics 113 or 251; Physics 141, 161, and 162; and Chemistry 111, 112. Suggested 



73 



courses for the junior year are a history course, a religion course, Mathematics 311, 
and Economics 150. 

This rigorous curriculum demands special aptitude in science and mathematics. 
Electives are chosen in consultation with the chairman of the department of phvsics. 

Degrees in Forestry and Environmental Studies 

The College cooperates with the Duke University School of Forestry and Environ- 
mental Studies to offer students interested in these areas the possibility of earning 
both bachelor's and master's degrees within five years. For details about the program 
students should consult a faculty member in the biology department. 




ff ; *** 




University Provost and Professor of English 
Edwin Graves Wilson 



74 

Courses of Instruction 

Plans of study, course descriptions, and the identification of instructors apply to the 
academic year 1986-87, unless otherwise noted, and reflect official faculty action through 
March 16, 1987. 

The University reserves the right to change programs of study, academic requirements, 
assignment of lecturers, or the announced calendar. 

Odd-numbered courses are normally taught in the fall, even-numbered in the 
spring. Exceptions are noted after course descriptions. Number of credits is shown 
by numerals immediately after the course title — for example, (3) or (3,3). The sym- 
bols P — and C — followed by course numbers or titles are used to show prerequisites 
and corequisites for a course. 

Courses 101-199 are primarily for freshmen and sophomores; courses 200-299 are 
primarily for juniors and seniors; courses 301-399 are for advanced undergraduates 
and graduate students. (Other graduate courses are described in the Bulletin of the 
Graduate School; a complete listing of summer courses is in the Bulletin of the 
Summer Session.) 



Anthropology 

David S. Weaver, Chairman 

Professors E. Pendleton Banks, David K. Evans, Stanton K. Tefft, 

J. Ned Woodall 

Associate Professor David S. Weaver 

Adjunct Associate Professor Jay R. Kaplan 

Research Associate/Instructor Ben P. Robertson 

Director/Curator, Museum of Man Mary Jane Berman 

A major in anthropology requires a minimum of thirty-six credits and must include 
Anthropology 151, 152, 340, 388, and either 356 or 359. 

Students are encouraged but not required to enroll in a course offering intensive 
field research training. However, only four credits from Anthropology 381, 382 and 
four credits from Anthropology 383, 384 may be used to meet major requirements. 
Additional courses are counted within the limits specified for a single field of study. 

A minimum grade point average of 2.0 in anthropology courses is required at the 
time the major is declared. A minimum grade point average of 2.0 in all anthropology 
courses is required for graduation. 

A minor in anthropology requires twenty-four credits and must include An- 
thropology 151, 152, and 340. Minors will not receive credit for Anthropology 388, 
398, or 399. Only four credits from Anthropology 305, 345, 365, 381, 382, 383, and 384 
may be used to meet minor requirements and departmental permission must be 
obtained for minor credit in these courses. 

To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Anthropology," highly qualified 
majors should apply to the department for admission to the honors program. They 
must complete a senior research project, document their research, and satisfactorily 



75 

defend their work in an oral examination. For additional information, members of 
the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

151. General Anthropology I: Archeology and Human Evolution. (4) Origin and 
evolution of man with a focus on human biological and sociocultural change during 
the Plio-Pleistocene. 

152. General Anthropology II: Cultural Anthropology. (4) A cross-cultural analysis 
of human institutions with a survey of major theories explaining cultural variety and 
human nature. 

260. Archeological Laboratory Practicum. (2) Instruction in artifact cleaning, preser- 
vation, cataloging, and analysis; preparation of museum exhibits; familiarization 
with darkroom procedures, drafting, and report preparation. P — Permission of 
instructor. 

261. Museum Practicum. (3) Designed to give the student practical experience while 
working at the Museum of Man in six basic areas of museum operation: administra- 
tion, research, curatorial duties, conservation, exhibition design, and education. 
P — Permission of instructor. 

262. Physical Anthropology Practicum. (2) Practical experience in current problems 
in physical anthropology. P — Anthropology 151. 

305. Conflict and Change on Roatan Island (Honduras). (4) Readings and field 
research focusing on the barriers and processes of sociocultural and technological 
change in a heterogeneous island community. Usually offered in summer. P — 
Anthropology 151 or Anthropology 152 and permission of instructor. 

310. Museum Design and Operation. (4) The principles of museum design and 
operation through lectures, readings, workshops with visiting experts in the field, 
and field trips to neighboring museums (possibly to Washington, DC). Students 
have an opportunity to put some of the principles in practice by planning and 
designing exhibits in the Museum of Man. P — Permission of instructor. 

321. The Anthropology of Art. (4) The arts (primarily visual) in folk and tribal 
cultures from comparative, structural, and functional points of view. P — Permission 
of instructor. 

331. The Ethnographic Documentary. (4) Through the use of ethnographic docu- 
mentary films and videos from different historical periods and by film-makers from 
different cultural backgrounds, this course will present a historical and cross-cultural 
perspective on cultural systems. The course will analyze the technological and 
aesthetic aspects of film and video production and assess the effectiveness of visual 
communication in conveying ideas about culture and society. P — Anthropology 151 
or Anthropology 152 or permission of instructor. 

340. Images of Man: Perspectives on Anthropological Thought. (4) A study and 
evaluation of the major anthropological theories of man and society, including 
cultural evolutionism, historical particularism, functionalism, structuralism, cultural 



76 



ecology, and cultural materialism. The relevance and significance of these theories to 
modern anthropology are discussed. P — Anthropology 151 and Anthropology 152 
and sophomore or junior standing, or permission of instructor. 

342. Tradition and Conflict in Latin America. (4) Socio-cultural perspectives on 
contemporary problems in Latin America and the Caribbean. P — Anthropologv 151 
or Anthropologv 152 or permission of instructor. 

343. Socio-cultural Development in the Third World. (4) Analytical survey of prob- 
lems facing Third World nations and the application of anthropologv in change 
conflict situations today. P — Anthropology 151 or Anthropology 152 or permission 
of instructor. 

344. Medical Anthropology. (4) The impact of Western medical practices and theory 
on non-Western cultures and anthropological contributions to the solving of world 
health problems. P — Anthropologv 151 or permission of instructor. 

345. Mountain Folklore in North Carolina. (4) The role folklore plays in all human 
cultures in general and in the culture of the mountain people of Western North 
Carolina in particular. Field trips to mountain counties conducted. P — Permission of 
instructor. 

351. Physical Anthropology. (4) Introduction to biological anthropology, human 
biology, evolution, and variability. P — Anthropologv 151. 

352. Laboratory Methods in Physical Anthropology. (1) Basic methods used by 
physical anthropologists to gather data, such as blood grouping, measurement, 
dermatoglyphics, and dental castings. Lab — two hours. P — Permission of instructor. 

353. Peoples and Cultures of Africa. (4) The ethnology and prehistory of Africa south 
of the Sahara. P — Anthropologv 151 or Anthropologv 152. 

354. Primitive Religion. (4) The worldview and values of non-literate cultures as 
expressed in myths, rituals, and symbols. P — Anthropologv 151 or Anthropology 

152. 

355. Language and Culture. (4) An introduction to the relations between language 
and culture, including methods for field research. P — Anthropology 151 or An- 
thropologv 152. 

356. Old World Prehistory. (4) Survev of Old World prehistory, with particular 
attention to geological and climatological events affecting culture change. P — 
Anthropology 151 or permission of instructor. 

357. Archeology of Early Complex Societies. (4) Comparison of the archeology of 
early complex societies, with special attention to the Mava, Aztec, and Teotihuacan 
cultures in Mesoamerica; the Huari and Inca in South America; the Anasazi of North 
America; and Egyptian and Mesopotamian groups of the Old World. An emphasis 
will be given to theories of origins and change in complex societies. P — 
Anthropology 151 or permission of instructor. 



77 

358. The American Indian. (4) Ethnology and prehistory of the American Indian. 
P — Anthropology 151 or Anthropology 152. 

359. Prehistory of North America. (4) The development of culture in North America 
as outlined by archeological research, with an emphasis on paleoecology and 
sociocultural processes. P — Anthropology 151 or permission of instructor. 

360. Archeology of the Southeastern United States. (4) A study of human adaptation 
in the Southeast from Pleistocene to the present, emphasizing the role of ecological 
factors in determining the formal aspects of culture. P — Anthropology 151. 

361. Conservation Archeology. (4) A study of the laws, regulations, policies, pro- 
grams, and political processes used to conserve prehistoric and historic cultural 
resources. P — Anthropology 151 and Anthropology 359 or permission of instructor. 

362. Human Ecology. (4) The relations between the human being and the inorganic 
and organic environments as mediated bv culture; laboratory experience with aerial 
photography and other remote sensing techniques. P — Anthropology 151 or An- 
thropology 152 or permission of instructor. 

363. Peoples and Cultures of China. (4) A survey of the Han and non-Han (Mongo- 
lian, Tibetan, Shan, Mia, etc. ) peoples of China and their traditional cultures, draw- 
ing on ethnographic and village studies. P — Permission of instructor. 

364. Human Osteology. (4) A survey of human skeletal anatomy and analysis, 
emphasizing archeological and anthropological applications. P — Anthropology 151 
and permission of instructor. 

365. Field Research in Physical Anthropology. (2, 3, or 4) Training in techniques for 
the study of problems of physical anthropology, carried out in the field. Usually 
offered in the summer. P — Permission of instructor. 

366. Human and Non-Human Evolution. (4) Investigation of primate and human 
evolution, both in anatomy and in behavior. P — Anthropologv 151 and permission of 
instructor. 

371. European Peasant Communities. (4) Lectures, reading, and discussion on 
selected communities and their sociocultural contexts, including folklore, folk art, 
and processes of culture change. P — Anthropologv 151 or Anthropology 152 or 
permission of instructor. 

380. Anthropological Statistics. (4) Basic statistics, emphasizing application in an- 
thropological research. (A student who receives credit for this course may not also 
receive credit for Biology 380, Business 201, Mathematics 109, or Sociology 380.) 

381, 382. Archeological Research. (4, 4) The recovery of anthropological data 
through the use of archeology, taught in the excavation and interpretation of a 
prehistoric site. P — Anthropology 151. 

383, 384. Field Research in Cultural Anthropology. (4, 4) Training in techniques for 



78 

the study of foreign cultures, carried out in the field. P — Anthropology 151 or 
Anthropology 152. 

385, 386. Special Problems Seminar. (4) Intensive investigation of current scientific 
research within the discipline. The course concentrates on problems of contempo- 
rary interest. P — Permission of instructor. 

387. Advanced Statistical Analysis in Anthropology. (4) Principles of multivariate 
statistical analysis and applications to anthropological problems. P — Anthropology 
380. 

388. Senior Seminar. (4) A review of the contemporary problems in the fields of 
archeology and physical and cultural anthropology. P — Senior standing or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

398, 399. Individual Study. (1, 2, 3, or 4) A reading, research, or internship course 
designed to meet the needs and interests of selected students, to be carried out under 
the supervision of a departmental faculty member. 



Art 

Margaret S. Smith, Chairwoman 

Professors Terisio Pignatti (Venice), Margaret S. Smith 

Associate Professors Paul H. D. Kaplan, Robert Knott 

Assistant Professors David Faber, Harry B. Titus Jr. 

Visiting Assistant Professor Sarah Ferguson 

Lecturers Brian Allen, David Bindman (London) 

Instructor Deborah Fanelli 

Gallery Director Victor Faccinto 

The department offers courses in the history of art and in the practice of drawing, 
painting, printmaking, and sculpture. The program is designed to introduce stu- 
dents to the visual arts within the context of liberal arts study. The courses are 
intended to increase the student's understanding of the meaning and purpose of the 
arts, their historical developments, their role in society, and their relationship to 
other humanistic disciplines. Work in both classroom and studio is designed to 
intensify the student's visual perception and to develop a facility in a variety of 
technical processes. A visiting artist program and varied exhibitions in the gallery of 
the Scales Fine Arts Center as well as internships in local cultural organizations 
supplement the regular academic program of the department. 

The major in art requires forty credits. For an art history major, eight courses are to 
be in art history and two in studio art. For a studio art major, eight courses are to be in 
studio art and two in art history. 

The studio art major may earn teacher certification in art education (K-12) by cross 
registration with the Salem College teacher education program. 

A minor in art requires five courses, including at least one course in art history and 
one course in studio art. 



79 



Any student interested in majoring or minoring in art should consult the chair- 
woman of the art department. 

Qualified students in both the art history and studio areas may ask to participate in 
the department's honors program. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in 
Art," students must execute a written project or create a body of work; the results of 
their efforts must be presented and defended before a committee of the departmental 
faculty. Interested students should consult any member of the department for 
additional information concerning the requirements for this program. 

Art History 

103. Introduction to the Visual Arts. (4) A historical introduction to the arts of 
various cultures and times with discussions of technique, style, methodology, and 
terms. Satisfies the Division I requirement. 

223. Idea and Form in Indian Art. (4) An examination of Indian ideas on the sacred 
and profane as revealed in architectural and sculptural forms in Hindu, Buddhist, 
and Muslim art in India. 

228. Egyptian Art. (4) The art and architecture of ancient Egypt from the predynastic 
period through Roman Egypt. 

230. African Art. (4) The traditional arts of Africa south of the Sahara. 

231. American Art. (4) The survey of American painting from 1600 to 1900. 

233. American Architecture. (4) A survey of American architecture from 1650 to the 
present. 

235. Art and Architecture of the South. (4) A survey of architecture, painting, and 
sculpture of the South from 1600 to the present. 

241. Ancient Art. (4) A survey of architecture, painting, and sculpture from the 
prehistoric through the late Roman periods. 

244. Greek Art. (3) A survey of architecture, painting, and sculpture from the 
prehistoric through the Hellenistic periods. 

245. Roman Art. (4) A survey of Etruscan and Roman architecture, painting, and 
sculpture. 

246. Greek and Roman Architecture. (4) A survev of classical architecture, from the 
Archaic Greek through the late Roman period. 

250. Twentieth Century American Art and Literature. (4) An exploration of the 
ideas, values, and feelings found in the art and literature of twentieth century figures 
such as Kandinsky, Stevens, Picasso, and Kafka. 

251. Women and Art. (4) A historical examination of the changing image of women in 
art and the role of women artists. 

252. Romanesque Art. (4) Art and architecture from the Carolingian Renaissance 
through the twelfth century. 



80 

253. The Gothic Cathedral. (4) The character and evolution of Gothic cathedrals and 
the sculpture, stained glass, metalworks, and paintings designed for them. 

254. Romanesque Sculpture. (4) An examination of the re-emergence and develop- 
ment of sculpture in Western Europe during the period 1000-1150. 

256. History of Books and Printing. (2-4) An examination of the development of the 
book from the invention of printing to the present. 

257. Printing on the Hand Press. (4) A studv of the history of printing and books 
combined with the practical experience of learning the art and craft of printing. The 
objectives of the course are to provide a basis for the appreciation of fine printing and 
to allow the student an opportunity to learn the techniques of hand printing. 
P — Permission of instructor. 

266. Art in the Age of Discovery. (4) An exploration of the visual imagery which 
recorded the expansion of Western civilization, and the active role which art played 
in that expansion, from Marco Polo and Giotto to Captain Cook and Tiepolo 
(c. 1300-c. 1775). 

267. Early Italian Renaissance Art. (4) An introduction to the painting, sculpture, 
and architecture of Italy from 1250 to 1500, with a concentration on the arts in 
fifteenth century Florence. 

268. Italian High Renaissance and Mannerist Art. (4) A study of the arts in sixteenth 
century Italy, with emphasis on the achievement of Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, 
Michelangelo, Giorgione, and Titian, and the dissolution of Renaissance idealism in 
the art of the early Mannerists. 

270. Northern Renaissance Art. (4) A survey of painting, sculpture, graphic art, and 
patronage in Northern European art from 1300 to the death of Diirer in 1528. 

271. Studies in French Art. (2) Lectures and field trips in French painting, sculpture, 
and architecture, concentrating on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Offered 
in Dijon. 

272. Baroque Art. (4) A survey of European painting and sculpture from 1600 to 1700. 

275. History of Landscape Architecture. (4) Study of garden design, beginning with 
Roman gardens and continuing through the creation of public parks in the 
nineteenth century. 

281. Modern Art to 1900. (4) A survey of European painting and sculpture from 1700 
to 1900, emphasizing the nineteenth century. 

282. Modern Art after 1900. (4) A survey of European and American painting and 
sculpture from 1900 to the present. 

283. Impressionism. (4) A detailed study of the French Impressionist painters, with 
some consideration of Impressionism in other forms. 

284. Contemporary American Art. (4) An intensive study of American painting and 
sculpture from 1950 to the present. 



81 

286. Studies in Twentieth Century Art: Myth in Modern Art. (3) An analysis of 
traditional Western and non-Western myths as expressed and interpreted by twen- 
tieth century artists. 

288. Modern Architecture. (4) A survey of European and American architecture from 
1900 to the present. 

291. Individual Study. (4) A course of independent study with faculty guidance. 

292. Individual Study. (4) A course of independent studv with faculty guidance. 

293. Practicum. (4) Internships in local cultural organizations, to be arranged by the 
art department. Pass/Fail. 

296. Art History Seminar. (4) Offered by members of the faculty or visiting faculty on 
topics of their choice. A paper is required. P — Permission of instructor. 

a. Ancient Art f. Contemporary Art 

b. Medieval Art g. American Art 

c. Renaissance Art //. Modern Architecture 

d. Baroque Art i. American Architecture 

e. Modern Art 

297. Seminar: Art and Politics. (4) In-depth examinations of works of art from the 
medieval period to the Russian Revolution, selected for their significant political 
content. 

2320. English Art, Hogarth to the Present. (4) A survey of English painting, sculp- 
ture, and architecture in the Georgian, Victorian, and modern periods. Slide lec- 
tures, student reports, museum visits, and lectures. Taught by special lecturer. 
Offered in London. 

2693. Venetian Renaissance Art. (4) A survey of the art of the Venetian Renaissance, 
with slide lectures and museum visits. Offered in Venice. 

Anthropology 321. The Anthropology of Art. (4) The arts (primarily visual) in folk 
and tribal culturals from comparative, structural, and functional points of view. 
P — Persmission of instructor. 

Studio Art* 

111. Introduction to Drawing and Design. (4) An introduction to the basic elements 
of two-dimensional and three-dimensional design, to include drawing, painting, 
and sculpture. Six class hours per week. Satisfies the Division I requirement. 

112. Introduction to Painting. (4) An introduction to painting fundamentals in a 
variety of contemporary styles in the oil or acrylic media. P — Art 111. 

115. Introduction to Sculpture. (4) An introduction to basic sculptural styles and 
multi-media, with emphasis on contemporary concepts. P — Art 111. 



*Prerequisites may be waived with permission of instructor. 



82 

117. Introduction to Printmaking. (4) An introduction to one or more of the follow- 
ing areas of printmaking: lithography, intaglio, and silkscreen. P — Art 111. 

119. Introduction to Photography. (4) An introduction to photography as an ex- 
pressive medium, including basic camera and darkroom techniques. Preference to 
art majors. Not open to students who have had Sociology 205. P — Art 111. 

211. Intermediate Drawing. (4) Continuation of Art 111, with concentrated empha- 
sis on drawing fundamentals and idea development in realistic and abstract styles, 
emphasizing composition, value, line, and form. Six class hours per week. P — 
Art 111. 

212. Intermediate Painting. (4) Continuation of Art 1 12, with concentrated emphasis 
on idea development. P — Art 112. May be repeated. 

215. Intermediate Sculpture. (4) Continuation of Art 115, with emphasis on idea 
development. P — Art 115. May be repeated. 

217. Intermediate Printmaking. (4) Continuation of Art 117, with emphasis on idea 
development. P — Art 117. May be repeated. 

218. Figure Drawing. (4) An introduction to figure drawing. 

221. Advanced Drawing. (4) A course of individual study with faculty guidance. May 
be repeated. P — Art 211. 

222. Advanced Painting. (4) A course of individual study with faculty guidance. May 
be repeated. P — Art 212. 

225. Advanced Sculpture. (4) A course of individual study with faculty guidance. 
May be repeated. P — Art 215. 

227. Advanced Printmaking. (4) A course of individual study with faculty guidance. 
May be repeated. P — Art 217. 

295. Studio Seminar. (2, 4) Offered by members of the faculty or visiting faculty on 
topics of their choice and related studio activities. P — Permission of instructor. 



Asian Studies 

Balkrishna Govind Gokhale, Director 

The Asian Studies program, established in 1960 with financial assistance from the 
Mary Reynolds Babcock Foundation, is interdisciplinary and involves the coopera- 
tion and resources of several departments in the humanities and social sciences. Its 
objectives are to broaden the traditional curriculum with the infusion of a systematic 
knowledge and understanding of the culture of Asia. 

Asian Studies 211, 212. Asian Studies. (4, 4) Asian thought and civilization. Some 
dominant themes in Asian thought and their influence on Asian civilizations. 

Art 221. Idea and Form in Indian Art. (4) An examination of Indian ideas on the 



83 

sacred and profane as revealed in architectural and sculptural forms in Hindu, 
Buddhist, and Muslim art in India. 

Chinese 111, 112. Elementary Chinese. (4, 4) Emphasis on the development of 
listening and speaking skills in Mandarin. Brief introduction to the writing system 
and to basic sentence patterns. Lab — one hour. 

Hindi 111, 112. Elementary Hindi. (4, 4) Attention mainly to basic Hindi grammar, 
vocabulary building, simple composition, and conversation. Lab — one hour. 

Hindi 153. Intermediate Hindi. (4) Advanced practice in Hindi composition and 
conversation and introduction to literarv Hindi. Lab — one hour. P — Hindi 111, 112, 
or equivalent. 

Hindi 211. Hindi Literature. (4) Reading and translation of selected texts in prose 
and poetry and journalistic Hindi. Lab — one hour. P — Hindi 153. 

History 339. India in the English Mind. (4) An exploration of the changing images of 
India, its people, and culture as reflected in English literature, especially Kipling, 
Forster, Kaye, and Paul Scott. The three major themes will be confrontation, 
accommodation, and nostalgia. 

History 341. Southeast Asia from 1511 to the Present. (4) A survey of the historv and 
culture of Southeast Asia under Western colonial systems, with special reference to 
economic, social, and cultural developments, the rise of nationalism, and the emer- 
gence of new nation-states. 

History 342. The Middle East from Suleiman the Magnificent to the Present. (4) 

Major subjects covered are the rise and fall of the Ottoman Empire, the Arabs and 
Persians under Ottoman hegemony, the rise of Arab nationalism, and the emergence 
of the modern Arab states and their roles in the post-World War II era. 

History 343. Imperial China. (4) Development of traditional institutions in Chinese 
society to 1644; attention to social, cultural, and political factors, emphasizing con- 
tinuity and resistance to change. 

History 344. Modern China. (4) The Manchu Dynastv and its response to the 
Western challenge, the 1911 Revolution, the warlord era and the rise of the Com- 
munists, Chinese Communist societv, and the Cultural Revolution. 

History 345, 346. History and Civilization of South Asia. (4, 4) An introduction to 
the history and civilization of South Asia, with emphasis on historical developments 
in the social, economic, and cultural life of the area. 

History 348. Modern Japan. (4) Tokugawa era; Meiji Restoration; industrialization 
and urbanization; relations with the West; World War II; occupation; Japan in the 
contemporary world. 

History 349, 350. East Asia. (4, 4) An introduction to the social, cultural, and political 
development of China, Japan, and Korea. 349: to 1600; 350: since 1600. 

Politics 234. Government and Politics of East Asia. (4) An analysis of the political 



84 



institutions and processes in China and Japan, with emphasis on the problems of 
modernization. 

Politics 245. Government and Politics of South Asia. (4) A study of the governments 
of India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Ceylon; emphasis on political organizations, party 
structures, and subnational governmental systems. 

Religion 360. Hinduism. (4) A study of the fundamental features of the Hindu 
tradition. 

Religion 361. Buddhism. (4) A study of the Buddhist tradition, its fundamental 
features, and its impact on the cultures of Asia. 

Religion 364. Islam. (4) A study of the fundamental concepts of Islamic thought and 
the historical context of its development. Both ancient and contemporarv impact of 
the teachings of Islam are considered. 



Biology 

Ronald V. Dimock Jr., Chairman 

Professors Charles M. Allen, Ralph D. Amen, Ronald V. Dimock Jr., 

Gerald W. Esch, Mordecai J. Jaffe, Raymond E. Kuhn, James C. McDonald, 

Peter D. Weigl, Raymond L. Wyatt 

Associate Professors Nina Stromgren Allen, Carole L. Browne, 

Robert A. Browne, Herman E. Eure, Hugo C. Lane, A. Thomas Olive 

Assistant Professors Wayne L. Silver, William A. Thomas 

Adjunct Professors J. Whitfield Gibbons, Harold O. Goodman, 

Stephen H. Richardson 

Adjunct Assistant Professor Margaret Mulvey 

At the end of the sophomore year a student electing to major in biology meets with 
a major adviser to plan the course of study for the junior and senior years. The 
requirements for completion of the major are those in effect at the time of the 
conference, since the curriculum and departmental requirements may change slight- 
ly during the student's period of residence. All majors are required to take Biology 
111, 112, 211, and 212. Co-major requirements are Chemistry 111 and 112 and two 
additional courses in the physical sciences. 

For students declaring majors in the spring, the requirement for a major is a 
minimum of forty-one credits in biology. The fortv-one credits must include at least 
six biology courses carrying five credits. A minimum grade average of C on all 
courses attempted in biology at Wake Forest University is required for graduation 
with a major in biology. (Students declaring a major later than the spring should 
consult with a biology major adviser for the specific major requirement at that time.) 

A minor in biology requires twenty credits. Courses taken Pass/Fail cannot count 
toward a minor. A minimum overall grade average of C must be earned on all Wake 
Forest University biologv courses taken to complete a minor. 

Prospective majors are strongly urged to take Chemistry 111, 112 and Biology 111, 



85 

112 in the freshman year. Thev are advised to take Biology 211 and Biology 212 in the 
sophomore year; most majors also take organic chemistry as sophomores. De- 
viations from this pattern may necessitate summer work to fit the basic courses into 
an orderly sequence. 

Advanced work in many areas of biologv mav require additional courses in 
mathematics, the physical sciences, and other areas of biology. The adviser calls 
these to the attention of the student, depending on individual needs. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to applv for admission to the 
honors program in biology. To be graduated with the distinction "Honors in Biolo- 
gy," they must complete a research project under the direction of a staff member and 
pass a comprehensive oral examination. 

All 300-level biology courses presume a background equivalent to introductory 
and intermediate biology (that is, through Biologv 212). 

111. Biological Principles. (5) Fundamental principles and concepts in biologv. 
Lab — three hours. 

112. Organismic Biology. (5) Morphology and phvlogenv of plants and animals. 
Lab — three hours. P — Biologv 111 or permission of instructor. 

115. Advanced Placement Seminar. (1) A team-taught course involving lecture, 
discussion, laboratory, and field experience to examine a variety of topics in biology. 
The course is available to all students who have received advanced placement credit 
for Biology 111, especially those intending to major in biologv. P — Advanced place- 
ment credit for Biologv 111. 

211. Population Biology. (4) Population and evolutionary aspects of biology. P — 
Biology 111 or permission of instructor. 

212. Cell Biology. (5) Molecular and cellular aspects of biologv. Lab — three hours. 
P— Biology 111 and Chemistry 111, 112. 

301-305. Topics in Biology. (1-5) Seminar and/or lecture courses in selected topics, 
some involving laboratory instruction. 

312. Genetics. (5) A study of principles of inheritance and their application to plants 
and animals, including humans. Laboratory work in the methods of breeding some 
genetically important organisms and of compiling and presenting data. Lab) — three 
hours. 

314. Evolution. (4) Analysis of the theories, evidences, and mechanisms of evolu- 
tion. 

320. Comparative Anatomy. (5) A study of chordate animals, with emphasis on 
comparative anatomy and phylogeny. Dissection of representative forms in the 
laboratory. Lat> — four hours. 

321. Parasitology. (5) A survey of protozoan, helminth, and arthropod parasites 
from the standpoint of morphology, taxonomy, life histories, and host/parasite 
relationships. Lab — three hours. 



323. Animal Behavior. (4) A survey of laboratory and field research on animal 
behavior. (Mav count as biology or psvchologv but not both; choice to be made at 
registration.) 

325. Plant Anatomy. (5) A study of comparative anatomy of the vascular plants, with 
emphasis on phylogeny. Lab — four hours. 

326. Microbiology. (5) The structure, function, and taxonomy of microorganisms 
with emphasis on the bacteria. Some immunological processes are considered. 
Lab — four hours. 

327. Nonvascular Plants. (5) An examination of representative nonvascular plants, 
with emphasis on morphology and phylogeny- Lab — four hours. 

328. Vascular Plants. (5) A comparative survey of the vascular plants, with emphasis 
on structure, reproduction, classification, and phylogenv. Lab — four hours. 

331. Invertebrates. (5) Systematic study of the invertebrates, with emphasis on 
functional morphology, behavior, ecology, and phvlogeny. Lab — three hours. 

333. Vertebrates. (5) Systematic study of vertebrates, with emphasis on evolution, 
physiologv, behavior, and ecologv. Laboratory devoted to systematic, field, and 
experimental studies. Lab — three hours. 

334. Entomology. (5) A study of insects, with emphasis on structure, development, 
taxonomv, and phvlogeny. Lab — four hours. 

338. Plant Taxonomy. (5) A studv of the classification of seed plants, with emphasis 
on the comparative study of orders and families. Lab — four hours. 




87 

340. Ecology. (5) Interrelationships among living systems and their environments; 
structure and dynamics of major ecosystem types; contemporary problems in ecolo- 
gy. Lab — three hours. 

341. Marine Biology. (5) An introduction to the physical, chemical, and biological 
parameters affecting the distribution of marine organisms. Lab — three hours. 

342. Aquatic Ecology. (5) A course designed to cover the general principles and 
concepts of limnology and aquatic biology as they apply to lentic and lotic habitats. A 
major portion of the field study is centered at the Charles M. Allen Biological Station. 
Lab — three hours. 

344. Populational and Evolutionary Biology. (4) Lectures, readings, and discussions 
on topics of evolutionary biology: evolutionary theories, population genetics, specia- 
tion, nature of species, units of selection, sociobiology tenets, and the evolutionism/ 
creationism debates. 

345. Neurobiology. (4) Introduction to the structure and function of the nervous 
system including the neural basis of behavior. Anatomical, physiological, and 
neurochemical approaches will be integrated in the study of the peripheral and 
central nervous systems. 

346. Neurobiology. (5) Introduction to the structure and function of the nervous 
system including the neural basis of behavior. Anatomical, physiological, and 
neurochemical approaches will be integrated in the study of the peripheral and 
central nervous systems. The laboratory will emphasize electrophysiological tech- 
niques with experiments from the cellular to the behavioral level. Lab — three hours. 
P — Permission of instructor. 

350. Physiology. (5) A lecture/laboratory course dealing with the physiochemical 
functions common to multicellular organisms, with emphasis on the principles and 
processes of nutrition, metabolism, development, and behavior. Lab — three hours. 

351. Animal Physiology. (5) A lecture and laboratory course which discusses and 
demonstrates the principles of bioelectricity and biomechanics. Regulatory princi- 
ples and the physiologv of the cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal systems of 
vertebrates are covered. Lab — three hours. 

352. Plant Physiology. (5) A study of the mechanisms by which various plant 
systems function, thematically structured around the plant life cycle. Lab — three 
hours. 

354. Endocrinology. (4) A lecture course which considers the evolution of the 
endocrine glands and hormones and the physiology of the main hormonal pathways 
of vertebrates. 

355. Developmental Physiology. (5) The application of the principles and postulates 
of molecular biology to the phenomenon of development in multicellular organisms 
with emphasis on the genetic and hormonal mechanisms of differentiation, toti- 
potency, and morphogenesis. Lab — three hours. 



357. Cryptobiology. (4) The genetic and physiologic mechanisms of common states 
of biotic rest in multicellular organisms: quiescence, dormancy, diapause, hiberna- 
tion, estivation, sleep, and coma. Focus will be on the relation of states of biotic rest to 
senescence and death. 

359. Photobiology. (4) A lecture/seminar exploring photochemical mechanisms and 
ecological roles common to a variety of photoresponses in living organisms, includ- 
ing vision, bioluminescence, phototaxis, photosynthesis, photoperiodism, and 
photomorphogenesis. 

360. Development. (5) A description of the major events and processes of animal 
development, with an analysis of the causal factors underlving them. Special atten- 
tion is given to the embryonic development of vertebrates, but consideration is also 
given to other types of development and other organisms. Topics include fertiliza- 
tion, early development, growth and cell division, cell differentiation, the role of 
genes in development, cell interaction, morphogenesis, regeneration, birth defects, 
and cancer. Lab — three hours. 

362. Immunology. (4) A study of the components and protective mechanisms of the 
immune system. 

363. Sensory Biology. (4) A study of the nature of energy in the environment, and 
how T it is absorbed and transduced in sensory systems. Anatomical, physiological, 
biochemical, and biophysical approaches will be integrated in the study of sensory 
mechanisms in plants and animals. 

365. Cell Motility. (5) A lecture and laboratory course exploring the movements in 
and of cells (for example: mitosis, cytoplasmic streaming, muscle contraction, nerve 
transport). Light and electron microscopic methods as well as biochemical and 
biophysical approaches to the study of cell motility will be discussed. Lab — three 
hours. 

366. Human and Non-Human Evolution. (4) Investigation of primate and human 
evolution, both in anatomy and in behavior. (May count as either biology or an- 
thropology but not both; choice to be made at registration.) P — Permission of in- 
structor. 

370. Biochemistry. (4) A lecture course introducing the principles of biochemistry 
with an emphasis on the relationship between structure and function. Included are 
surveys of essential biomolecules, their biosynthesis, and mode of action; techniques 
in the analysis of structure and function; enzyme kinetics; and macromolecular 
organization. 

371. Biochemistry. (5) A lecture and laboratory course introducing the principles of 
biochemistry with an emphasis on the relationship between structure and function. 
Included are surveys of essential biomolecules, their biosynthesis, and mode of 
action; techniques in the analysis of structure and function; enzvme kinetics; and 
macromolecular organization. Lab — three hours. 

372. Molecular Biology. (4) A lecture course that considers the role of biologically 



89 

important molecules in membrane and intracellular regulation. Topics covered will 
include membrane receptors, transport processes, molecular models of hormonal 
regulation, and controls of gene expression. 

373. Techniques in Electron Microscopy. (5) An introduction to the electron micro- 
scope as an experimental tool in biology. Includes instruction in common techniques 
used in the field and lecture on recognition and interpretation of cellular ultra- 
structure. Lab — three hours. 

376. Ichthyology. (5) A comparative study of structure/function, classification, and 
phylogeny of fish. Lab — three hours. 

380. Biostatistics. (4) An introduction to statistical methods used by biologists, 
including descriptive statistics, hypothesis-testing, analysis of variance, and regres- 
sion and correlation. (May count as biology or anthropology but not both; choice to 
be made at registration.) (A student who receives credit for this course may not also 
receive credit for Business 201, Mathematics 109, or Sociology 380.) 

391, 392. Special Problems in Biology. (2, 2) Independent library and laboratory 
investigation carried out under the supervision of a member of the staff. Pass/Fail or 
for grade, at discretion of the instructor. P — Permission of instructor. 

393, 394. Special Problems in Biology. (2, 2) Courses designed for students who 
wish to continue special problems beyond Biology 391 and 392. Pass/Fail optional. 
(Not to be counted toward major.) P — Permission of instructor. 

395. Philosophy of Biology and Medicine. (4) A lecture/seminar course dealing with 
the rational structure of biologic and biomedic sciences with major emphasis on the 
reductionistic, organismic, and telenomic paradigms of modern biology and medi- 
cine. The structure of selected biologic and biomedic theories will be included. 

397. Seminar in Biology. (2-4) Consideration of major biological topics through 
intensive reading and discussions. 



Chemistry 

John W. Nowell, Chairman 

Professors Phillip J. Hamrick Jr., Roger A. Hegstrom, Willie L. Hinze, 

Ronald E. Noftle, John W. Nowell 

Associate Professors Paul M. Gross Jr., Charles F. Jackels, Susan C. Jackels 

Assistant Professors Huw M. L. Davies, Robert F. Ferrante, 

N. Ganapathisubramanian, Mark E. Welker 

Instructor M. Jimmie Turner 

The department offers programs leading to the BA and BS degrees in chemistry 
and is on the list of departments certified bv the American Chemical Society. 

The Bachelor of Arts degree in chemistry includes Chemistrv 111, 112, or 113, 114; 
221, 222, 341, 342, 361; Mathematics 111; and Physics 111, 112 or its equivalent. It is 



90 



recommended that Mathematics 112 be taken before Chemistry 341. Chemistry 231 
may be required by some graduate and professional schools. 

The Bachelor of Science degree in chemistry includes Chemistry 111/ 112, or 113, 
1 14; 221 , 222, 334, 341 , 342, 361 , 231 or 371 , 383, 391 , or 392; Mathematics 1 1 1 and 1 12; 
and Physics 121, 122 or 111, 112. Other courses which are strongly recommended for 
the BS degree candidate are Mathematics 113, 121, and 251 and Physics 161, 162. 

The department also offers a five-year BA/MS degree program. Students qualify- 
ing for the program may receive a tuition scholarship in the senior vear. For informa- 
tion consult the department chairman. 

A minor in chemistry requires twenty-three credits in chemistry and must include 
at least one of the following courses: 323, 325, 326, 334, 341, 342, 351, 361, 362, 371. 
The department will not accept courses taken Pass/Fail to count toward the minor. 

Unless otherwise stated, all chemistry courses are open to chemistry majors on a 
letter grade basis only. Majors are also required to complete on a letter grade basis the 
related physics and mathematics courses, both those which are required and those 
which are strongly recommended. 

A minimum GPA of 2.0 in the first two years of chemistry is required of students 
who elect to major in the department. Admission to any class is contingent upon 
satisfactory grades in prerequisite courses, and registration for advanced courses 
must be approved by the department. Candidates for either the BA and BS degree 
with a major in chemistry must have a minimum GPA of 2.0 in their chemistry 
courses numbered 200 or above. 

Qualified majors are considered for honors in chemistry. To be graduated with the 
designation "Honors in Chemistry," a student must complete satisfactorily 
Chemistry 391, 392 or an independent study project approved by the department 
and an examination covering primarily the independent study project. For addition- 
al information members of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

For the BS major the following schedule of chemistry and related courses is typical: 

Freshman Sophomore junior Senior 

Chemistry 111, 112 Chemistry 221, 222 Chemistry 341, 342 Chemistry 334 

or Physics 121, 122 Chemistry 383 Chemistry 361 

Chemistry 113, 114 or Chemistry 391 or 392 Chemistry 371 

Mathematics 111, 112 Physics 111, 112 Mathematics or Mathematics or 

Mathematics 113, 251 Physics Physics 

For the BA major the following schedule of chemistry and related courses is 
typical: 

Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior 

Chemistry 111, 112 Chemistry 221, 222 Chemistry 341, 342 Chemistry 361 

or Physics 111, 112 
Chemistry 113, 114 or 

Mathematics 111, 112* Physics 121, 122 

*Mathematics 112 is encouraged as an elective in the freshman or sophomore year. 

For variations in either of the schedules above, the student should consult a 
member of the faculty in chemistrv. 



91 



Students electing laboratory courses in chemistry are required to pay for breakage 
and for certain consumable materials as determined by the department. 

Ill, 112. College Chemistry. (5, 5) Fundamental chemical principles. Laboratory 
covers experimental aspects of basic concepts. Lab — three hours. 

113, 114. College Chemistry — Honors. (5, 5) Covers the same range of material as 
111, 112 but is designed for students with a superior background in chemistry. A 
student may not receive credit for both 111 and 113 or both 112 and 114. Lab — three 
hours. P — Permission of instructor. 

221, 222. Organic Chemistry. (5, 5) Principles and reactions of organic chemistry. 
Lab — four hours. P — Chemistry 112 or 114. 

231. Quantitative Analysis. (4) Principles and methods of quantitative analysis. 
P — Chemistry 112 or 114. Lecture — two hours. Lab — four hours. 

301, 302. Elective Research. (0, 0) P — Permission of instructor. Summers only. 

323. Organic Analysis. (4) The systematic identification of organic compounds. 
Lab — four hours. P — Chemistry 222. 

325, 326. Organic Synthesis. (4, 4) Reagents for and design of synthetic routes to 
organic molecules. P — Chemistry 222. 

334. Chemical Analysis. (5) Theoretical and practical applications of modern 
methods of chemical analysis. Lab — four hours. C — Chemistry 341. 




92 

341, 342. Physical Chemistry. (5, 5) Fundamentals of physical chemistry. Lab) — four 
hours. P — Chemistry 112 or 114, Mathematics 111, Physics 111, 112 or 121, 122. 

351. Special Topics in Biochemistry. (4) Fundamentals of biochemistry, with par- 
ticular emphasis on mechanistic analysis of metabolic pathways, enzymatic activity, 
and drug action. P — Chemistry 222. 

361. Inorganic Chemistry. (5) Principles and reactions of inorganic chemistry. Lab — 
four hours. P — Chemistry 341. 

362. Inorganic Chemistry. (4) Continuation of principles of inorganic chemistry with 
practical applications to inorganic systems. P — Chemistry 361. 

371. Introductory Quantum Chemistry. (4) Introduction to the quantum theory and 
its application to chemical systems. P — Chemistry 342 or permission of instructor. 

381, 382. Chemistry Seminar. (0, 0) Discussions of contemporary research. Atten- 
dance required of BS chemistry majors in the junior and senior years. 

383. Chemical Literature. (1) Introduction to the chemical literature and searching 
techniques for the acquisition of chemical information. P — Chemistry 222. 

391, 392. Undergraduate Research. (2, 2) Undergraduate research. Lab — six hours. 



Classical Languages 

John L. Andronica, Chairman 

Professor Carl V. Harris 

Associate Professors John L. Andronica, Robert W. Ulery Jr. 

Visiting Assistant Professors Teri E. Marsh, John E. Rowland 

The department of classical languages offers three majors: Greek, Latin, and 
classical studies. Minors are offered in Greek and Latin. 

A major in Greek requires forty credits in the department. Thirty-two of these 
credits must be in the Greek language. Classics 270 is also a requirement. 

A minor in Greek requires twenty-five credits: Greek 111-112, 153, 211, and either 
212 or 231; and Classics 270. 

A major in Latin requires thirtv-two credits in the department beyond Latin 153. 
Twenty-four of these credits must be in Latin courses. Classics 271 also is a require- 
ment, and Classics 270 is recommended. 

A minor in Latin requires three 200-level courses in Latin; Classics 271; and one 
additional course (three or four credits) in Greek or Latin or classics. 

A major in classical studies requires fifty-six credits. A minimum of thirty-six 
credits of course work must be taken in the department. A maximum of forty-eight 
credits in the department may be exceeded only if a student undertakes course work 
in both Latin and Greek. The student must take a minimum of two courses at the 
200-level in either Greek or Latin and the following: Art 241 {Ancient Art), 



93 



Classics 265 (Greek Literature), Classics 272 (Latin Literature), Classics 270 (Greek 
Civilization), and Classics 271 (Roman Civilization). 

A maximum of sixteen credits may be taken in the following: Art 244 (Greek Art), 
245 (Roman Art), 246 (Greek and Roman Architecture), 252 (Romanesque Art); 
History 215, 216 (The Ancient World); Philosophy 201 (Ancient and Medieval Philoso- 
phy), 230 (Plato), 231 (Aristotle); Politics 271 (Plato, Aristotle, and Classical Political 
Philosophy), 274 (Noble Greeks and Romans); Religion 31 1 (Poetic Literature of the Hebrew 
Bible), 314 (Ancient Israel and her Neighbors), 363 (Hellenistic Religions); Hebrew 111, 
112, 153, 211. Other courses may be allowed with the permission of the department. 

The requirements for certification to teach Latin in high school are the same as the 
requirements for a major in Latin. A major in classical studies serves as an appropri- 
ate part of the program of studies required for certification to teach Latin in high 
school. A student wishing to secure this certification should confer with the chair- 
man of the department. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in Latin, Greek, or classical studies. To be graduated with the 
designation "Honors in Latin," "Honors in Greek," or "Honors in Classical Stud- 
ies," a student must complete an honors research project and pass a comprehensive 
oral examination. For honors in Latin or Greek, at least two of the courses counted 
toward the major must be seminar courses; for honors in classical studies, at least one 
seminar course in Latin or Greek is required. For additional information members of 
the departmental faculty should be consulted. 



Greek 

111, 112. Elementary Greek. (5, 5) Greek grammar; selections from Greek prose 
writers and poets. 

153. Intermediate Greek. (4) Grammar and Xenophon's Anabasis. Thorough drill in 
syntax. 

211. Plato. (4) Selections from the dialogues of Plato. 

212. Homer. (4) Selections from the Iliad and the Odyssey. 

221, 222. Selected Readings. (3, 3) Intensive reading courses designed to meet 
individual needs and interests. 

231. The Greek New Testament. (4) Selections from the Greek New Testament. 

241. Greek Tragedy. (3) Euripides' Medea. This course includes a study of the origin 
and history of Greek tragedv, with collateral reading of selected tragedies in transla- 
tion. Seminar. 

242. Greek Comedy. (3) Aristophanes' Clouds. This course includes a study of the 
origin and history of Greek comedy, with collateral reading of selected comedies in 
translation. Seminar. 

291, 292. Honors in Greek. (2, 2) Directed research for honors paper. 



94 

Latin 

111, 112. Elementary Latin. (4, 4) Introduction to Latin grammar. 

113. Intensive Elementary Latin. (5) Introduction to Latin grammar. Covers material 
of Latin 111 and 112 in one semester. Not open to students who have had Latin 111 
or 112. 

153. Intermediate Latin. (5) Grammar review and selected readings. 

211. Introduction to Latin Poetry. (4) Readings primarily from Virgil's Aeneid, with 
an introduction to literary criticism. 

212. Introduction to Latin Prose. (4) Readings primarily from the orations of Cicero, 
with attention to the elements of rhetoric in Roman public discourse. 

216. Roman Lyric Poetry. (4) An interpretation and evaluation of lyric poetry 
through readings from the poems of Catullus and Horace. 

221. Roman Historians. (4) Readings in the works of Sallust, Livy, or Tacitus, with 
attention to the historical background and the norms of ancient historiography. 

225. Roman Epistolography. (4) Selected readings from the correspondence of 
Cicero and Pliny the Younger and the verse epistles of Horace and Ovid. 

226. Roman Comedy. (4) Readings of selected comedies of Plautus and Terence, with 
a study of the traditions of comedy and dramatic techniques. 

231. Roman Elegy. (4) Readings from the poems of Tibullus, Propertius, and Ovid, 
with study of the elegiac tradition. 

241. Roman Satire. (4) Selected readings from Horace and Juvenal, with attention to 
the origin and development of hexameter satire. 

243. Latin Readings. (2-4) A course designed to meet individual needs and interests. 

250. Prose Composition. (2) Exercises in writing of Latin prose, with an introduction 
to prose stylistics. 

398, 399. The Teaching of Latin. (4, 4) A reading course and workshop in problems of 
Latin pedagogy and the secondary Latin curriculum, designed to meet the needs and 
interests of selected students. 



Seminars 

The following seminars are offered by members of the faculty on topics and 
authors of their choice. A paper is required. 

261. Seminar in Poetry of the Republican Period. (3) 

262. Seminar in Prose of the Republican Period. (3) 
281. Seminar in Augustan and Later Poetry. (3) 



95 

282. Seminar in Augustan and Later Prose. (3) 

291, 292. Honors in Latin. (2, 2) Directed research for honors paper. 

Classics 

220. Greek and Latin in Current Use. (3) A systematic study of Greek and Latin loan 
words, roots, prefixes, and suffixes as elements of English and specialized vocabula- 
ries (e.g., scientific and legal). A knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages is not 
required. 

251. Classical Mythology. (4) A study of the most important myths of the Greeks and 
Romans. Many of the myths are studied in their literary context. A knowledge of the 
Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

252. Women in Antiquity. (3, 4) The course explores the place of women in Greek 
and Roman society, men's views of them, their views of themselves, and their 
contribution to society, through primary source readings from the ancient authors. A 
knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

253. Greek Epic Poetry. (4) Oral epic poetry, with primary emphasis on the Iliad and 
the Odyssey of Homer and the later development of the genre. A knowledge of the 
Greek language is not required. 

254. Roman Epic Poetry. (4) A study of the Latin treatment and development of the 
literary form, with emphasis on Lucretius, Virgil, Ovid, and Lucan. A knowledge of 
the Latin language is not required. 

263. Tragic Drama. (4) A study of the origins and development of Greek tragedy and 
its influence on Roman writers, with readings from Aeschvlus, Sophocles, and 
Euripides. A knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

264. Greek and Roman Comedy. (4) Representative works of Aristophanes, Menan- 
der, Plautus, and Terence, with attention to the origins and development of comedv. 
A knowledge of the Greek and Latin languages is not required. 

265. A Survey of Greek Literature. (4) A study of selections from Greek literature in 
English translation. A knowledge of the Greek language is not required. 

270. Greek Civilization. (3) Lectures and collateral reading on those phases of Greek 
civilization which have particular significance for the modern world. A knowledge of 
the Greek language is not required. 

271. Roman Civilization. (3) Lectures and collateral reading on the general subject of 
Rome's contribution to the modern world. A knowledge of the Latin language is not 
required. 

272. A Survey of Latin Literature. (4) A study of selections from Latin literature in 
English translation. A knowledge of the Latin language is not required. 

288. Individual Study. (2-4) 



96 

291, 292. Honors in Classical Studies. (2, 2) Directed research for honors paper. 

Economics 

Donald E. Frey, Chairman 

Reynolds Professor John H. Wood 

Professors Donald E. Frey, John C. Moorhouse, J. Van Wagstaff 

Associate Professor J. Daniel Hammond 

Assistant Professors John B. Crihfield, Tony H. Elavia, 

Claire Holton Hammond, Michael S. Lawlor, Perry L. Patterson 

The objectives of the economics program are to help prepare students for effective 
participation in the decision-making processes of society, to develop analytical skills 
in solving economic problems, to promote a better understanding of alternative 
economic systems, and to provide a balanced curriculum to prepare students for 
graduate study or positions in industry and government. 

The major in economics requires a minimum of thirty-six credits in economics, 
including Economics 150, 205, 206, 207, and 208. In order to major in economics, a 
student must have earned a minimum of a C in Economics 150. The department 
recommends that majors take Mathematics 109 and 108 or 111, either to fulfill the 
Division II requirement or as electives. A student may offer up to five credits toward 
the thirty-six credits required for a major by taking one of the following courses, 
provided that, for (c), (d), (e), or (f), the complementary course in economics is 
successfully completed. 

(a) Mathematics 112. Second semester of Calculus. (5) 

(b) Philosophv 279. Philosophy of Science. (4) 

(c) Politics 219. Fundamentals of Public Policy Analysis. (4) 

(Economics 221. Public Finance. ) 

(d) Politics 253. The Politics of International Economic Relations. (4) 

(Economics 251. International Trade, or Economics 252. International Finance.) 

(e) History 332. Russia. (4) (Economics 253. Economics of Communism.) 

(f) History 344. Modem China. (4) (Economics 253. Economics of Communism.) 

The remaining courses for a major in economics and courses in related fields are 
selected by the student and his or her adviser. A minimum grade average of C on all 
courses attempted in economics is required for graduation. 

Economics majors with a grade average of at least 3.0 and 3.3 in economics may 
graduate with "Honors in Economics" by satisfying the research requirement of 
Economics 298. It is recommended but not required that Economics 297 be taken 
first. 

The department of economics and the department of mathematics and computer 
science offer a joint major leading to a Bachelor of Science degree in mathematical 
economics. This interdisciplinary program, consisting of no more than fifty-six 
credits, affords the student an opportunity to apply mathematical methods to the 
development of economic theorv, models, and quantitative analvsis. The major 



97 



consists of the following course requirements: Economics 150, 205, 207, 208, 215, 218; 
Mathematics 111, 112, 113, 121, 251; and three additional courses chosen with the 
approval of the program advisers. Recommended courses are Economics 206, 212, 
223, 232, 235, 251 and Mathematics 253, 311, 312, 348, 352, 353, 357, and 358. 
Students electing the joint major must receive permission from both the department 
of economics and the department of mathematics and computer science. A minimum 
grade average of C in all courses attempted for the mathematical economics joint 
major is required for graduation. 

Highly qualified majors are encouraged to applv for admission to the honors 
program in the joint major. To be graduated with the designation "Honors 
in Mathematical Economics," a student must satisfy the requirements of Eco- 
nomics 298 or Mathematics 381 by successfully completing a senior research project. 
Consult the program advisers for additional information. 

For the BA in economics the following schedule is typical: 

Freshman Sophomore junior* Senior 

Lower Division Economics 150 Economics 205, 206 Fourelectives 

requirements Mathematics 108 Economics 207, 208 in economics 

or 111 
Mathematics 109 

*lt is expected that economics majors will complete the intermediate theory sequences in their junior year. 

For the BS in mathematical economics the following schedule is tvpical: 

Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior 

Mathematics 111, 112 Economics 150 Economics 205, 207 Economics 218 

Lower Division Mathematics 113, Economics 208, 215 Three electives in 

requirements 121 Mathematics 251 economics and/or 

mathematics 

150. Introduction to Economics. (4) A survey of micro and macroeconomic princi- 
ples. Introduction to basic concepts, characteristic data and trends, and some ana- 
lytic techniques. Preference in enrollment will be given to students with sophomore 
or upperclass standing. 

205. Intermediate Microeconomics I. (4) Development of demand and supply analv- 
sis, neoclassical theory of household and firm behavior, and alternative market 
structures. P — Economics 150. 

206. Intermediate Microeconomics II. (4) More advanced theory of maximizing 
behavior of economic agents with discussion of risk, uncertainty, and economic 
dynamics. Theory emploved in assessment of policv issues. P — Economics 205. 

207. Intermediate Macroeconomics I. (4) Development of macroeconomic concepts 
of national income, circular flow, income determination, and monetary economics. 
The Keynesian, monetarist, and post-Kevnesian analvses of aggregate economic 
performance are emphasized. P — Economics 150. 



208. Intermediate Macroeconomics II. (4) Survey of new equilibrium macroeconom- 
ic theories, including maximization and rational expectations hypotheses. Dynamics 
considered in analysis of economic performance. P — Economics 205, 207. 

210. Economic Indicators. (2) The theory, construction, and interpretation of signifi- 
cant quantitative indicators of economic behavior, such as the unemployment rate 
and the various price indices. P — Economics 150. 

212. Economic Forecasting. (4) A computer-oriented application of modern 
econometric and time series methods for forecasting economic variables. P — 
Economics 150. C — Economics 207. 

215. Introduction to Econometrics. (5) Economic analysis through quantitative 
methods, with emphasis on model construction and empirical research. P — 
Economics 205, 207 and Mathematics 109 or 121. 

218. Seminar in Mathematical Economics. (4) Calculus and matrix methods used 
to develop basic tools of economic analysis. P — Economics 205, 207 and 
Mathematics 111, 112. 

221. Public Finance. (4) An examination of the economic behavior of government. 
Includes principles of taxation, spending, borrowing, and debt-management. P — 
Economics 150. C — Economics 205. 

222. Monetary Theory and Policy. (4) An investigation of the nature of money, the 
macroeconomic significance of money, financial markets, and monetary policy. 
P — Economics 207. 

223. Financial Markets. (4) A study of the functions, structure, and performance of 
financial markets. P — Economics 205, 207. 

224. Law and Economics. (4) An economic analysis of property, contracts, torts, 
criminal behavior, due process, and law enforcement. P — Economics 205. 

225. Public Choice. (4) Traditional tools of economic analysis are employed to 
explore such topics in political science as political organization, elections, coalition 
formation, the optimal provision of public goods, and the scope of government. 
P — Economics 205. 

231. Industrial Organization. (4) A study of market structures of industries and their 
effects on the allocation of resources. P — Economics 150. C — Economics 205. 

232. Economics of Regulation. (4) Analysis of governmental regulation and de- 
regulation of industries, with particular attention to the theory of natural monopoly, 
public utility regulation, and environmental, product-qualitv, and health regulation. 
P — Economics 205. 

235. Labor Theory. (4) A survey of neoclassical labor economics. Includes recent 
developments in the macroeconomics of the labor market, including expectations 
and wage inflation and the wage-productivitv-price relationship. P — Eco- 
nomics 205, 207. 



99 



236. Economics of Human Resources. (4) Survey of diverse theories outside the 
neoclassical tradition dealing with wages and employment, education, and labor 
relations. Methods of program and policy evaluation are introduced where applica- 
ble. P — Economics 150. 

246. Urban Economics. (4) Application of economic theory to suburbanization, land 
values, urban decay and redevelopment, zoning, location decisions of firms and 
households, and metropolitan fiscal problems. P — Economics 205. 

247. Regional Economics. (4) Study of the economic structure of subnational and 
international regions, and of their interactions. Includes analysis of trends and of the 
economic welfare implications of spatial policies. P — Economics 205. 

248. Resource Economics. (4) The economic theorv of natural resource allocation and 
environmental quality. P — Economics 205. 

251. International Trade. (4) Development of the theory of international trade pat- 
terns and prices and the effects of trade restrictions such as tariffs and quotas. 
P — Economics 205. 

252. International Finance. (4) A study of foreign exchange and Eurocurrency mar- 
kets, balance of payments, and macroeconomic policv in open economies. P — Eco- 
nomics 205, 207. 

253. Economics of Communism. (4) A theoretical and institutional examination of 
several non-capitalist economies, with special reference to the Soviet Union, the 
People's Republic of China, and Eastern Europe. P — Economics 150. 

254. Capitalism and Planning. (2, 4) The role of strategies of comprehensive govern- 
ment intervention in the economies of the West. Special attention to planning 
mechanisms and industrial policies in Japan and Western Europe. Four-credit ver- 
sion devotes additional attention to features of the welfare state. P — Economics 150. 

258. Economic Growth and Development. (4) A study of the problems of economic 
growth, with particular attention to the less developed countries of the world. 
P — Economics 205. 

261. American Economic Development. (4) The application of economic theory to 
historical problems and issues in the American economy. P — Economics 150. 

262. History of Economic Thought. (4) A historical survey of the main developments 
in economic thought from the Biblical period to the twentieth century. P — 
Economics 205, 207. 

265. Economic Philosophers. (4) An in-depth study of the doctrines and influence of 
three major figures in economics, such as Smith, Marx, and Keynes. P — Eco- 
nomics 205, 207. 

271, 272. Selected Areas in Economics. (2, 4; 2, 4) A survey of an important area in 
economics not included in the regular course offerings. The economics of housing, 
education, technology, and health services are examples. Students should consult 
the instructor to ascertain topic before enrolling. P — Economics 205, 207. 



100 

290. Individual Study. (2, 4) Directed readings in a specialized area of economics. 
P — Permission of instructor. 

297. Preparing for Economic Research. (2) Designed to assist students in selecting a 
research topic and beginning the study of the selected topic. P — Permission of 
instructor. 

298. Economic Research. (4) Development and presentation of a senior research 
project. Required of candidates for departmental honors. P — Permission of depart- 
ment. 

Education 

Joseph O. Milner, Chairman 
Professors Thomas M. Elmore, John H. Litcher, Joseph O. Milner, 

John E. Parker Jr., J. Don Reeves 

Associate Professors Patricia M. Cunningham, Linda N. Nielsen, 

Leonard P. Roberge 

Assistant Professor Robert H. Evans 

Lecturers Brian M. Austin, G. Dianne Mitchell, Marianne Schubert, 

Stuart Wright 
Instructor Katherine Mullett 

Because Wake Forest University believes that the educational profession is impor- 
tant to society and that our welfare is significantly affected bv the quality of our 
educational leadership, one of the important objectives of the University has been 
and continues to be the preparation of teachers and other professional school per- 
sonnel. The University's commitment to quality in teacher education is demon- 
strated by selective admission to the program, a wide range of professional courses, 
and closely supervised internships appropriate to the professional needs of stu- 
dents. 

Prospective teachers either major in other academic areas and take education 
courses to earn secondary certification or earn intermediate, science, or social studies 
certification as majors in the department of education. Certification for the primary 
or middle school grades can also be earned by intermediate majors who wish to 
extend their range of teaching certification. In addition to the professional program, 
the department provides a non-professional minor and elective courses open to all 
students. 

Teacher Certification. The North Carolina State Department of Public Instruction 
issues the Professional Class A Teacher's Certificate to graduates who have com- 
pleted an approved program, including the specified courses in their teaching 
field(s) and the prescribed courses in education, who have demonstrated specific 
competencies, and who receive recommendations from the designated official(s) of 
their teaching area(s) and from the chairman of the department or a deputy. 

Special students (those not having completed prior to graduation an approved 
certification program from this or another institution) should seek academic counsel- 
ing from the department to develop a plan for completing the Class A Certificate. 
Information about certification requirements for other states can be secured from the 



101 



department as assistance in planning a program to meet the certification require- 
ments of those states. 

Admission Requirements. Admission to the teacher education program normally 
occurs during the sophomore year. Admission involves filing an official application 
with the department, being interviewed, and being officially approved by the de- 
partment. 

Course Requirements. The approved program of teacher education requires candi- 
dates to complete successfully a series of professional education courses. The exact 
sequence of professional and academic courses varies with a student's particular 
program and is determined in conference with the candidate. For those seeking 
secondary certification the majority of the professional work is taken during one 
semester of the senior year. Candidates for the intermediate certificate may begin 
course work required for certification as early as the sophomore year. A cooperative 
agreement with Salem College gives education majors the additional opportunity to 
be certified in learning disabilities. 

Student Teaching. Prerequisites for registering for student teaching include 
(1) senior, graduate, or special student classification; (2) completion of school prac- 
ticum and foundations of education courses; (3) an average of at least C on all course 
work; (4) an average of at least C on all courses taken in the areas(s) of certification; 
(5) departmental approval for admission to the teacher education program. 

Students are assigned to student teaching opportunities bv public school officials 
on the basis of available positions and the professional needs of the student and the 
public school system. (The University does not assume responsibility for transporta- 
tion to schools during student teaching.) For both secondary and intermediate 
students one semester of the senior year is reserved for the student teaching experi- 
ence and the block of courses preparatory to that experience in the schools. Students 
may not take other courses during this semester without the approval of the depart- 
ment chairman. 

Teaching Area Requirements 
Secondary Certificate 

English — Thirtv-six credits, including four credits from courses numbered 160-175; at 

least sixteen credits from courses numbered 300-399; 323; 390. 

French — Thirty-six credits, including French 153, 216 or 217, 219, 221, 224, or their 

equivalents; at least eight credits in French literature beyond 217. 

Spanish — Thirty-six credits, including Spanish 153, 215 or 216, 217, 221, 223, 224, or 

their equivalents; eight credits from 225, 226, 227; at least four additional credits in 

literature. 

French and Spanish — Fifty-six credits, including French 153x, 216, 217, 221, 222, and 

224; plus Spanish 153x, either 215 or 216, 219, 221, either 223 or 224; and eight credits 

from 225, 226, 227, or their equivalents. 

German — Thirty-two credits, including German 153, 211, 212; eight credits from 

German 217, 218, 219, 220; at least twelve credits in German literature beyond 212. 

Latin — The requirements are the same as those for the major in Latin. 



102 



Mathematics— Forty credits, including Mathematics 111, 112, 113, 121, 221, 231, 332; 
at least one additional four-credit, 300-level course. 

Music— Forty-eight credits, including Music 171, 172, 173, 174, 181, 182, 186, 187, 
188; Education 280, 282, 284, 289, and 291. 

Science — Ten credits each in biology, chemistry, and physics; eight credits in mathe- 
matics; additional work in the area of concentration: biology (twenty credits), chem- 
istry (twenty credits), or physics (seventeen credits). For certification in the in- 
dividual fields of science, the following are required: biologv (thirty credits), chemis- 
try (thirty credits), or phvsics (twenty-seven credits). 

Social Studies — Forty-eight credits, including twentv-four credits in history, with at 
least six to eight credits in United States history and six to eight credits in world 
(European) history; twenty credits from politics, sociology, anthropology, or eco- 
nomics, with no more than eight credits in any one area; and four credits in geogra- 
phy. For certification in the individual fields of the social studies, the following are 
required: economics (twenty-four credits), politics (twenty-four credits), history 
(twenty-four credits, with at least six to eight credits in United States history and six 
to eight credits in world [European] history), and sociology (twenty-four credits). 
Education courses required for a secondary certificate include Education 201, 202 
or 203, 211, 214, 251, 291, and 383. 

Intermediate Education 

Forty-two credits, including appropriate basic and divisional course requirements; 
eight credits in language arts; eight credits in social studies; eight credits in sciences; 
four credits in mathematics; four credits in music or in art; two credits in health and 
sport science. Remaining certification requirements are obtained through in- 
termediate education courses and an academic concentration in one of the teaching 
areas of the intermediate grades. 

Education courses required for an intermediate certificate include Education 201, 
202 or 203, 211, 221, 222, 251, 271, 293, 294, 295, 296, 313, and 383. 

A minor in educational studies requires Education 201, 211, 303, 304, 313, and 
Education 393 or 214. A minor in professional education requires Education 201, 202 
or 203, 211, 214, 251, 291, and 383. 

201. Foundations of Education. (4) Philosophical, historical, and sociological foun- 
dations of education, including analysis of contemporary issues and problems. 

202 or 203. School Practicum. (2) Assigned experiences in elementary and secondary 
schools. Weekly seminar. Pass/Fail onlv. 

211. Educational Psychology. (4) The theories, processes, and conditions of effective 
teaching/learning. P — Education 201 or permission of instructor. 

214. The School and Teaching. (4) Organization of the school system; bases of 
education; the curriculum; major problems of education and teaching; the role of the 
teacher; psychological aspects of teaching. P — Education 201 and permission of 
instructor. 



103 

221. Children's Literature and Reading. (4) A survey of the types of literature 
appropriate for the elementary grades and an investigation of the basic problems in 
reading. 

222. The Arts in the Elementary Grades. (2) The development of skills in music, 
movement, and fine arts, appropriate to the elementary grades. P — Permission of 
instructor. 

223. Health and Physical Education for the Intermediate Grades. (4) The develop- 
ment of physical education skills appropriate for the intermediate grade teacher and 
an understanding of the personal and communitv health needs appropriate for the 
grade level. P — Education 201 or permission of instructor. 

250. Student Teaching: Intermediate. (6) Supervised teaching experience in grades 
3-6. Pass/Fail. P — Permission of instructor. 

251. Student Teaching: Secondary. (6) Supervised teaching experience in grades 
9-12. Pass/Fail. P — Permission of instructor. 

252. Student Teaching: Early Childhood. (2) Supervised teaching experience in 
grades K-4. Pass/Fail. P — Permission of instructor. 

253. Student Teaching: Middle School. (2) Supervised teaching experience in grades 
6-9. Pass/Fail. P — Permission of instructor. 

271. Geography: The Human Environment. (4) A survey of the geography of human 
activity as it occurs throughout the world. Emphasis is placed on current problems 
related to population, resources, regional development, and urbanization. 

272. Geography Study Tour. (4) A guided tour of selected areas to study physical, 
economic, and cultural environments and their influence on man. Background 
references for reading are suggested prior to the tour. 

273. Geography: The Natural Environment. (4) A svstematic study of the major 
components of physical geography with special emphasis on climate and topogra- 
phy. 

280. Orchestration. (4) A study of the orchestra and wind band instruments, how 
composers have used them throughout history, and the development of practical 
scoring and manuscript skills. Offered in alternate years. P — Music 174, 184. 

281. Public Life and the Liberal Arts. (4) The course will be devoted to topics of 
abiding significance. Fundamental dilemmas and resolutions associated with each 
topic will be examined through a consideration of their treatment in the liberal arts 
tradition. The visiting scholars of the Tocqueville Forum will supplement the class 
discussion. Politics and the Arts and Theory and Practice in Public Life are representative 
topics. 

282. Conducting. (4) A study of choral and instrumental conducting techniques, 
including practical experience with ensembles. Offered in alternate years. P — 
Music 174, 184. 



104 

284. Music Literature Seminar. (3 or 4) A survey of repertoire, including an examina- 
tion of teaching materials in the student's special area of interest. P — Music 174, 184, 
and permission of instructor. 

289. Ensemble Methods. (2) A practical study of choral and instrumental techniques. 
Discussion of tonal development, administration, bibliography, choral and in- 
strumental repertoire, marching band, and instrumental problems. P — Music 101 or 
102 or permission of instructor. 

291. Methods and Materials. (4) Methods, materials, and techniques used in teach- 
ing the various subjects. P — Education 201 and permission of instructor. 

Teaching of English. Spring. 

Teaching of Foreign Language. Spring. 

Teaching of Mathematics. Spring. 

Teaching of Music. Spring. 

Teaching of Physical Education and Health. Spring. 

Teaching of Science. Spring. 

Teaching of Social Studies. Spring. 

Teaching of Speech Communication. Spring. 

Teaching of Theatre Arts. Spring. 

292. Primary Methods. (4) Classroom organization, teaching strategies, and materi- 
als appropriate to subjects taught in grades K-3. P — Permission of instructor. 

293. Intermediate School Curriculum: Theory and Practice. (3) General principles of 
curriculum construction and teaching methods. Introduction to the use of au- 
diovisual materials and equipment. 

294. Methods and Materials for Teaching Language Arts. (3) A survey of the basic 
materials, methods, and techniques of teaching language arts in the elementary 
grades. P — Permission of instructor. 

295. Methods and Materials for Teaching Social Studies. (3) A survey of the basic 
materials, methods, and techniques of teaching social studies in the elementary 
grades. P — Permission of instructor. 

296. Methods and Materials for Teaching Science and Mathematics. (4) A survey of 
the basic materials, methods, and techniques of teaching science and mathematics in 
the intermediate grades. P — Permission of instructor. 

297. Trends and Issues in American Schools. (2) An exploration of contemporary 
trends and issues as they affect course content and teaching methods in the schools. 
The course is intended to help those not entering professional education evaluate 
their schools as informed citizens and decision-makers. 

301. Microcomputer and Audiovisual Literacy. (4) An introduction to microcomput- 
ers for educators and other users, emphasizing a familiarity with computers, use and 
evaluation of software, and elementary programming skills in BASIC and LOGO. 
Experience with audiovisual materials and techniques will be included. 



105 

302. Production of Instructional Methods. (4) Methods of producing instructional 
materials and other technological techniques. P — Education 301. 

303. History of Western Education. (4) Educational theory and practice from ancient 
times through the modern period, including American education. 

304. Theories of Education. (4) Contemporary proposals for educational theory and 
practice studied in the context of social issues. 

305. Sociology of Education. (4) A study of contemporary society and education, 
including goals and values, institutional culture, and the teaching/learning process. 

306. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Education. (4) A study of selected 
historical eras, influential thinkers, or crucial problems in education. Topics an- 
nounced annually. 

313. Human Growth and Development. (4) A study of the intellectual, emotional, 
and physical components of growth from birth to adolescence, with special concern 
for the educational implications of this process. 

323. Educational Statistics. (4) Descriptive, inferential, and nonparametric statistical 
procedures involved in educational research. Not open to students who have taken 
Psychology 211 and 212. P — Permission of instructor. 

341. Principles of Counseling and Guidance. (4) Counseling history, philosophy, 
theory, procedure, and process. Therapeutic and developmental counseling 
approaches in guidance and personnel work in education, business, and community 
service agencies. 

351. Adolescent Psychology. (4) An introduction to theories of adolescent psycholo- 
gy as related to teaching and counseling in various settings. The readings emphasize 
researchers' suggestions for parenting, teaching, and counseling adolescents be- 
tween the ages of thirteen and nineteen. 

352. Middle School Methods. (4) Exploration of the content and method pertinent to 
a specific discipline as well as the general methodological and curriculum concerns of 
learning at the middle school (6-9) level. 

383. Reading in the Content Areas. (2) The course provides an introduction to 
teaching the basic reading skills at the intermediate and secondary level; vocabulary, 
comprehension, reading rate, selection of texts, and critical and interpretive reading. 
Particularly stressed are diagnoses of reading problems and techniques for correcting 
these problems in specific subject content areas. 

384. Creative Research Methodologies. (2) An investigation of source materials, 
printed and manuscript, and research methods which are applied to creative class- 
room experiences and the preparation of research papers in literature and social 
studies. 

385. Publishing in America and Professional Authorship. (2) A survey of the history 
of publishing and literary authorship in the United States emphasizing social con- 
texts and the impact of books on American institutions. 



106 



387. Tutoring Basic Writing. (2) Review of recent writing theory applicable to 
teaching basic writers (including the learning disabled and non-native speakers). 
Special attention to invention strategies and heuristic techniques. Includes experi- 
ence with tutoring in the Writing Center. A student may not receive credit for both 
Education 387 and English 387. 

391. Teaching the Gifted. (4) An investigation of theory and practice pertinent to 
teachers of the gifted. 

392. The Psychology of the Gifted Child. (4) A discussion of giftedness and creativ- 
ity in children and the relationship of those characteristics to adult superior perform- 
ance. Topics to be covered include a historv of the studv of precocity, methods and 
problems of identification, the relationship of giftedness and creativity, personality 
characteristics and social-emotional problems of gifted children, and the social im- 
plications of studying giftedness. 

393. Individual Study. (2, 4) A project in an area of study not otherwise available in 
the department of education. Permitted upon departmental approval of petition 
presented by a qualified student. 

394. Internship in Education of the Gifted. (4) An intensive period of observation 
and instruction of gifted students. Readings and directed reflection upon the class- 
room experience will be used to develop a richer understanding of such a special 
school setting. 

396. Education in Business and Industry. (4) Educational concepts applied to pro- 
grams in education and training in business/industrial settings. 




107 

English 

Robert N. Shorter, Chairman 

Professors John A. Carter Jr., Nancy J. Cotton, Doyle R. Fosso, 

Thomas F. Gossett, W. Dillon Johnston, Elizabeth Phillips, Lee Harris Potter, 

Robert N. Shorter, Edwin Graves Wilson 

Associate Professors Andrew V. Ettin, James S. Hans, Robert W. Lovett, 

Dolly A. McPherson, William M. Moss, Gillian R. Overing 

Assistant Professors Barry G. Maine, Claudia Thomas 

Visiting Assistant Professors Anne Boyle, Randy Brandes, Barbara Heusel 

Professor of Journalism Bynum Shaw 

Lecturer Patricia A. Johansson 

Visiting Lecturer Robert A. Hedin 

Instructors Kathleen Reuter, Helen Robbins, Emily Seelbinder 

The major in English requires a minimum of forty credits, at least thirty-two of 
which must be in advanced language and literature courses numbered 300 to 399. 
These courses must include Shakespeare, two additional courses in British literature 
before 1800, one course in American literature, and, early in the major, one seminar. 
Majors and their advisers plan individual programs to meet these requirements and 
to include work in the major literary types. 

A minor in English requires English 160 or 165 and English 170 or 175, plus five 
advanced language and literature courses. Each minor will be assigned an adviser in 
the English department who will plan with the student a program of study. 

The prerequisite for all 300-level courses in English is any one of the courses in 
British and American literature numbered 160, 165, 170, and 175, all of which are 
offered each semester. Additional courses in journalism and writing are offered by 
the department as related subjects but do not count toward an English major; they 
may be taken as electives regardless of the field of study in which a student majors. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply in the second 
semester of their junior year for admission to the honors program in English. To 
graduate with "Honors in English," students must have a minimum grade point 
average of 3.5 in the major and 3.0 in all course work and must satisfv the require- 
ments for English 388 during their senior vear. Interested students may consult 
departmental faculty members for further information. 



Lower Division Courses 

11. Composition Review. (0) A tutorial in the essentials of standard usage and the 
basic principles of composition. 

105. English Fundamentals. (2) Training in the fundamentals of written English. 
Satisfactory completion required for entrv into English 110. Admission by placement 
only; does not satisfy the basic composition requirement. 



108 

110. English Composition. (4) Training in expository writing; frequent essays based 
upon readings. 

112. English Composition and Literature. (4) Training in expository writing based on 
the reading cf literature. P — Permission of department. 

160. Survey of Major British Writers. (4) Eight to ten writers representing different 
periods and genres. 

165. Studies in Major British Writers. (4) Three to five writers representing different 
periods; primarily discussion, with frequent short papers. Limited enrollment. P — 
Permission of department. 

170. Survey of Major American Writers. (4) Nine to eleven writers representing 
different periods and genres. 

175. Studies in Major American Writers. (4) Three to five writers representing 
different periods; primarily discussion, with frequent short papers. Limited enroll- 
ment. P — Permission of department. 

180. Traditions of Humanity: The Liberal Arts. (2) A study of major concepts of 
liberal education in the Western world. 

210. Advanced Composition. (4) Study of prose models of exposition; frequent 
papers and individual conferences. Enrollment limited. P — Satisfaction of basic 
composition requirement. 

225. Reading Short Fiction. (2) Selected readings from the genre of short fiction 
designed to increase students' appreciation and pleasure. 

226. Reading the Novel. (2) Selected readings from the genre of the novel designed to 
increase students' appreciation and pleasure. 

227. Reading Poetry. (2) Selected readings from the genre of poetry designed to 
increase students' appreciation and pleasure. 

228. Reading Drama. (2) Selected readings from the genre of drama designed to 
increase students' appreciation and pleasure. 

245. Literary Approaches to Film. (2) The study of film as a literary genre, with 
special attention given to narrative, theme, and structure. Students will apply 
methods and principles of literary criticism to selected films. 

299. Individual Study. (2-4) A course of independent study with faculty guidance. 
By prearrangement. 



^Either 110 or 112 is a prerequisite for all other courses in English unless the basic requirement is waived. 
Either course fulfills the basic requirement . 



109 

Journalism Courses 

270. Introduction to Journalism. (4) Survey of the fundamental principles of news- 
gathering and news-writing; study of news and news values, with some attention to 
representative newspapers. 

272. Editing. (4) A laboratory course in copy-editing, headline-writing, typography, 
and make-up; practice on Video Display Terminal. P — English 270. 

276. Advanced Journalism. (4) Intensive practice in writing various types of news- 
paper stories, including the feature article. Limited to students planning careers in 
journalism. P — English 270. 

278. History of Journalism. (4) A study of the development of American journalism 
and its English origins; detailed investigations of representative world newspapers. 

284. The Essay. (2) Primarily for those interested in writing for publication, with 
concentration on writing various types of essays. 

298. Internship. (2) A course designed to assist students in gaining practical experi- 
ence in news-related enterprises, under faculty supervision. 

299. Individual Study. (2-4) A course of independent study with faculty guidance. 
By prearrangement. 

Writing Courses 

285. Poetry Workshop. (2) A laboratory course in the writing of verse. Study of poetic 
techniques and forms as well as works of contemporary poets. Frequent individual 
conferences. 

286. Short Story Workshop. (2) A studv of the fundamental principles of short fiction 
writing; practice in writing; extensive study of short story form. P — Permission of 
instructor. 

383, 384. Theory and Practice of Verse Writing. (4, 4) Emphasis on reading and 
discussing student poems in terms of craftsmanship and general principles. 

Advanced Language and Literature Courses 

300. Seminar in the Major. (4) Selected topics in British and American literature. 
Intensive practice in critical discourse, including discussion, oral reports, and short 
essays. Introduction to literary scholarship and research methodology leading to a 
documented paper. Required for all majors. 

301. Individual Authors. (2) Studv of selected work from an important American or 
British author. May be repeated. 

302. Ideas in Literature. (2) Study of a significant literarv theme in selected works. 
May be repeated. 

304. History of the English Language. (4) A survev of the development of English 



110 



syntax, morphology, and phonology from Old English to the present, with attention 
to vocabulary growth. 

305. Old English Language and Literature. (4) An introduction to the Old English 
language and a study of the historical and cultural background of Old English 
literature, including Anglo-Saxon and Viking art, runes, and Scandinavian mytholo- 
gy. Readings from Beowulf and selected poems and prose. 

311. The Legend of Arthur. (4) The origin and development of the Arthurian legend 
in France and England, with emphasis on the works of Chretien de Troyes and Sir 
Thomas Malory. 

315. Chaucer. (4) Emphasis on The Canterbury Tales and Troilus and Criseyde, with 
some attention to minor poems. Consideration of literary, social, religious, and 
philosophical background. 

320. British Drama to 1642. (4) British drama from its beginning to 1642, exclusive of 
Shakespeare. Representative cycle plays, moralities, Elizabethan and Jacobean 
tragedies, comedies, and tragicomedies. 

323. Shakespeare. (4) Thirteen representative plays illustrating Shakespeare's de- 
velopment as a poet and dramatist. 

325. Sixteenth Century British Literature. (4) Concentration on the poetry of Spen- 
ser, Sidney, Shakespeare, Wyatt, and Drayton, with particular attention to sonnets 
and The Taerie Queene. 

327. Milton. (4) The poetry and selected prose of John Milton, with emphasis on 

Paradise Lost. 

328. Seventeenth Century British Literature. (4) Poetry of Donne, Herbert, 
Vaughan, Marvel, Crashaw, prose of Bacon, Burton, Browne, Walton. Considera- 
tion of religious, political, and scientific backgrounds. 

330. British Literature of the Eighteenth Century. (4) Representative poetry and 
prose, exclusive of the novel, 1700-1800, drawn from Addison, Steele, Defoe, Swift, 
Pope, Johnson, and Boswell. Consideration of cultural backgrounds and significant 
literary trends. 

332. Satire. (4) The nature of the satiric form and the satiric spirit as revealed through 
reading and critical analysis of significant examples, mostly British and American. 

335. Eighteenth Century British Fiction. (4) Primarily the fiction of Defoe, Richard- 
son, Fielding, Smollett, Sterns, and Austen. 

336. Restoration and Eighteenth Century British Drama. (4) British drama from 1660 
to 1780, including representative plavs by Drvden, Etherege, Wvcherley, Congreve, 
Goldsmith, and Sheridan. 

338. British Literature of the Late Eighteenth Century. (4) A study of the period's 
interest in the exotic, the gothic, the oriental, and the medieval. Authors include 
Goldsmith, Burns, Walpole, and Burke. 



Ill 

340. Studies in Women and Literature. (4) A. The woman writer in society. B. Femi- 
nist critical approaches to literature. 

350. British Romantic Poets. (4) A review of the beginnings of Romanticism in British 
literature, followed by study of Wordsworth, Coleridge, Byron, Keats, and Shelley; 
collateral reading in the prose of the period. 

353. Nineteenth Century British Fiction. (4) Representative major works bv Dickens, 
Eliot, Thackeray, Hardy, the Brontes, and others. 

354. Victorian Poetry. (4) A study of Tennyson, Browning, Hopkins, and Arnold or 
another Victorian poet. 

360. Studies in Victorian Literature. (4) Selected topics, such as development of 
genres, major authors and texts, and cultural influences. Readings in poetry, fiction, 
autobiography, and other prose. 

362. Blake, Yeats, and Thomas. (3 or 4) Reading and critical analvsis of the poetry of 
Blake, Yeats, and Dylan Thomas; study of the plays of Yeats and his contemporaries 
in the Irish Renaissance, especially Synge and Lady Gregory. 

364. Studies in Literary Criticism. (4) Consideration of certain figures and schools of 
thought significant in the historv of literary criticism. 

365. Twentieth Century British Fiction. (4) A studv of Conrad, Lawrence, Joyce, 
Forster, Woolf, and later British writers, with attention to their social and intellectual 
backgrounds. 

367. Twentieth Century Poetry. (4) Readings of major poets from 1900 to 1965 in 
relation to the development of Modernism. 

368. Studies in Irish Literature. (4) Critical readings of the works of major Irish 
writers within the context of the political, social, and literarv history of Ireland. 

369. Modern Drama. (4) Main currents in modern drama from nineteenth century 
naturalism and svmbolism through expressionism and absurdism, including repre- 
sentative plays bv Shaw, O'Neill, Williams, and Pinter. 

370. American Literature to 1820. (4) Origins and development of American litera- 
ture and thought in representative writings of the Colonial, Revolutionary, and 
Federal periods. 

372. American Romanticism. (4) Writers of the mid-nineteenth century, including 
Emerson, Thoreau, Hawthorne, and Melville. 

376. American Poetry from 1855 to 1900. (4) Readings from at least two of the 
following poets: Whitman, Dickinson, Melville. 

378. Literature of the American South. (4) A study of Southern literature from its 
beginnings to the present, with emphasis upon such major writers as Tate, Warren, 
Faulkner, O'Connor, Welty, and Styron. 



112 

380. American Fiction from 1865 to 1915. (4) Such writers as Twain, James, Howells, 
Crane, Dreiser, Wharton, and Cather. 

381. Studies in Black American Literature. (4) Reading and critical analysis of 
selected fiction, poetry, drama, and other writing bv representative black Amer- 
icans. 

382. Modern American Fiction, 1915 to the Present. (4) To include such writers as 
Lewis, Hemingway, Fitzgerald, Faulkner, Steinback, Wolfe, Wright, Katherine 
Anne Porter, Mailer, Bellow, Malamud, Flannery O'Connor, Baldwin, and Styron. 

386. Directed Reading. (2-4) A tutorial in an area of study not otherwise provided by 
the department; granted upon departmental approval of petition presented by a 
qualified student. 

388. Honors in English. (4) A conference course centering upon a special reading 
requirement and a thesis requirement. For senior students wishing to graduate with 
"Honors in English." 

389. The Use of the Library in Literary Research. (2) Attention to materials, 
methods, and bibliography for the study of literature. 

390. The Structure of English. (4) An introduction to the principles and techniques of 
modern linguistics applied to contemporary American English. 

395. Contemporary American Literature. (4) A study of post-World War II American 
poetry and fiction by such writers as Bellow, Gass, Barth, Pynchon, Lowell, Ash- 
bery, Ammons, Bishop, and Rich. 



German and Russian 

Larry E. West, Chairman 
Professors Ralph S. Fraser, Wilmer D. Sanders, Timothy F. Sellner, 

Larry E. West 

Associate Professor William S. Hamilton 

Instructor Christa Carollo 

A major in German requires thirty-seven credits beyond German 111, 112. These 
must include German 217 and should include 281 and 285. A minor in German 
requires five courses beyond German 153, one of which must be German 217. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in German. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in 
German," they must complete a senior research project and pass a comprehensive 
examination. For additional information members of the departmental faculty 
should be consulted. 

Students of German are invited to apply for the exchange scholarship at the Free 
University of Berlin and for programs of study at Freiburg and Vienna administered 
by the Institute of European Studies. Majors and minors are encouraged to live for at 
least one semester in the German House. 



113 

111, 112. Elementary German. (4, 4) This course covers the principles of grammar 
and pronunciation and includes the reading of simple texts. Lab — one hour. 

113. Intensive Elementary German. (5) A one-semester course covering the material 
of German 111 and 112. For students whose preparation for German 153 is in- 
adequate or who have demonstrated proficiency in another language. Not open to 
students who have had German 111 or 112. 

153. Intermediate German. (5) The principles of grammar are reviewed; reading of 
selected prose and poetrv. Lab — one hour. P — German 112 or 113. 

153x. Intermediate German. (4) The principles of grammar are reviewed; reading of 
selected prose and poetrv. Lab — one hour. P — Three years of high school German. 

160. German Language and Customs. (4) Students spend one month in four different 
regions of Germany and Austria in a program designed to provide constant exposure 
to the language, customs, geography, and art of these countries. Thev attend daily 
language classes as well as lectures and cultural events. Thev are required to keep a 
journal in German. Pass/Fail. Offered in summer. P — German 112 or 113. 

215, 216. Introduction to German Literature. (4, 4) The object of this course is to 
acquaint the student with masterpieces of German literature. Parallel reading and 
reports. P — German 153 or equivalent. 

217. Composition and Grammar Review. (4) A review of the fundamentals of 
German grammar with intensive practice in translation and composition. Required 
for majors. P — German 153 or equivalent. 

218. Conversation and Phonetics. (4) A course in spoken German emphasizing 
facility of expression. Considerable attention is devoted to phonetics. P — 
German 153 or equivalent. 

219. Advanced Composition. (4) A studv of advanced grammar and composition. 
English texts translated into German in addition to free composition in German. 
P — German 217 or equivalent. 

220. German Civilization. (4) A survev of contemporarv German culture, including a 
study of its historical development in broad outline. The course is conducted in 
German. P — German 153 or equivalent. 

240. Modern Masterworks in Translation. (2) Examination and interpretation of 
selected texts in English translation. Literarv periods, genres, and authors will varv 
according to instructor. Does not count toward a major or minor in German. 

249. Old High German and Middle High German Literature. (4) The study of major 
writers and works from these two areas; emphasizes major writings of the chivalric 
period. P — German 215, 216, or equivalent. 

250. Renaissance, Reformation, and Baroque German Literature. (4) A study of 
major writers and works from the post-chivalric period to approximately 1700. 
P — German 215, 216, or equivalent. 



114 

253. Eighteenth Century German Literature. (4) A study of major writers and works 
of the Enlightenment and Sturm unci Drang. P — German 215, 216, or equivalent. 

263. German Literature of the Nineteenth Century I. (4) Poetry, prose, dramas, and 
critical works from approximately 1795 to 1848. P — German 215, 216, or equivalent. 

264. German Literature of the Nineteenth Century II. (4) Readings from the be- 
ginnings of Poetic Realism to the advent of Naturalism. P — German 215, 216 or 
equivalent. 

270. Individual Study. (2-4) Studies in literature not ordinarilv read in other courses. 
P — German 215, 216, and permission of instructor. 

281. Seminar: Twentieth Century Prose. (4) Intensive study of certain works by 
Thomas Mann, Hesse, and Kafka, plus considerable outside reading. P — 
German 215, 216, or equivalent. 

285. Seminar in Goethe. (4) Faust, Part I and other major dramas by Goethe and 
Schiller. Parallel readings in other works by these authors. P — German 215, 216, or 
equivalent. 

287, 288. Honors in German. (3, 3) A conference course in German literature. A 
major research paper is required. Designed for candidates for departmental honors. 



Russian 

A minor in Russian requires five courses beyond 153, one of which must be 
Russian 221. 

Ill, 112. Elementary Russian. (4, 4) The essentials of Russian grammar, conversa- 
tion drill, and reading of elementary texts. Lab required. P — Permission of in- 
structor. 

153. Intermediate Russian. (5) Training in principles of translation with grammar 
review and conversation practice. Lab required. P — Russian 112 or equivalent. 

153x. Intermediate Russian. (4) Open by placement or permission. Lab required. 

215. Introduction to Russian Literature. (4) Reading of edited texts from the 
nineteenth century. P — Russian 153 or equivalent. 

216. Introduction to Russian Literature. (4) Reading of edited texts from the twen- 
tieth century. P — Russian 153 or equivalent. 

217. Seminar in Nineteenth Century Russian Literature. (4) A study of the foremost 
writers, with reading of representative works. P — Russian 153 or equivalent. 

218. Seminar in Contemporary Russian Literature. (4) Reading of representative 
works in Russian with discussion of political and cultural backgrounds. P — 
Russian 153 or equivalent. 



115 

221. Advanced Conversation and Composition. (4) Studv of grammar at the ad- 
vanced level. Intensive practice in composition and conversation based on themes in 
a review text and on articles from the Soviet press. 



Health and Sport Science 

William L. Hottinger, Chairman 

Professors William L. Hottinger, Paul M. Ribisl 

Associate Professors Dorothy Casey, Leo Ellison, Stephen Messier, 

W. jack Rejeski 

Assistant Professor Michael J. Berry 

Instructors Donald Bergey, Rebecca Myers, David Stroupe, Janice Hall Weiss 

The purpose of the department of health and sport science is to organize, adminis- 
ter, and supervise (I) a health and sport science curriculum; (2) a required/elective health and 
sport science program consisting of conditioning activities, dance, and lifetime sport 
activities; and (3) an intramural sports program. 

Health and Sport Science Requirement 

All entering students are required to complete two courses in health and sport 
science: Foundations of Health and Physical Fitness (111), and one additional course 
selected from the 100-series of health and sport science courses. The requirement 
must be completed before elective courses are taken. It is recommended that the 
requirement be completed by the end of the student's first year; it must be completed 
by the end of the second year. 

Courses in Basic Instruction and Elective Health and Sport Science 

All the courses listed below are offered for one credit each. 

111. Foundations of Health and Physical Fitness 

112. Sports Proficiency 

113. Adaptive Physical Activity 

114. Weight Control 

115. Physical Conditioning 

116. Weight Training 

119. Aerobic Dancing 

120. Beginning Dance Technique 

121. Intermediate Dance Technique (P — Health and Sport Science 120 or 
permission of instructor) 

122. Advanced Dance Technique (P — Health and Sport Science 111 or 
permission of instructor) 

123. Dance Composition (P — Health and Sport Science 121) 

124. Social Dance 

125. Folk and Social Dance 

126. Jazz Dance 



116 



127. Classical Ballet 
*128. Dance Theatre (P — Permission of instructor) 

130. Beginning Tumbling/Free Exercise 

131. Intermediate Tumbling/Free Exercise 

132. Beginning Gymnastic Apparatus 

133. Intermediate Gymnastic Apparatus 

134. Aero-Sports 

140. Beginning Swimming 

141. Intermediate/ Advanced Swimming 

143. Water Ballet/Synchronized Swimming 

144. Springboard Diving 

145. Advanced Lifesaving and Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation 
(P — Strong swimming ability) 

146. Water Safety Instructor's Course (P — Current advanced lifesaving certification) 

150. Beginning Tennis 

151. Intermediate Tennis 

152. Advanced Tennis (P — Health and Sport Science 151 or permission of instructor) 

154. Beginning/Intermediate Badminton 

155. Beginning Squash Racquets 

156. Beginning Racquetball 

157. Intermediate Racquetball 

160. Beginning Golf 

161. Intermediate Golf 

162. Archery 

163. Bowling 

164. Beginning/Intermediate Handball 

165. Recreational Games 

170. Volleyball 

171. Soccer 

175. Wrestling 

176. Fencing 

179. Beginning Horseback Riding 

180. Intermediate/Advanced Horseback Riding 

181. Snow Skiing 

182. Beginning Ice Figure Skating 

183. Intermediate/Advanced Ice Figure Skating 

190. Karate 

191. Yoga 

Courses for the Major and Minor 

The department offers a program leading to the BS degree in health and sport 
science. A major requires forty-four credits and must include Health and Sport 



*One course taken hoo semesters for one credit. May be repeated for a maximum of three credits. 



117 



Science 203, 204, 209, 212, 230, 350, 351, 352, 353, 360, and 370. A maximum of five 
100-level activity courses can be counted toward the major, excluding the University 
requirement. Students can meet the qualifications for athletic training by completing 
the major plus Health and Sport Science 241, 264, and 363 and Sports Medicine 201 
and 302. 

A minor in health and sport science requires twenty-four credits. Twelve credits 
must be selected from Health and Sport Science 350, 351, 352, 353, 354, 360, and 370. 
The remaining twelve credits may be selected from these courses but may also 
include Health and Sport Science 209, 212, 230, 241, 264, and 363. To minor, a 
student must have department approval. 

A dance minor requires twenty-four credits and must include Health and Sport 
Science 120, 121, 122, 123, 126, 127, 128, and 201; Music 101; Speech Communication 
and Theatre Arts 121; and History of Dance 104 (offered at Salem College). The 
remaining credits may be selected from Health and Sport Science 191, 370; 
Music 161, 165p, 165r, 165v, 166r, 168v, 190, 261; and Speech Communication and 
Theatre Arts 122, 221, 317, and 319. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to applv for admission to the 
honors program. Upon successfully meeting specifically outlined requirements, 
they are recommended for graduation with "Honors in Health and Sport Science." 
Consult an adviser in the health and sport science department for more information. 

Any student interested in majoring in health and sport science should consult the 
chairman of the department as soon as possible after entering the University. 

201. Senior Dance Project. (2) A course involving the creative process of developing a 
dance. 

203. Exercise Prescription/Training I. (2) A lecture/laboratory course which presents 
the basic principles of safe and effective exercise prescription for people of all ages. 
Lectures emphasize the scientific concepts of exercise preparation for aerobic-type 
activities. Laboratory sessions emphasize the application of these concepts. 

204. Exercise Prescription/Training II. (2) A laboratory course which emphasizes the 
principles of exercise prescription and conditioning in aquatics and weight training. 
Emphasis on application of scientific concepts, including measurement and evalua- 
tion, to these activities. P — Health and Sport Science 203. 

205. Basic Skin and Scuba Diving and Open Water Certification. (2) A course in skin 
and SCUBA diving that offers international certification by the Professional Associa- 
tion of Diving Instructors (PADI). 

208. Current Topics in Sports Psychology. (2) A survey of the field with an emphasis 
on current topics. Students may not receive credit for both 208 and 212. 

209. Introduction to Health and Sport Science. (2) A course which traces the history 
of exercise and sport science . Students also examine the relevance of health and sport 
science in modern society. 

212. Exercise and Health Psychology. (4) A survey of the psychological antecedents 
of exercise and selected topics in health psychology with particular attention to 



118 



wellness, stress, the biobehavioral basis of coronary heart disease, and the psy- 
chodynamics of rehabilitative medicine. P — Psychology 151 or permission of in- 
structor. 

223. Health and Physical Education for the Intermediate Grades. (4) The develop- 
ment of physical education skills appropriate for the intermediate grade teacher and 
an understanding of the personal and community health needs appropriate for the 
grade level. P — Education 201 or permission of instructor. 

230. First Aid and CPR. (2) A course in first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. 
Red Cross certification offered in both areas. 

241. Growth, Development, and Physical Activity. (2) An examination of the effect 
of physical activity on physical, intellectual, and social/psychological development. 

264. Adapted Physical Activity. (2) A survey of physical disabilities and ways that 
physical activity programs can be adapted to meet the needs of the disabled. 

310. Applied Field Study. (2) A course involving application of theory and methods 
of solving problems in a specialized area according to the student's immediate career 
goals. P — Permission of instructor. 

350. Human Physiology. (4) A lecture course which presents the basic principles and 
concepts of the function of selected systems of the human body, with emphasis on 
the muscular, skeletal, cardiovascular, pulmonary, and nervous systems. P — 
Biology 111 or permission of instructor. 

351. Nutrition and Weight Control. (4) A lecture/laboratory course which presents 
the principles of proper nutrition including an understanding of the basic foodstuffs 
and nutrients as well as the influence of genetics, eating behavior, and activity 
patterns on energy balance and weight control. Laboratory experiences examine 
intervention in obesity and coronary heart disease through diet analysis, methods of 
diet prescription, and behavior modification. P — Health and Sport Science 350 or 
permission of instructor. 

352. Human Gross Anatomy. (4) A lecture/laboratory course which studies the 
structure and function of the human body. Laboratory devoted to the dissection and 
study of the human musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, and vascular systems. 

353. Physiology of Exercise. (4) A lecture course which presents the concepts and 
applications of the physiological response of the human body to physical activity. 
The acute and chronic responses of the muscular and cardiorespiratory systems to 
exercise are examined. Other topics include exercise and coronary disease, nutrition 
and performance, strength and endurance training, somatotype and body composi- 
tion, weight control, sex-related differences, and environmental influences. P — 
Health and Sport Science 350 or permission of instructor. 

354. Laboratory Techniques in Exercise Science. (4) A laboratory course which 
demonstrates the concepts of the physiological response to exercise. Weekly ex- 
periments on a variety of topics give students hands-on experience with data collec- 



119 



tion methods. Experimental results are analyzed and presented in written lab re- 
ports. P — Health and Sport Science 353. 

360. Evaluation and Measurement. (4) A course in applied univariate statistics and 
measurement techniques in exercise and sport science. Students are introduced to 
both the BMDP statistical software package and the use of microcomputers for data 
management. 

363. Personal and Community Health. (4) A study of life-time personal health needs 
and the community's role in administering health programs. 

370. Biomechanics of Human Movement. (4) Study of the mechanical principles 
which influence human movement, sport technique, and equipment design. 

382. Individual Study. (1-4) Independent study directed by a faculty adviser. The 
student must consult the adviser before registering for this course. 

Sports Medicine 

201. Basic Athletic Training. (4) A study of the basic knowledge and skills in the 
prevention, treatment, and care of common athletic injuries. 

302. Advanced Athletic Training. (4) An in-depth analysis of preventive measures, 
therapeutic modalities, and rehabilitative procedures employed in sports medicine. 
P — Health and Sport Science 352. 




120 

History 

Richard C. Barnett, Chairman 

Worrell Professor of Anglo American Studies James Ralph Scales 

Professors Richard C. Barnett, James P. Barefield, Cyclone Covey, 

Balkrishna Govind Gokhale, J. Edwin Hendricks, Thomas E. Mullen, 

Percival Perry, David L. Smiley, J. Howell Smith, Lowell R. Tillett, 

W. Buck Yearns, Richard L. Zuber 

Associate Professors Merrill G. Berthrong, David W. Hadley, 

Michael L. Sinclair, Alan J. Williams 

Visiting Associate Professor Reinhold Mueller (Venice) 

Assistant Professors Michael L. Hughes, Susan P. McCaffray 

Lecturer Negley Boyd Harte (London) 

The major in history consists of a minimum of thirty-six credits and must include 
History 310, from six to eight credits in European history, three or four credits in 
non-Western history, and from six to eight credits in American history. One of the 
American history courses must be 151, 152, or 153. 

A minor in history requires twenty-four credits. 

Highly qualified majors should apply for admission to the honors program in 
history. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in History," the student 
must complete satisfactorily History 287 and 288. For additional information, mem- 
bers of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

Students contemplating graduate study should take historiography and should 
acquire a reading knowledge of one modern foreign language (preferably French, 
German, or Russian) for the MA degree and two for the PhD degree. 



101. The Rise of the West. (4) A survey of ancient, medieval, and early modern 
history to 1700. 

102. Europe and the World in the Modern Era. (4) A survey of modern Europe from 
1700 to the present. 

131. European Historical Biography. (2) Study of biographies of men and women 
who have influenced the history and civilization of Europe. 

151, 152. The United States. (4, 4) Political, social, economic, and intellectual aspects. 
151: before 1865; 152: after 1865. Students who take History 153 may not take either of 
these courses for credit. 

153. The United States. (4) A topical survey combining 151 and 152. Not open to 
students who take either 151 or 152. 

160. Freud. (4) An investigation of Freud's basic ideas in the context of his time. 
Books to be read include The Interpretation of Dreams, Civilization and its Discontents, 
and Jones' biography in the Trilling abridgement. 

211. Colloquium. (1-4) 



121 

215, 216. The Ancient World. (4, 3, or 4) Critical focus on the Greeks in the fall and 
Romans in the spring, but in global context of paleolithic to medieval; psychological/ 
philosophical emphasis. 

221. The Middle Ages. (4) A survey of European history, 400-1300, stressing social 
and cultural developments. 

224. The Reformation. (2) Europe in the age of the Reformation. 

2260. History of London. (4) Topographical, social, economic, and political historv of 
London from the earliest times. Lectures, student papers and reports, museum visits 
and lectures, and on-site inspections. Offered in London. 

2262. The Golden Age of Burgundy. (2) Burgundian society, culture, and govern- 
ment in the reigns of Philip the Bold, John the Fearless, Philip the Good, and Charles 
the Rash, 1384-1477. Offered in Dijon. 

2263. Venetian Society and Culture. (4) An examination of Venetian society, includ- 
ing the role within Venetian life of music, theatre, the church, and civic ritual. Offered 
in Venice. 

232. European Historical Novels. (2) Study of the accuracy and value, from the 
stand-point of the historian, of a selection of historical novels. 

2370. Churchill. (4) The life and times of Britain's World War II leader (1874-1965). 
Offered in London. 

238. Twentieth Century Europe. (4) Advent of modernism, World Wars I and II, 
totalitarianism, the Cold War, and Europe in the post-European era. 

2380. Scandal in Government: US and British Models. (4) A study of corruption in 
the governments of the two great democracies from the rise of the parliamentary 
system in the eighteenth century to Watergate and the present time. Offered in 
London. 

240. Afro-American History. (4) The role of Afro-Americans in the development of 
the United States, with particular attention to African heritage, forced migration, 
Americanization, and influence. 

264. Economic History of the United States. (4) The economic development of the 
United States from colonial beginnings to the present. 

265. American Diplomatic History. (4) An introduction to the historv of American 
diplomacy since 1776, emphasizing the effects of public opinion on fundamental 
policies. 

270. Oral History. (4) How to research family and community history with the tape 
recorder. 

272. Modern Latin America. (4) A survey of Latin American history since In- 
dependence, with emphasis on the twentieth century. The course will concentrate 
chiefly on economics, politics, and race. 



122 

287, 288. Honors in History. (4, 4) 287: seminar on problems of historical synthesis 
and interpretation; 288: writing of a major paper and examination on a special field. 

310. Seminar. (4) Offered by members of the faculty on topics of their choice. A paper 
is required. 

311, 312. Social and Intellectual History of Modern Europe. (4, 4) Intellectual trends 
in Western European civilization. 311: seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; 312: 
nineteenth and twentieth centuries. 

313, 314. European Economic and Social History 1300-1973. (4, 4) Changes in 
Europe's economic structures and how thev affected Europeans' lives. Emphasizes 
how economic forces interacted with social and institutional factors. 313: 1300-1750; 
314: 1750-1973. 

319, 320. Germany. (4, 4) 319: origins of the German nation and the rise of Prussia in a 
context of particularism; 320: from Bismarck to divided Germany. 

321, 322. France. (4, 4) 321 : from prehistoric Gaul to 1 788, with particular emphasis on 
the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries; 322: 1788 to the present. 

323, 324. England. (4, 4) A political and social survey, with some attention to 
Continental movements. 323: to 1603; 324: 1603 to present. 

325. Tudor and Early Stuart England. (4) A constitutional and social study of 
England from 1485 to 1641. 

331, 322. Russia. (4, 4) Political, social, economic, and cultural history of Russia. 331: 
origins to 1861; 332: Imperial and Soviet Russia since 1861. 

333. European Diplomacy, 1848-1914. (4) The diplomacy of the great powers, with 
some attention given to the role of publicity in international affairs. Topics include 
the unification of Italy and of Germany, the Bismarckian system, and the coming of 
World War I. 

335, 336. Italy. (4, 4) 335: medieval and Renaissance Italy to 1529; 336: 1529 to the 
present. 

339. India in the English Mind. (4) An exploration of the changing images of India, 
its people, and culture as reflected in English literature, especially Kipling, Forster, 
Kaye, and Paul Scott. The three major themes will be confrontation, accommodation, 
and nostalgia. 

3400. The Company as an Empire Builder. (4) A study of the role of the English East 
India Company in London politics and economic policy as it affected the develop- 
ment of the Indian empire and its governance. Offered in London. 

341. Southeast Asia from 1511 to the Present. (4) A survey of the history and culture 
of Southeast Asia under Western colonial systems, with special reference to eco- 
nomic, social, and cultural developments, the rise of nationalism, and the emergence 
of new nation-states. 



123 

342. The Middle East from Suleiman the Magnificent to the Present. (4) Major 
subjects covered are the rise and fall of the Ottoman Empire, the Arabs and Persians 
under Ottoman hegemony, the rise of Arab nationalism, and the emergence of the 
modern Arab states and their roles in the post-World War II era. 

343. Imperial China. (4) A study of traditional China to 1980, with emphasis on 
social, cultural, and political institutions. 

344. Modern China. (4) A study of China from 1644 to the present. 

345. 346. History and Civilization of South Asia. (4, 4) An introduction to the history 
and civilization of South Asia. Emphasis on historical developments in the social, 
economic, and cultural life of the area. 

348. Modern Japan. (4) Tokugawa era; Meiji Restoration; industrialization and 
urbanization; relations with the West; World War II; occupation; Japan in the 
contemporary world. 

351, 352. American Society and Thought. (4, 4) A non-political topical survey of 
American culture and lifestyles. Topics include religion, science, education, architec- 
ture, and immigration. 

353. Colonial English America, 1582-1774. (4) Determinative episodes, figures, 
allegiances, apperceptions, and results of the period, organically considered. 

354. Revolutionary and Early National America, 1763-1815. (4) The American Revo- 
lution, its causes and effects, the Confederation, the Constitution, and the new 
nation. 

355. The Westward Movement. (4) The role of the frontier in United States historv, 
1763-1890. 

356. Jacksonian America, 1815-1850. (4) The United States in the age of Jackson, 
Clay, Calhoun, and Webster. A biographical approach. 

357. The Civil War and Reconstruction. (4) The political and militarv events of the 
war and the economic, social, and political readjustments which followed. 

358. The United States from Reconstruction to World War I. (2, 4) National progress 
and problems during an era of rapid industrialization. The course may be divided 
into halves for two credits each: (a) the Gilded Age; (b) the Progressive Era. 

359. The United States from Versailles through World War II. (4) The transition of 
America from World War I to 1945, with special emphasis on the significance of the 
New Deal and World War II. 

360. The United States since World War II. (4) Trends and changes in the nation 
from World War II to the present. 

362. American Constitutional History. (4) Origins of the Constitution, the con- 
troversies involving the nature of the Union, and constitutional readjustments to 
meet the new American industrialism. 



124 



363, 364. The South. (4, 4) Geography, population elements, basic institutions, and 
selected events. 

365. Women in American History. (4) A survey of the roles and activities of women 
in America, with emphasis upon selected individuals. 

366. Studies in Historic Preservation. (4) An analvsis of history museums and 
agencies and of the techniques of preserving and interpreting history through 
artifacts, restorations, and reconstructions. P — Permission of instructor. 

369. The American Military Experience. (4) A survey of the military ideas and 
activities of the American people and their armed forces, with emphasis on the 
relationship between war and society. 

391, 392. Historiography. (4, 3) The principal historians and their writings from 
ancient times to the present. 391: European historiography; 392: American 
historiography. 

398. Individual Study. (1-4) A project in an area of study not otherwise available in 
the department; permitted upon departmental approval of petition presented by a 
qualified student. 

399. Directed Reading. (1-4) Concentrated reading in an area of study not otherwise 
available. P — Permission of instructor. 



Humanities 

William S. Hamilton, Coordinator 

Reynolds Professor of American Studies Maya Angelou 

Associate Professor Robert L. Utley Jr. 

121. Introduction to Women's Studies. (4) An interdisciplinary course, taught by 
faculty representing at least two fields, that integrates materials from the humanities 
and the social sciences. Topics include methods and goals of women's studies, 
feminist critical theory, and the place of women in culture and societv. 

Humanities courses 213-218 are designed to introduce students to European and 
Latin American works of literature which would not be included in their normal 
course of study. Each course includes a reading in translation of ten to twelve 
representative authors as indicated below. 

213. Studies in European Literature. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as 
Dante, Montaigne, Cervantes, Goethe, Dostoevsky, and Camus. Satisfies a Di- 
vision I requirement. 

214. Contemporary Fiction. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Mann, Sartre, 
Unamuno, Fuentes, Moravia, and Voinovich. Satisfies a Division I requirement. 

215. Germanic and Slavic Literature. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as 



125 



Hoffmann, Kafka, Dostoevsky, Dinesen, Ibsen, Pushkin, and Checkhov. Satis- 
fies a Division I requirement. 

216. Romance Literature. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Boccaccio, 
Calderon, Flaubert, Machado de Assis, Gide, and Lampedusa. Satisfies a Di- 
vision I requirement. 

217. European Drama. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Moliere, Garcia- 
Lorca, Pirandello, Schiller, Brecht, Ibsen, and Beckett. Satisfies a Division I 
requirement. 

218. Eastern European Literature. (4) Texts studied are by such authors as Tol- 
stoy, Solzhenitsyn, Gogol, Andric, Milosz, and Szabo. Satisfies a Division I 
requirement. 

250. Discovering the Visual and Verbal Modes of the Twentieth Century. (4) An 

exploration of the ideas, values, and feelings found in the art and literature of 
representative twentieth century figures: Kandinsky, Stevens, Picasso, Kafka, Le- 
ger, Beckett, Klee, Ionesco, Pollock, Faulkner, Chagall, Barth, and others. 

255. Twentieth Century Issues in the Arts. (4) An interdisciplinary investigation of 
twentieth century issues in the arts, taught by art, music, and theatre faculty; topics 
change yearly; participation by local, regional, and national authorities in the arts. 
P — Art 103, or Music 101 or 102, or Theatre Arts 121, or permission of instructor. 

280. Reason and Revelation. (4) An investigation of the intellectual roots of Western 
civilization as they are found in the emergence of philosophical universalism and 
Biblical monotheism. These distinctive approaches will be considered through a 
reading of such authors as Plato, Hesiod, Artistophanes, and St. Thomas Aquinas, 
and of selections from the Bible. 

282. Public Life and Liberal Arts. (4) The course will be devoted to topics of abiding 
public significance. Fundamental dilemmas and resolutions associated with each 
topic will be examined through a consideration of their treatment in the liberal arts 
tradition. The visiting scholars of the Tocqueville Forum will supplement the class 
discussion. "Politics and the Arts" and "Theory and Practice in Public Life" are 
representative topics. 

283. Nature and History in Modern Moral and Social Life. (4) The subject as viewed 
through such representative writers as Spinoza, Flaubert, Pascal, Eckermann, Nietz- 
sche, and Conrad, each of whom in a different way participated in the rejection of the 
teachings of both the Socratic tradition and the Christian church. 

321. Seminar in Women's Studies. (4) Consideration of theoretical and methodolog- 
ical questions and research on current topics in women's studies. 

340. Race in the Southern Experience before Emancipation: Four Voices. (1, 2) 

Selected writings of David Walker, William Llovd Garrison, Frederick Douglass, and 
Harriet Beecher Stowe. Pass/Fall only. (Credit not given for Humanities 340 if the 
student has completed Humanities 341.) 



126 

341. Race, Politics, and Literature: Aspects of American Life from 1830 to 1930. (4) 

An examination of the evolution of significant ideas in American civilization. A 
careful reading of Frederick Douglass, Harriet Beecher Stowe, W. E. DuBois, Mark 
Twain, and others. Offered in the fall. 

344. African Culture and Its Impact on the US. (1) A condensed version of 
Humanities 345, offered as a minicourse in the spring. Pass/Fail only. (Credit not 
given for Humanities 344 if the student has completed Humanities 345.) 

345. African Culture and Its Impact on the US. (4) The influence of African culture on 
American life will be studied in such areas as dance, music, political approaches, 
grammatical patterns, literature, and culinary preferences. The course will include 
an evaluation of American mores. Offered in the fall. 

350. What the Arts Have Been Saying since 1800. (4) An experiment in developing 
interpretive judgment and insight regarding music, painting, and literature as artic- 
ulations of the frontier consciousness of the period. 

352. The Classical and Surreal Tradition. (4) A venture to define and differentiate 
classical and surreal modes of perception throughout history, their paradoxical 
relationship to each other and to complementary styles, considered in philosophy, 
music, literature, and painting. 

354. The Creative Response to Radical Change. (4) A comparative inquiry into the 
ways in which the American mind has been shaped by works of literature and art that 
reflect radical changes in society. Readings from ancient, medieval, and modern 
periods include the Bible and works of Tacitus, Castiglione, Hoffmann, and 
Wharton. 

355. Forms and Expressions of Love. (4) Philosophical, religious, and psychological 
delineations of the forms of love; literary, dramatic, musical, and visual portrayals of 
love in selected works of art. 

356. Humanism, "Secular" and Religious. (4) Exploration of the nature of human- 
ism through examination of similarities and differences among various forms. Types 
to be considered are: Classical (Platonic, Aristotelian, Stoic, and Epicurean); Chris- 
tian; modern naturalistic; and Confucian. 

358. An Editor Looks at the Rights of American Citizens, 1965-Present. (2, 3, or 4) 

Current developments in the field of constitutional rights as seen bv a newspaper 
editor. 

360. The Promise and Perils of the Nuclear Age. (4) Scientific, moral, religious, and 
political perspectives on issues associated with nuclear power and nuclear 
weaponry. 

381. Solzhenitsyn: Witness, Survivor, and Critic. (4) A critical analysis of the politi- 
cal and literary development of Solzhenitsvn as seen in his major novels, poems, and 
plays. 

382. Italian Cinema and Society. (4) A survey of some of Italv's greatest postwar 



127 



films with special attention to issues and problems in Italian society as treated by 
major directors such as Fellini, De Sica, Rossellini, Antonioni, and Olmi. 

396. Individual Study. (2-4) Individual projects in the humanities which continue 
study begun in regular courses. By prearrangement. 




128 

Interdisciplinary Honors 
Paul M. Gross Jr., Coordinator 

A series of seminar courses of an interdisciplinary nature is open to qualified 
undergraduates. Students interested in admission to any one of these seminars, 
supervised by the Committee on Honors, should consult the coordinator or a mem- 
ber of the committee. 

Students who choose to participate in as many as four interdisciplinary seminars 
and who have a superior record may elect Honors 281, directed study culminating in 
an honors paper and an oral examination. Those whose work has been superior in 
this course and who have achieved an overall grade point average of at least 3.0 in all 
college work may be graduated with the distinction "Honors in the Arts and Scien- 
ces." Students who choose to be candidates for departmental honors may not also be 
candidates for "Honors in the Arts and Sciences." 

Able students are normally encouraged to choose a departmental honors program 
rather than "Honors in the Arts and Sciences." As a result, most students elect to 
participate in only one or two interdisciplinary seminars in which they are particular- 
ly interested. The faculty participants for these seminars represent diverse academic 
disciplines. 

131, 132. Approaches to Human Experience I. (4, 4) An inquiry into the nature and 
interrelationships of several approaches to man's experience, represented by the 
work of three such minds as Leonardo da Vinci, Dante, Klee, Lorenz, Confucius, 
Dostoevsky, Descartes, Goya, Mozart, Jefferson, and Bohr. Seminar discussion 
based on primary and secondary sources, including musical works and paintings. 
Written reports and a term paper required. Offered in alternate years. 

133, 134. Approaches to Human Experience II. (4, 4) A parallel course to Hon- 
ors 131, 132, concentrating on the work of a different set of figures such as Einstein, 
Galileo, Kevnes, Pascal, Camus, Picasso, Ibsen, Stravinsky, Sophocles, and Bach. 

Offered in alternate years. 

f 233. Darwinism and the Modern World. (4) A studv of the Darwinian theory of 
evolution and the impact of evolution and evolutionary thought on fields such as 
economics, politics, psychology, literature and the other arts, and philosophy. 

*235. The Ideal Society. (4) Man's effort to establish or imagine the ideal community, 
state, or society; principles of political and social organization; changing goals and 
values. 

f 237. The Scientific Outlook. (4) An exploration of the origins and development of 
the scientific method and some of its contemporary applications in the natural and 
social sciences and the humanities. 



''One or more offered each year at the discretion of the Committee on Honors. 



129 

*238. Romanticism. (4) Romanticism as a recurrent characteristic of mind and art and 
as a specific historical movement in Europe and America in the late eighteenth and 
nineteenth centuries. Emphasis on primary materials in philosophy, literature, 
music, and painting. 

*239. Man and the Irrational. (4) The phenomenon of the irrational, with emphasis on 
its twentieth century manifestations but with attention also to its presence in other 
centuries and cultures. Philosophy, religion, literature, psychology, politics, and the 
arts are explored. 

*240. Adventures in Self-Understanding. (4) Examination and discussion of signifi- 
cant accounts of the quest for understanding of the self, in differing historical 
periods, cultural contexts, and genres. Among figures who may be discussed are 
Augustine, Dante, Gandhi, Montaigne, Descartes, Pascal, and selected modern 
writers. 

*241. The Tragic View. (4) The theory of tragedy in ancient and modern times; the 
expression of the tragic in literature, art, music, theatre, and film. 

*242. The Comic View. (4) The theory of comedy in ancient and modern times; the 
expression of the comic in literature, art, music, theatre, and film. 

*244. Man and the Structure of the Universe. (4) An investigation of various con- 
ceptions of the universe and their implications for man. Study not necessarily limited 
to the cosmologies of Ptolemy, Copernicus, and their modern successors, but may 
also include theories such as the Babylonian, Mayan, and Taoist. 

*246. Man and the Environment. (4) An interdisciplinary examination of man and 
society in relation to the environment. 

*247. The Mythic View. (4) The nature of myth through creation and hero myths; the 
uses to which myths have been put in different historical periods; various modern 
explanations of myth (literary, religious, anthropological, psychoanalytic, social, 
and historical). 

*248. The Ironic View. (4) An investigation of the ironic view of life in literature, art, 
history, theatre, and film. 

*249. Forms and Expressions of Love. (4) Philosophical, religious, and psychological 
delineations of the forms of love; literary, dramatic, musical, and visual portrayals of 
love in selected works of art. 

*250. Ethical Dilemmas in the Arts and Sciences. (4) An exploration of contemporary 
issues and controversies in the sciences and art, particularly those involved with 
ethical questions resulting from new concepts and discoveries. 

*252. The Mechanistic View of Nature. (4) A study of the controversies, both scientif- 
ic and philosophical, arising in the seventeenth century between Cartesians, New- 
tonians, and Leibnizians about the nature and limits of human knowledge. 



*One or more offered each year at the discretion of the Committee on Honors. 



130 



f 253. Revolutions in Modern Science. (4) An analysis of the ways in which radically 
new ideas are introduced and accepted in science. Cases studied are space and time 
in relativity theory, the nature of reality in quantum mechanics, evolution of species, 
and continental drift. P — At least one course in one of the relevant areas of science or 
permission of instructor. 

f 254. The Promise and Perils of the Nuclear Age. (4) Scientific, moral, religious, and 
political perspectives on issues associated with nuclear power and nuclear 
weaponry. 

281. Directed Study. (4) Readings on an interdisciplinary topic approved by the 
Committee on Honors; presentation of a major research or interpretive paper based 
on these readings, under the direction of a faculty member; an oral examination on 
the topic, administered by the faculty supervisor and the Committee on Honors. 
Eligible students who wish to take this course must submit a written request to the 
Committee on Honors by the end of the junior year. Not open to candidates for 
departmental honors. 

Mathematics and Computer Science 

Marcellus E. Waddill, Chairman 

Professors John V. Baxley, Richard D. Carmichael, Ivey C. Gentry, 

Frederic T. Howard, James Kuzmanovich, J. Gaylord May, W. Graham May, 

John W. Sawyer Jr., Ben M. Seelbinder, Marcellus E. Waddill 

Associate Professors Elmer K. Hayashi, David J. John, Ellen E. Kirkman 

Assistant Professor Stan J. Thomas 

Lecturer Gene T. Lucas 

Instructors Jule M. Connolly, Eric E. Fink 

A major in mathematics requires a minimum of forty credits. A student must 
include courses 111, 112, 113, 121, 221; one of the courses 311, 317, 352, 357; and at 
least two additional 300-level courses. A prospective teacher in the education block 
may take 231 in lieu of the course from 311, 317, 352, or 357. Lower division students 
are urged to consult a member of the departmental facultv before enrolling in courses 
other than those satisfying Division II requirements. 

A major in computer science requires thirty-six credits in computer science and 
three courses in mathematics. The courses in computer science must include 173, 
271, 275, 277, and 279. The required courses in mathematics are 117 plus two 
additional courses numbered 108 or higher. Students considering graduate work in 
computer science should consult a major adviser in the department for assistance in 
planning an appropriate course of studv. 

A minor in computer science requires four courses (sixteen credits) in computer 
science numbered higher than 171 and two courses in mathematics other than 105. 

A minor in mathematics requires Mathematics 111, 112, either 121 or 113, and 



*One or more offered each year at the discretion of the Committee on Honor: 



131 



three other courses numbered higher than Mathematics 108, two of which must be 
numbered above 200. 

A minimum GPA of 2.0 in courses which comprise a major or minor in the 
department is required for graduation with any major or minor which the depart- 
ment offers. 

A regularly scheduled activity in mathematics is an informal seminar of students 
and faculty on topics not discussed in regular courses (for example, finite differences, 
game theorv, Monte Carlo method, divergent series). 

The department of mathematics and computer science and the department of 
economics offer a joint major leading to a Bachelor of Science degree in mathematical 
economics. This interdisciplinary program, consisting of no more than fifty-six 
credits, offers the student an opportunity to apply mathematical methods to the 
development of economic theory, models, and quantitative analysis. The major has 
the following course requirements: Mathematics 111, 112, 113, 121, 251; 
Economics 150, 205, 207, 208, 215, 218; and three additional courses chosen with the 
approval of the program advisers. Recommended courses are Mathematics 253, 311, 
312, 348, 352, 353, 357, 358 and Economics 206, 212, 223, 232, 235, 251. Students 
selecting the joint major must receive permission from both the department of 
mathematics and computer science and the department of economics. 

Highly qualified majors are invited bv the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in mathematics or in the joint major. To be graduated with the 
designation "Honors in Mathematics," or "Honors in Mathematical Economics," 
they must complete satisfactorily a senior research paper and pass a comprehensive 
oral or written examination. For additional information members of the de- 
partmental faculty should be consulted. 

Computer Science* 

171. Introduction to Computer Programming. (2) Lecture and laboratory. A first 
course in computer programming. Does not count toward computer science major or 
minor. 

173. Fundamentals of Computer Science. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A course in 
structured programming, problem solving, and coding in a high-level programming 
language. P — Computer Science 171 or equivalent. 

175. File Processing Techniques with COBOL. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A study of 
file access and organization techniques for processing direct and sequential files 
using the COBOL languages. P — Computer Science 171 or Computer Science 173. 

271. Computer Software Organization. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A study of the 
ways information is stored and handled in a computer; an introduction to machine 
and assemblv language. P — Computer Science 173 and Mathematics 117. 



*Other courses in which computing is used or taught extensively are Mathematics 355, Physics 130, 
and Physics 330. 



132 



272. Computer Hardware Organization. (4) Lecture and laboratory. Basic computer 
architecture. Studv and design of combinational logic circuits, arithmetic units, and 
memory devices. P — Computer Science 271. 

275. Data Structures. (4) Lecture and laboratory. Data representation and manipula- 
tion. Includes the data types of list, string, tree, set, and graph. P — Computer 
Science 172 and Mathematics 117. 

277. Programming Languages. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A study of the properties 
of programming languages including syntax, semantics, control structures, and 
run-time representations. P — Computer Science 173 and Mathematics 117. 

279. Algorithm Design. (4) Lecture and laboratory. Techniques for designing and 
analyzing algorithms. Topics include sorting and searching, graph algorithms, 
geometric algorithms, pattern matching, and data compression techniques. P — 
Computer Science 173 and Mathematics 117. 

361. Selected Topics. (2, 3, or 4) Topics in computer science which are not studied in 
regular courses or which further examine topics begun in regular courses. P — 
Permission of instructor. 

372. Compilers. (4) Lecture and laboratory. A studv of techniques for compiling 
computer languages including scanning, parsing, translating, and generating code. 
P — Computer Science 271 and Computer Science 275. 




133 

374. Database Management Systems. (4) Lecture and laboratory. An introduction to 
large scale database management systems. Topics include data independence, data- 
base models, query languages, security, integrity, and concurrency. P — Computer 
Science 275. 

375. Operating Systems. (4) Lecture and laboratory. The study of algorithms for 
sequencing, controlling, scheduling, and allocating computer resources. P — 
Computer Science 271 and Computer Science 275. 

377. Theory of Computation. (4) Basic theoretical principles of computer science. 
Topics include the relationship between automats and grammars, Church's thesis, 
unsolvability, and computational complexity. P — Computer Science 279. 

379. Artificial Intelligence. (4) An introduction to problems in articifial intelligence. 
Techniques of representation and heuristic search in areas such as problem solving, 
pattern recognition, theorem proving, and information processing. P — Computer 
Science 279. 

381. Individual Study. (2, 3, or4) A course of independent study directed by a faculty 
adviser. By prearrangement. Not to be counted toward the minor in computer 
science. 

391, 392. Senior Research. (2, 2) A two-semester directed course of study. By 
prearrangement. 



Mathematics 

105. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry. (2, 3, or 4) A review of the 
essentials of algebra and trigonometry. Admission by permission only (generally, a 
student must have taken fewer than three years of high school mathematics to be 
eligible for admission). Not to be counted toward the major or minor in mathematics. 

108. Essential Calculus. (5 or 4) A one-semester course in differential and integral 
calculus with application to business and the social sciences. No student allowed 
credit for both 108 and 1 1 1 . A student who might take additional calculus should not 
take Mathematics 108. Lab — two hours. 

109. Elementary Probability and Statistics. (5 or 4) Probability and distribution 
functions, means and variances, and sampling distributions. Lab — two hours. 

Ill, 112. Calculus with Analytic Geometry I, II. (5 or 4, 5 or 4) Calculus of functions 
of one variable; infinite series. Computer lab using BASIC. No student allowed credit 
for both 108 and 111. 

113. Multivariate Calculus. (4) Vector and space curves. Differentiable functions; 
surfaces and max-min problems. Multiple integrals and Green's theorem. P — 
Mathematics 112. 

117. Discrete Mathematics. (4) An introduction to various topics in discrete 
mathematics applicable to computer science including sets, relations, Boolean alge- 



134 



bra, propositional logic, functions, comparability, proof techniques, graph theory, 
and elementary combinatorics. 

121. Linear Algebra. (4) Vectors and vector spaces, linear transformations and 
matrices, linear groups, and determinants. 

221. Modern Algebra I. (4) An introduction to modern abstract algebra through the 
study of groups, rings, integral domains, and fields. P — Mathematics 121. 

231. Euclidean Geometry. (4) Postulates, definitions, theorems, and models of 
Euclidean geometry. 

251. Ordinary Differential Equations. (4) Linear equations with constant coeffi- 
cients, linear equations with variable coefficients, and existence and uniqueness 
theorems for first order equations. P — Mathematics 112. 

253. Operations Research. (4) Mathematical models and optimization techniques. 
Studies in allocation, simulation, queuing, scheduling, and network analysis. P — 
Mathematics 111. 

311, 312. Advanced Calculus I, II. (4, 4) Limits and continuity in metric spaces, 
differentiation and Riemann-Stieltjes integration, sequences and series, uniform 
convergence, power series and Fourier series, partial differentiation and functions of 
n real variables, implicit and inverse function theorems. P — Mathematics 113. 

317. Complex Analysis I. (4) Analytic functions. Cauchy's theorem and its con- 
sequences, power series, and residue calculus. P — Mathematics 113. 

322. Modern Algebra II. (4) A continuation of modern abstract algebra through the 
study of additional properties of groups and fields and a thorough treatment of 
vector spaces. P — Mathematics 221. 

323, 324. Matrix Theory I, II. (4, 4) Basic concepts and theorems concerning matrices 
and real number functions defined on preferred sets of matrices. P — Mathe- 
matics 121. 

332. Non-Euclidean Geometry. (4) Postulates, definitions, theorems, and models of 
Lobachevskian and Riemannian geometry. 

345, 346. Elementary Theory of Numbers I, II. (4, 4) Properties of integers, con- 
gruences, arithmetic functions, primitive roots, sums of squares, magic squares, 
applications to elementary mathematics, quadratic residues, arithmetic theory of 
continued fractions. 

348. Combinatorial Analysis. (4) Enumeration techniques, including generating 
functions, recurrence formulas, the principle of inclusion and exclusion, and Polya's 
theorem. 

351. Applied Analysis. (4) Topics which have proved useful in the physical sciences, 
including vector analysis and complex analysis. 

352. Partial Differential Equations. (4) The separation of variables technique for the 



135 



solution of the wave, heat, Laplace, and other partial differential equations, with the 
related study of the Fourier transform and the expansion of functions in Fourier, 
Legendre, and Bessel series. P — Mathematics 251 or permission of instructor. 

353. Mathematical Models. (4) Development and application of probabilistic and 
deterministic models. Emphasis given to constructing models which represent sys- 
tems in the social, behavioral, and management sciences. P — Mathematics 253. 

355. Numerical Analysis. (4) A computer-oriented study of analytical methods in 
mathematics. Lecture and laboratory. P — Mathematics 112 and Computer 
Science 173. 

357, 358. Mathematical Statistics I, II. (4, 4) Probability distributions, mathematical 
expectation, sampling distributions, estimation and testing of hypotheses, regres- 
sion, correlation, and analysis of variance. C — Mathematics 1 13 or P — Permission of 
instructor. 

361. Selected Topics. (2, 3, or 4) Topics in mathematics which are not considered in 
regular courses or which continue study begun in regular courses. Content varies. 

381. Individual Study. (2, 3, or 4) A course of independent study directed bv a faculty 
adviser. By prearrangement. 



Military Science 

Lieutenant Colonel Thomas A. Glenn, Professor 

Major Heyward G. Brown, Major James W. DeVocht, Captain Scott A. Fernald, 

Captain Horace S. Tucker, Captain Scott A. Marquardt, Assistant Professors 

Sergeant Major Charles F. Richardson, 

Sergeant First Class James R. Degenkolb, Staff Sergeant Johnny Ferguson 

Completion of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps requirements results in the 
conferring of a commission as a second lieutenant in the United States Army. The 
basic courses (100-level) are designed to provide the fundamentals of military his- 
tory, Army organization and operation, leadership, and managerial assessment 
methods. No military obligation is incurred by enrollment in the basic courses. They 
are primarily for freshmen and sophomores; others must seek permission of the 
instructor. The advanced courses (211, 212, 251, 252) provide study in professional 
knowledge subjects and development of the managerial skills required for com- 
missioning. 

110. ROTC and the National Defense. (1) Introduction to the Reserve Officers' 
Training Corps program, the United States Army, and the basic professional knowl- 
edge subjects. 

111. Military History. (2) Survey of the ideas and activities of the American people 
which contributed to the development of the Armed Forces; relationship between 
war and society. 



136 

112. Operations in Special Environments. (2) Planning and preparation for military 
operations in mountain, desert, jungle, and arctic environments; fundamentals of 
survival; mountaineering techniques. 

113. Tactical Considerations of Modern Battle. (2) A progressive study of tactical 
techniques from the ancient hoplite to the mechanized battalion task force. Emphasis 
on NATO vs. Warsaw Pact. Extensive use of simulations. 

114. Leadership. (2) An examination of the fundamentals contributing to the de- 
velopment of a personal style of leadership with emphasis on the dimensions of 
junior executive management. 

116. Orienteering. (2) A study of navigational aids, linear time/distance rela- 
tionships, and mapping techniques. Includes navigating in unfamiliar terrain. 

117, 118. Leadership Laboratory. (1, 1) Develops basic military skills of command, 
drill, and ceremonies. Prepares the student to command a military formation. Pass/ 
Fail only. 

211, 212. First-Year Advanced. (2, 2) Accelerated leadership training; professional 
knowledge subjects; preparation for ROTC Advanced Summer Camp; advanced 
instruction on the Soviet Army. Lab — one and one-half hours per week. P — Credit 
for one of the following: 

(1) 110, 114, 115, and an optional two-credit course (Health and Sport 
Science 111 may be substituted for 115; History 369 may be substituted for 
the optional course), or 

(2) Attendance at ROTC Basic Summer Camp, at Fort Knox, Kentucky (no 
academic credit). 

251, 252. Second-Year Advanced. (2, 2) Professionalism and ethics; active duty 
orientation; military administration, law, training, management, and logistics; writ- 
ten and oral communications; leadership. Lab — one and one-half hours per week. 
P — Military Science 211 and 212. 



Music 

Susan Harden Borwick, Chairwoman 

Associate Professors Susan Harden Borwick, Stewart Carter, 

Christopher Giles, Louis Goldstein 

Assistant Professors David B. Levy, Dan Locklair, Teresa Radomski 

Director of Instrumental Ensembles George Trautwein 

Assistant Director of Instrumental Ensembles Martin Province 

Director of Choral Ensembles Brian Gorelick 

Instructors Patricia Dixon, Lucille S. Harris 

A major in music requires forty-eight credits. This includes a basic curriculum of 
thirty-six credits (Music Theory 171, 172, 173, and 174, sixteen credits; Music 



137 

History 181, 182, six credits; ten credits of applied music; and four credits of ensem- 
ble, taken in four semesters) plus twelve credits of elective courses in music, exclud- 
ing ensembles, and six semesters of Music Recitals 100. In addition to the course 
work, music majors are required to present a senior recital, lecture-recital, or project. 

Students anticipating a major in music are urged to begin their studies during the 
freshman year and are required to audition during the second semester of their 
sophomore year before officially being admitted to the program. 

Highly qualified majors may be invited to apply for admission to the honors 
program in music. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Music," a 
candidate must complete one of the following requirements: (1) an honors-level 
research paper, (2) an original composition, or (3) an analvtical lecture related to 
music performed by the candidate in public recital. 

A minor in music requires twenty-four credits: Music 171, 172; 181, 182; two 
credits of ensemble, taken in two semesters; two semesters of applied music (per- 
formance level in applied music must be equal to the level expected of majors at the 
time of the spring sophomore audition); six credits of music electives (excluding 
ensemble); and four semesters of Music Recitals 100. Each minor will be assigned an 
adviser in the music department and is encouraged to begin private lessons and 
Music 100 as early as possible. 

Any student interested in majoring or minoring in music should consult the 
chairwoman of the department as soon as possible after entering the University. 



General Music 

100. Recitals. (0) Recitals, concerts, and guest lectures sponsored by the department 
of music and the Artists Series. (Specific attendance requirements will be established 
at the beginning of each semester.) Six semesters are required of music majors; four 
semesters are required of music minors. 

101. Introduction to the Language of Music. (3, 4) Basic theoretical concepts and 
musical terminologv. Survey of musical styles, composers, and selected works from 
the Middle Ages through the twentieth century. Satisfies the Division I requirement. 
For students not majoring in music. 

102. Language of Music I. (3, 4) Survey of musical styles, composers, and selected 
works from the Middle Ages through the twentieth century. For students who can 
read music. Not open to music majors. Satisfies the Division I requirement. P — 
Permission of instructor. 

202. Language of Music II. (2) An in-depth study of selected major works. Not open 
to music majors. P — Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

Music Theory 

104. Basic Music Reading and Skills. (2) A study of the fundamentals of music 
theory including key signatures, scales, intervals, and chords, and basic sight- 
singing and ear training skills. Designed for students wishing to participate in 



138 

University ensembles and those wishing to pursue vocal, instrumental, and com- 
positional instruction. 

105. Music Theory for Non-Majors. (4) A study and application of music fun- 
damentals and music theory for the non-music major; analytical and compositional 
techniques. P — Music 104 or permission of instructor. 

171. Music Theory I. (4) Music fundamentals: key signatures, scales, modes, in- 
tervals, triads, elements of music. Ear training, sight-singing, and rhythm skills. (A 
one-hour piano class is required of students having no keyboard background.) 

172. Music Theory II. (4) Seventh chords, beginning part-writing, basic counter- 
point, ear training, sight-singing, rhythm skills, keyboard harmony. P — Music 171. 

173. Music Theory III. (4) Altered chords, continuation of part-writing, eighteenth 
and nineteenth century forms, ear training, sight-singing, rhythm skills, keyboard 
harmony. P — Music 172. 

174. Music Theory IV. (4) Expanded harmonic system of Impressionism and the 
twentieth century. New concepts of style and form. Ear training, sight-singing, 
rhythm skills, keyboard harmony. P — Music 173. 

270. Sixteenth Century Counterpoint. (2) Analysis of sixteenth century contrapuntal 
music, in particular that of Palestrina. Examination of Renaissance writings on 
counterpoint. Composition of canon and motet. P — Music 174. 

271. Eighteenth Century Counterpoint. (2) Analysis of eighteenth century con- 
trapuntal styles, with concentration on the Well-Tempered Clavier and Art of the Fugue 
of J. S. Bach. Composition of invention, canon, and fugue. P — Music 174. 

272. Analysis Seminar. (2) A study of analytical writings of theorists and composers 
and the development of practical skills as they can be used in research and perform- 
ance preparation. Offered in alternate years. P — Music 174. 

273. Composition. (1 or 2) Individual instruction in the craft of musical composition. 
May be repeated for credit. P — Permission of instructor. 

276. Current Practices. (2) A survey of twentieth century compositional techniques, 
notation, and performance problems involving the study of music and theoretical 
writings associated with major trends from 1900 to the present. P — Music 174. 

280. Orchestration. (4) A study of the orchestral and wind band instruments, how 
composers have used them throughout history, and the development of practical 
scoring and manuscript skills. Offered in alternate years. P — Music 174, 182. 

Music History 

181. Music History I. (3) History of music from the Greeks to 1750. Satisfies the 
Division I requirement. P — Permission of instructor. 

182. Music History II. (3) History of music from 1750 to the present. Satisfies the 
Division I requirement. P — Music 181. 



139 

203. History of Jazz. (4) A survey of American jazz from its origin to the present. 
Open to majors and non-majors. P — Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

204. Survey of Choral Music. (4) A historical overview of important genera (i.e., 
anthem, cantata, motet, mass, oratorio) with an emphasis on church music and 
liturgical function. Open to majors and non-majors. P — Music 101 or 102 or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

205. Survey of Orchestral Music. (4) A historical overview of important orchestral 
repertoire (i.e., symphony, concerto, overture, symphonic poem). Open to majors 
and non-majors. P — Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

206. Survey of Opera. (4) A study of the development of opera from 1600 to the 
present. Selected operas by European and American composers will be examined in 
class via record, score, and film. Class will attend opera performances when possi- 
ble. Open to majors and non-majors. P — Music 101 or 102 or permission of in- 
structor. 

207. Music in America. (4) A study of the music and musical trends in America from 
1650 to the present. The course will survey sacred and secular music from the 
Pilgrims to the current trends of American composers. P — Music 101 or 102 or 
permission of instructor. 

208. Women and Music. (4) A historical overview of women musicians in society. 
P — Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

212. Music in the Church. (4) Function of church musicians and the relationship of 
their work to the church program. P — Permission of instructor. 

215. Philosophy of Music. (2) A survey of philosophical writings about music. 
Musical aesthetics; social, religious, and political concerns. P — Music 174, 182. 

220. Seminar in Medieval and Renaissance Music. (3, 4) A study of music before 
1600, its theory, notation, and performance practices. P — Music 174, 182; or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

221. Seminar in Baroque Music. (3, 4) Musical activity from about 1600 to Bach and 
Handel. Special emphasis on the development of national styles and their resolu- 
tions toward the end of the era. P — Music 174, 182; or permission of instructor. 

222. Seminar in Eighteenth Century Music. (3, 4) Musical developments from the 
sons of Bach through the Viennese Classicism of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. 
P — Music 174, 182; or permission of instructor. 

223. Seminar in Nineteenth Century Music. (3, 4) Music from the latter part of 
Beethoven's career through Wagner and Brahms. Special emphasis on the post- 
Beethoven schism and its ramifications. P — Music 174, 182; or permission of in- 
structor 

224. Seminar in Twentieth Century Music. (3, 4) A study of the major musical styles, 
techniques, and media of contemporary music from Debussy to the present. P — 
Music 174, 182; or permission of instructor. 



140 



284. Music Literature Seminar. (3, 4) A survey of repertoire, including an examina- 
tion of teaching materials in the student's special area of interest. P — Permission of 
instructor. 

Music Education 

Music 280, 282, 284, 289, and 291 also appear as Education 280, 282, 284, 289, and 
291. These courses may be taken as Music or Education but not both. 

186. String Instruments. (2) Fundamentals of playing and teaching all instruments of 
the string family. Offered in alternate years. 

187. Woodwind Instruments. (2) Fundamentals of playing and teaching all principal 
instruments of the woodwind family. Offered in alternate years. 

188. Brass and Percussion Instruments. (2) Fundamentals of playing and teaching 
brass and percussion. Offered in alternate years. 

280. Orchestration. (4) See page 138 for a course description. 

282. Conducting. (4) See page 142 for a course description. 

284. Music Literature Seminar. (3, 4) See page 140 for a course description. 

289. Ensemble Methods. (2) A practical study of choral and instrumental training 
techniques. Discussion of tonal development, administration, bibliography, and 
choral and instrumental problems. P — Music 101 or 102 or permission of instructor. 

291. Teaching of Music. (4) The teaching and supervision of choral and instrumental 
music in the public schools, all grades. Spring. P — Music 174, 182. 

Honors and Individual Study 

297. Senior Project. (1, 2, 3, or 4) A major project varying in format according to the 
student's area of concentration. Bv pre-arrangement. 

298. Individual Study. (1, 2, 3, or 4) A project in an area of study not otherwise 
available in the department. Bv pre-arrangement. 

299. Honors in Music. (4) Individual study for honors candidates who have fulfilled 
the specific requirements. 

Ensemble 

Departmental ensembles are open to all students. Credit is earned on the basis of 
one credit per semester of participation in each ensemble. 

111. Opera Workshop. Studv, staging, and performance of standard and contempo- 
rary operatic works. P — Permission of instructor. 

112. Collegium Musicum. An ensemble stressing the performance practices and the 
performance of music of the medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque eras. 



141 

113. Orchestra. Study and performance of orchestral works from the classical and 
contemporary repertoire. P — Audition. 

114. Madrigal Singers. A vocal chamber ensemble which specializes in the perform- 
ance of secular repertoire. P — Audition. 

115. Concert Choir. A select touring choir of forty-five voices which performs a 
variety of choral literature from all periods. Regular performances on and off cam- 
pus, including an annual tour. P — Audition. 

116. Choral Union. A large oratorio chorus which concentrates on the performance 
of major choral works. P — Audition. 

117. Marching Deacons Band. Performs for most football games. Meets twice week- 
ly. Regular performances on and off campus. Fall. No audition required. 

119. Symphonic Wind Ensemble. Studv and performance of music for wind ensem- 
ble. Regular performances on and off campus. Spring. No audition required. 

120. Chamber Ensemble. (1) Study and performance of music composed specifically 
for small ensemble. Performers are stronglv urged to participate in a larger ensemble 
as well. P — Permission of instructor. 

a. percussion c. string 

b. wind/brass d. mixed 

121. Jazz Ensemble. Studv and performance of written and improvised jazz for a 
twenty-member ensemble. P — Audition. 

Applied Music 

Applied music courses are open to all students with the permission of the in- 
structor. Credit is earned on the basis of lesson duration and weekly preparation. 
One credit per semester implies a half-hour of instruction weekly and a minimum of 
one hour of daily practice. Two credits per semester imply an hour of instruction 
weekly and a minimum of two hours daily practice. With the permission of the music 
faculty and with a proportional increase in practice, a student mav earn three or four 
credits per semester. Students in applied music who do not have basic knowledge of 
notation and rhythm are advised to enroll in Music 101 or 104 either prior to or in 
conjunction with applied study. An applied music fee is charged for all individual 
instruction. (See page 36 of this bulletin for specific information regarding the fee.) 

161, 261. Individual Instruction. (1, 2, 3, or 4) May be repeated for credit. Technical 
studies and repertoire of progressive difficulty selected to meet the needs and 
abilities of the student. 

a. violin g. clarinet in. baritone v. voice 

b. viola h. bassoon n. tuba w. recorder 

c. cello i. saxophone o. organ x. viola de gamba 

d. bass j. trumpet p. piano i/. harpsichord 

e. flute 

f. oboe 



8- 

h. 


clarinet 
bassoon 


m 
n. 


. baritone 
tuba 


i. 

i- 

k. 
1. 


saxophone 
trumpet 
French horn 
trombone 


0. 

V- 

8- 
r. 


organ 
piano 
percussion 
guitar 



142 



165p. Class Piano. (1) Scales, chords, inversions, and appropriate repertoire, with 
emphasis on sight-reading, harmonization, and simple transposition. Designed for 
the beginning piano student. 

165r. Class Guitar I. (1) Introduction to guitar techniques: strumming, plucking, 
arpeggios, and damping. Reading and playing from musical notation and guitar 
tablature. For beginning students. 

166r. Class Guitar II. (1) Continuation of guitar techniques. Emphasis on chordal 
progressions, scales, accompanying patterns, and sight-reading. P — Music 165r. 

165v. Class Voice I. (1) Introduction to the fundamental principles of singing, 
concepts of breath control, tone, and resonance. 

166v. Class Voice II. (1) Continuation of fundamental vocal techniques. P — 
Music 165v or permission of instructor. 

165w. Class Recorder. (1) Introduction to recorder techniques: breath control, 
articulation, F and C fingering systems. Emphasis on ensemble playing. Designed 
for beginning and intermediate recorder players. This course is intended to prepare 
students for Music 112, but is not a prerequisite. 

167v. Theatrical Singing I: Class Voice. (1) Basic techniques of singing, breath 
control, phonation, and resonance, with emphasis on theatrical projection. Study 
and performance of musical theatre repertoire. (One hour per week.) 

168v. Theatrical Singing II: Class Voice. (1) Continuation of theatrical singing 
techniques with increased study and performance of musical theatre repertoire. 
P — Music 167v or permission of instructor. (One hour per week.) 

190. Diction for Singers. (2) Study of articulation in singing, with emphasis on 
modification of English; pronunciation of Italian, German, and French. Develop- 
ment of articulatorv and aural skills with use of the international phonetic alphabet. 
Individual performance and coaching in class. (Two hours per week.) 

282. Conducting. (4) A study of conducting techniques; practical experience with 
ensembles. Offered in alternate years. P — Music 174 or permission of instructor. 

Natural Sciences 

Dudley Shapere, Reynolds Professor of Philosophy 
and History of Science 

201. The Universe of Modern Science. (4) A survey of the contemporary scientific 
picture of the universe and its evolution, and of the major evidence for that picture. 

301. Seminar: The Beginnings of the Modern World-View. (4) A study of the 
transition from ancient views of the world to the perspective of early modern science 
and philosophy, with focus on the works of Plato, Artistotle, Kepler, and Galileo. 

302. The Mechanistic View of Nature. (4) A study of the controversies, both scientif- 



143 



ic and philosophical, arising in the seventeenth century between Cartesians, New- 
tonians, and Leibnizians about the nature and limits of human knowledge. 

303. Revolutions in Modern Science. (4) An analysis of the ways in which radically 
new ideas are introduced and accepted in science. Cases studied are space and time 
in relativity theory, the nature of reality in quantum mechanics, evolution of species, 
and continental drift. P — At least one course in one of the relevant areas of science or 
permission of instructor. 

396. Individual Study. (1-4) Individual projects in the philosophy and history of 
science. By invitation only. 




144 



Philosophy 

Gregory D. Pritchard, Chairman 

Worrell Professor Robert M. Helm 

Professors Thomas K. Hearn Jr., Marcus B. Hester, Gregory D. Pritchard 

Associate Professors Charles M. Lewis, Ralph C. Kennedy III 

Visiting Assistant Professor Win-chiat Lee 

Instructor Charles J. Kinlaw 

Lecturer Hanna M. Hardgrave 

A major in philosophy requires thrity-six credits. The courses must include 261 
and either 161 or 271, two courses from the history sequence (201, 211, 222), and one 
course from each of the following: 230, 231, 241 , 242, or 258; 262, 275, 279, 282, 285, or 
287. In addition to these courses, a major in philosophy requires a "major paper," 
consisting of twenty or more type-written pages, to be submitted for a course, chosen 
by the student, from among courses in philosophy taken during his or her last three 
semesters. This paper may also satisfy the term paper requirement for the course. 

A minor in philosophy requires five courses, one of which will be either 
Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. These courses are to be chosen in accordance with one of 
the following plans. Although plans A, B, and C are designed to complement majors 
in the specified areas, any one of the plans may be chosen by someone who wants to 
pursue other interests. 

(A) Art, Literature, and Religion (B) Natural Science 

Philosophy of Art and/or Philoso- Philosophy of Science; Logic and/ 

phy of Religion; one or more con- or Symbolic Logic; one or more of 

centration courses (230, 231, 241, the following: 201, 211, 222, 225, 

242, 258); one or more of the 230, 231, 241, 258, 275, 279, 280. 
following: 201, 211, 222, 225, 261, 
275. 

(C) Social Science, Politics, and Law (D) Open Plan 

Ethics and/or Philosophy of Law; With departmental approval, a 

Logic and/or Symbolic Logic; one fourth option will be available to 

or more of the following: 201, 211, students for whom none of the 

225, 230, 231, 241, 242, 258, 262, specified plans would be appropri- 

275, 279, 287. ate. 

The Spilman Philosophy Seminar, open to advanced students in philosophy, was 
established in 1934 through an endowment provided by Bernard W. Spilman. The 
income from the endowment is used for the seminar library, which now contains 
about 4,000 volumes. Additional support for the library and other departmental 
activities is provided by the A. C. Reid Philosophy Fund, which was established in 
1960 by friends of the department. The furniture in the library and seminar room was 
donated in honor of Claude V. Roebuck and Mr. and Mrs. W. A. Hough by their 
families. 

Two distinguished alumni of the College have made possible the establishment of 



145 



a lectureship and a seminar. The late Guy T. Carswell endowed the Guy T. and Clara 
Carswell Philosophy Lectureship, and a gift from James Montgomery Hester es- 
tablished the Hester Philosophy Seminar. In addition, a lectureship bearing his name 
has been instituted in honor of Claude V. Roebuck. 

Superior majors are invited bv the department to apply for admission to the honors 
program in philosophy. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Philoso- 
phy," a qualified student must submit an acceptable prospectus for an honors thesis 
by November for graduation in the spring semester or by May for graduation in the 
fall semester, present a satisfactory paper based on the prospectus (as judged bv the 
student's honors adviser and at least one other member of the department), and 
show an acceptable level of performance in a discussion of the paper with the honors 
adviser and at least one other member of the department. In lieu of a prospectus, the 
student's "major paper" may be submitted, provided that this occurs in the semester 
before the semester in which he or she is to graduate and provided that the paper is 
re-written in view of criticism and additional research materials as appropriate for an 
honors paper. 

111. Basic Problems of Philosophy. (4) An examination of the basic concepts of 
several representative philosophers, including their accounts of the nature of knowl- 
edge, man, God, mind, and matter. 

161. Logic. (4) An elementarv studv of the laws of valid inference, recognition of 
fallacies, and logical analysis. 

171, 172. Meaning and Value in Western Thought. (4, 4) A critical survey of religious 
and philosophical ideas in the Western world from antiquitv to modern times. Either 
Philosophv 171 or 172 satisfies the philosophv or religion requirement; both 171 and 
172 satisfy both the philosophv and religion requirements; choice made at registra- 
tion. 

175. Space and Time in Fact and Fiction. (4) Are space and time fundamentals 
different? Are thev properties of the physical world or of minds onlv? Are thev finite 
or infinite in extension and duration? Other questions cover problems and paradoxes 
in the concept of space and in the concept of time travel. P — Philosophv 111, 171, or 
172. 

182. Medical Ethics. (4) A study of moral problems in medicine including informed 
consent, experimentation on human subjects, truth-telling, confidentiality, abor- 
tion, and the allocation of scarce medical resources. P — Philosophv 111, 171, or 172. 

184. Applied Ethics. (4) A critical analvsis of contemporary moral issues, including 
capital punishment, minoritv rights and their protection, civil disobedience, eu- 
thanasia, familv relationships, and sexual conduct. 

201. Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. (4) A study of philosophical problems such 
as the nature of faith, reason, universals, and God in the thought of Plato, Aristotle, 
Augustine, Abelard, Anselm, Aquinas, and Ockham. P — Philosophv 111, 171, or 
172. 



146 

211. Modern Philosophy. (4) A survey of major philosophers from Descartes to 

Nietzsche. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

222. Contemporary Philosophy. (4) A survey of major twentieth century philoso- 
phers, including Russell and Sartre. P — Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

225. American Philosophy. (4) A studv exploring the philosophies of Jonathan 
Edwards, Ralph Waldo Emerson, C. S. Peirce, William James, John Dewev, and 
others, examining their views on logic, experience, science, reality, nature, art, 
education, and God. P — Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

230. Plato. (4) A detailed analysis of selected dialogues, covering Plato's most 
important contributions to moral and political philosophy, theory of knowledge, 
metaphysics, and theology. P — Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

231. Aristotle. (4) A studv of the major texts, with emphasis on metaphysics, ethics, 
and theory of knowledge. P — Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

241. Kant. (4) A detailed study of selected works covering Kant's most important 
contributions to theory of knowledge, metaphysics, ethics, religion, and aesthetics. 
P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

242. Hegel, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche. (4) An examination of selected sources 
embodying the basic concepts of Hegel, Kierkegaard, and Nietzsche, especially as 
they relate to each other in terms of influence, development, and opposition. P — 
Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

258. Wittgenstein. (4) The work of Ludwig Wittgenstein on several central philo- 
sophical problems studied and compared with that of Frege, James, and Russell. 
Topics include the picture theory of meaning, truth, scepticism, private languages, 
thinking, feeling, the mystical, and the ethical. P — Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

261. Ethics. (4) A critical study of selected problems and representative works in 
ethical theory. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

262. Social and Political Philosophy. (4) A systematic examination of selected social 
and political philosophers of different traditions, with concentration on Plato, Marx, 
Rawls, and Nozick. Topics include rights, justice, equalitv, private property, the 
state, the common good, and the relation of individuals to society. P — 
Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

271. Symbolic Logic. (4) Basic concepts and techniques of modern deductive logic, 
beginning with the logic of truth-functions and quantifiers, and including some 
discussion of topics as Church's thesis and theorem, the completeness of first-order 
logic, and Godel's incompleteness theorems. 

275. Philosophy of Mind. (4) A selection from the following topics: the mind-bodv 
problem; personal identity; the unity of consciousness; minds and machines; the 
nature of experience; action, intention, and the will. Readings from classical and 
contemporary sources. P — Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 



147 

279. Philosophy of Science. (4) A systematic exploration of the conceptual founda- 
tions of scientific thought and procedure. P — Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

282. Philosophy of Law. (4) A philosophical inquiry into the nature of law and its 
relation to morality. Classroom discussions of readings from the works of classical 
and modern authors focus on issues of contemporary concern involving questions of 
legal principle, personal liberty, human rights, responsibility, justice, and punish- 
ment. P— Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

285. Philosophy of Art. (4) A critical examination of several philosophies of art, with 
emphasis upon the application of these theories to particular works of art. P — 
Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

287. Philosophy of Religion. (4) A systematic analysis of the logic of religious 
language and belief, including an examination of religious experience, mysticism, 
revelation, and arguments for the nature and existence of God. P — Philosophy 111, 
171, or 172. 

294. Seminar in Epistemological Problems. (4) P — Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

295. Seminar in Metaphysical Problems. (4) P — Philosophy 111, 171, or 172. 

296. Independent Study. (2-4) 



Physics 

George P. Williams Jr., Chairman 

Reynolds Professor Richard T. Williams 

Professors Robert W. Brehme, William C. Kerr, Howard W. Shields, 

George P. Williams Jr. 

Associate Professor George Eric Matthews 

Assistant Professor Natalie A. W. Holzwarth 

Lecturer George M. Holzwarth 

The program for each student majoring in physics is developed through consulta- 
tion with the student's major adviser and may lead to either a Bachelor of Arts or a 
Bachelor of Science degree. The BA degree requires a minimum of basic phvsics 
courses and allows a wide selection of electives related to the student's interests in 
other disciplines. The BS degree is designed to prepare students for careers in 
physics, perhaps beginning with graduate study. 

The Bachelor of Arts degree in physics requires thirty-seven credits in physics and 
must include courses 161, 162, 343, and 345, and two from 230, 351, 352, and 354. The 
Bachelor of Science degree in phvsics requires forty-five credits in physics and must 
include courses 311, 312, 343, 344, 345, and 346. In special cases the department may 
allow substitutions. For either degree, two courses in chemistry or the equivalent 
and Mathematics 251 are required. 



148 



A typical schedule for the first two years: 

Freshman Sophomore 

Basic and divisional requirements Basic and divisional requirements 

Physics 113, 114 Physics 161, 162 

Mathematics 111, 112 Mathematics 113, 251 

Foreign Language 

If this sequence is followed, the physics major may be completed with consider- 
able flexibility in exercising various options, such as the five-year BA/MS program. 
(For information about this program, consult the department chairman.) This saves 
time, and the outstanding student may qualify for a tuition scholarship in the senior 
year of the five-year program. 

A student may minor in physics via one of the following options: 

Option A: Twenty-four credits including Physics 113, 114, 161, 162, and 230. 
Option B: "Scientific Computer Systems Design" — Twenty-three credits con- 
sisting of Physics 113', 114, 130, 164, 230, and 330. 

Students interested in the minor should so advise the instructor of the second-year 
course. 

If Physics 113, 114 is not taken in the freshman year, the degree requirements in 
physics may still be completed by the end of the senior year if Physics 113, 114 is 
taken in the sophomore year. No student may be a candidate for a degree with a 
major in physics with a grade less than C in genera! physics without special permis- 
sion of the department. 

Satisfactory completion of the laboratory work is required for a passing grade in all 
courses with a laboratory. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in physics. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in 
Physics," students must complete satisfactorily Physics 381 and pass a com- 
prehensive written examination. For additional information on these programs or on 
the engineering program the department chairman should be consulted. 

101. Conceptual Physics. (5) A non-mathematical introduction to the essential prin- 
ciples of classical and modern physics based on a conceptual treatment of the more 
exciting contemporary aspects of the subject. Credit not allowed for both 101 and 
111. Lab — two hours. 

104. Introductory Physics for Teachers. (3 or 4) No lab. Does not satisfy Division II 
requirements. 

105. Descriptive Astronomy. (4) An introductory study of the universe, from the 
solar system to the galaxies. No lab. Does not satisfv Division II requirements. 

106. Physics and the Sounds of Music. (3 or 4) A studv of the production, propaga- 
tion, and perception of musical sounds. Satisfies no divisional requirements. No 
prerequisites; no lab. 

Ill, 112. Introductory Physics. (5, 5) Essentials of mechanics, wave motion, heat, 



149 



sound, electricity, magnetism, optics, and modern physics. Not recommended for 
pre-medical, mathematics, and science students. Lab — two hours. P — 111 is prereq- 
uisite for 112. 

113, 114. General Physics. (5, 5) Same topics as 111, 112 treated with some use of 
calculus. Recommended for pre-medical, mathematics, and science students. One 
section of this course is reserved for freshmen who are prospective majors in a 
physical science. Lab — two hours. C — Mathematics 111 or equivalent. P — 113 is 
prerequisite for 114. 

130. Introduction to Microcomputers. (4) Microcomputer architecture and interfac- 
ing with an introduction to programming in BASIC, assembler, and machine lan- 
guage. 

141. Elementary Modern Physics. (4) The development of twentieth century physics 
and an introduction to quantum ideas. P — Physics 113 and Mathematics 111. 

161. Applied Mechanics. (5) The fundamental principles of mechanics. Lab — three 
hours. P — Physics 113 and Mathematics 111 or equivalent. 

162. Introductory Electricity. (4) The fundamental principles of electricitv, magnet- 
ism, and electromagnetic radiation. P — Phvsics 114, Mathematics 112. 

164. Introductory Electricity Lab. (1) A three-hour laboraborv. 

230. Electronics. (4) Introduction to the theorv and application of transistors and 
electronic circuits. Lab — three hours. P — Phvsics 162 or equivalent. 

301, 302. Physics Seminar. (0, 0) Discussion of contemporary research, usually with 
visiting scientists. Attendance required of junior and senior phvsics majors. 

311. Mechanics. (4) A junior/senior level treatment of analytic classical mechanics. 
P — Physics 161 and Mathematics 251. 

312. Electromagnetic Theory. (4) A junior/senior level treatment of classical 
electromagnetic theory. P — Phvsics 162 and Mathematics 251. 

320. The Physics of Macromolecules. (4) The physics of polymers, especially pro- 
teins and nucleic acids, including the molecular basis for their secondary and tertiary 
structure. P — Physics 351 or Chemistry 341 or Biologv 371. 

330. Data Acquisition and Analysis. (4) Advanced treatment of computer interfac- 
ing, signal processing methods, non-ideal integrated circuit behavior, and data 
reduction and fitting procedures. P — Phvsics 130, 230. 

343, 344. Modern Physics. (4, 4) Application of the elementarv principles of quantum 
mechanics to atomic, molecular, solid state, and nuclear physics. P — Phvsics 114. 

345, 346. Modern Physics Laboratory. (1, 1) The laboratory associated with 
Physics 343, 344. Lat) — three hours. 

351. Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics. (4) Introduction to classical and 
statistical thermodynamics and distribution functions. 



150 



352. Physical Optics and Spectra. (5) A studv of physical optics and the quantum 
treatment of spectra. Lab — three hours. 

354. Introduction to Solid State Physics. (4) A survey of the structure, composition, 
physical properties, and technological applications of condensed matter. P — 
Physics 343. 

381, 382. Research. (2-4, 2-4) Library, conference, and laboratory work performed 
on an indivdual basis. 



Politics 

Jack D. Fleer, Chairman 
Professors Jack D. Fleer, Carl C. Moses, Donald O. Schoonmaker, 

Richard D. Sears 

Professor of History and Asian Studies Balkrishna Govind Gokhale 

Associate Professors David B. Broyles, Kathleen B. Smith 

Assistant Professors Saguiv A. Hadari, Katy J. Harriger, Charles H. Kennedy 

In its broadest conception, the aim of the study of politics is to understand the way 
in which policy for a society is formulated and executed and to understand the moral 
standards by which policy is or ought to be set. This center of interest is often 
described alternatively as the studv of power, of government, of the state, or of 
human relations in their political context. For teaching purposes, the studv of politics 
has been divided by the department into the following fields: (1) American politics, 
(2) comparative politics, (3) political philosophy, and (4) international politics. In- 
troductory courses in these fields provide broad and flexible approaches to studying 
political life. 

The major in politics consists of thirty-six credits. The courses must include the 
following: (a) a first course selected from Politics 113, 114, 115, or 116; (b) any 
non-seminar course in each of the four fields of the discipline except Politics 217, 219, 
229, 242, 244, 252, 256, 259, 270, 275, 284, 285, 287, 288, and 289; (c) one seminar in 
politics (usually a student takes no more than one seminar in each field and no more 
than three seminars overall). A minimum grade average of C on all courses at- 
tempted in politics is required for graduation. Alternatively, a minimum grade of C 
in each course of the courses taken to satisfy departmental requirements — 
introductory courses, field distribution courses, and seminars — and in as many other 
courses in the major as needed for a total of thirty-six credits is required for gradua- 
tion. Majors should consult with their advisers concerning additional regulations. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in politics. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in 
Politics," one must successfully complete Politics 284 and 285. Politics 284 and 285 
must be taken as additional courses bevond the thirty-six credits ordinarily required. 
For additional information members of the departmental faculty should be con- 
sulted. 

The minor in politics consists of twenty credits, oridinarilv including Politics 113 



151 

but excluding individual study and seminar courses. Sixteen of the credits must be 
taken at Wake Forest and any transfer courses must be approved by the chairman. 
None of the courses may be taken pass/fail. 

A student who selects politics to fulfill the Division IV requirement must take one 
of the following courses: Politics 1 13, 1 14, 1 15, or 1 16. No introductory level course is 
required for students taking a politics course as an elective unless such a prerequisite 
is specified in the course description. 

Introductory Courses 

A student may take any one of the following as a first course in the department; 
more than one may be taken. Ordinarily a student is expected to take Politics 113 as 
the first course. 

113. American Government and Politics. (4) The nature of politics, political princi- 
ples, and political institutions, with emphasis on their application to the United 
States. 

114. Comparative Government and Politics. (4) Political processes and principles as 
applied to traditional, developing, and mature states. 

115. Political Philosophy. (4) Major systematic statements of the rules and principles 
of political life. Representative writers are Tocqueville, Dahl, and Aristotle. 

116. International Politics. (4) An analvsis of the forces which shape relations among 
states and some of the major problems of contemporarv international politics. 

American Politics 

210. Major Topics in Public Policy. (2, 3, or 4) A study of major policies on the 
current public agenda in the United States, including consideration of alternative 
policy responses and the politics which surround them. Possible topics include the 
politics of poverty and welfare, medical care, education, crime, and energy. Credit 
varies with the number of topics studied. 

211. Political Parties and Voting Behavior. (4) An examination of partv competition, 
party organizations, the electorate and electoral activities of parties, and the 
responsibilities of parties for governing. 

213. Public Administration. (4) Introduction to the studv of public administration 
emphasizing policy-making in government agencies. 

217. Politics and the Mass Media. (4) Exploration of the relationship between the 
political system and the mass media. Two broad concerns will be the regulation of the 
mass media and the impact of media on political processes and events. 

218. Congress and Policy-Making. (4) An examination of the composition, authority 
structures, external influences, and procedures of Congress with emphasis on their 
implications for policy-making in the United States. 

219. Fundamentals of Public Policy Analysis. (4) Fundamentals of public policy 



152 

analysis with emphasis on techniques of decision-making such as cost benefit analy- 
sis and utility analysis. Each student will participate in a major collective research 
project centered on a local issue. 

220. The American Presidency. (4) Emphasis on the office and the role; contributions 
by contemporary presidents considered in perspective. 

222. Urban Problems and Politics. (4) Political structures and processes in American 
cities and suburbs as they relate to the social, economic, and political problems of the 
metropolis. 

225. American Constitutional Law: Separation of Powers and the Federal System. 

(4) An analysis of Supreme Court decisions affecting the three branches of the 
national government and federal/state relations. 

226. American Constitutional Law: Civil Liberties. (4) Judicial interpretations of 
First Amendment freedoms, racial equalitv, and the rights of the criminally accused. 

227. Politics, Law, and Courts. (4) Analysis of the nature and role of law in American 
society and the structure and procedure of American courts. Questions of judicial 
organization, personnel, and decision-making, as well as the impact of law and court 
decisions on the social order, are explored at local, state, and national levels. 

229. Women and Politics. (4) The course will examine classical and contemporary 
arguments regarding the participation of women in politics as well as current policy 
issues and changes in women's political participation. 

Comparative Politics 

231. Western European Politics. (4) Analvsis of the political systems of Great Britain, 
France, and Italy, focusing primarily on the problems of stable democracy. 

232. Government and Politics in the Soviet Union. (4) Analysis of the institutions 
and processes of politics in the USSR and examination of political developments in 
other states of Eastern Europe. 

233. The Politics of West and East Germany. (4) A study of the political behavior and 
governmental institutions of the capitalist democratic regime of West Germany and 
the authoritarian socialist regime of East Germanv. 

234. Government and Politics in East Asia. (4) An analvsis of the political institutions 
and processes in China and Japan, with emphasis on the problems of modernization. 

235. The Politics of Revolution. (4) A studv of revolution as an alternative means of 
socio-political change. Analysis of the nature and types of revolution as well as 
causes, processes, and consequences. Attention is given to some historical cases and 
to some current revolutionary situations and movements. 

236. Government and Politics in Latin America. (4) Comparative analysis of the 
institutions and processes of politics in the Latin American region. 

237. Comparative Public Policy in Selected Industrialized Democracies. (4) An 



153 



investigation of the public policy choices involving such matters as health, educa- 
tion, and income maintenance plans in selected Western European countries. The 
origins, development, trends of the "welfare state" will be examined in Great Britain, 
West Germany, and Sweden. 

242. Problems in Comparative Politics. (4) An intensive study of one or more major 
problems in contemporary comparative politics. 

244. Politics and Literature. (2, 3, or 4) An examination of how literature can extend 
our knowledge of politics and political systems. The course considers the insights of 
selected novelists, such as Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Heinrich Boll, Robert Penn 
Warren, George Orwell, and Gabriel Garcia Marquez. 

245. Government and Politics of South Asia. (4) A studv of the governments of 
India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Cevlon. Emphasis on political organizations, party 
structures, and subnational governmental svstems. 

246. Politics and Policies in South Asia. (4) A survey of major issues relevant to 
politics and policy in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. 

International Politics 

250. Global Crises. (4) An introductorv survey of the major current issues in in- 
ternational affairs. Students learn how to effectively read and criticize materials and 
present critiques in oral and written fashion. 

252. Problems in International Politics. (4) An intensive study of one or more major 
problems of contemporary international politics. 

253. The Politics of International Economic Relations. (4) A studv of the emergence 
of international economic transactions, including trade, monetary affairs, invest- 
ment, and multinational corporations, as a central aspect of world politics. 

254. American Foreign Policy: Contemporary Problems. (4) A critical examination of 
different methods of studying American foreign policy and of selected policies 
followed by the United States since the early 1960s. 

255. American Foreign Policy: The Cold War Period. (4) A critical examination of the 
forces which shape American foreign policy and of selected policies followed from 
World War II to the Cuban Missile Crisis. 

256. Nuclear Weapons and National Security. (2 or 4) An analysis of the strategic, 
political, and moral implications of nuclear weapons as instruments of national 
policy. Both American and Soviet perspectives will be considered and special atten- 
tion will be given to contemporary debates over the possession and control of nuclear 
weapons. 

257. Political Economy in Inter-American Affairs. (4) A descriptive and analytical 
study of the bilateral and multilateral political relations of the Latin American states 
and the United States, with particular reference to the economic interactions which 
influence them. 



154 

259. The Arab-Israeli Confrontation. (4) An analysis of factors influencing the 
relationship betw.een Israel and its neighbors relative to fundamental aspects of 
United States, Israeli, Palestinian, and Arab states' policies. 



Political Philosophy 

270. Topics in Political Theory. (4) A intensive study of one or more major topics in 
contemporary political theory. 

271. Plato, Aristotle, and Classical Political Philosophy. (4) An examination of the 
nature and goals of the classical position, with attention to its origins in ancient 
Athens and its diffusion through Rome. Representative writers are Plato, Aristotle, 
and Cicero. 

272. Equality and Liberty. (4) The arguments for and against democracy and 
republicanism, majority rule, and the rights of man. Representative writers are 
Rousseau and Mill. 

273. Radical Critiques of Political Society. (4) Anarchist, socialist, and communist 
criticisms of and alternatives to existing political societies, with special attention to 
such problems as utopianism and alienation. Representative writers are Marx and 
Nietzsche. 

274. Noble Greeks and Romans. (4) A study of statesmanship in the speeches and 
actions of selected major figures. Theory manifested in practice. Representative 
writers are Shakespeare and Plutarch. 

275. Theory of the American Polity. (4) Critical examination of the nature of the 
American polity as expressed by its founders and leading statesmen. Representative 
writers are the Federalists, Lincoln, and Wilson. Does not meet theory distribution 
requirement for majors. 

276. Medieval Political Philosophy. (4) Philosophy and religion in cooperation and 
conflict. Emphasis on Christian writers with some attention to Muslim and Jewish. 
Representative writers are Aquinas, Dante, and Maimonides. 

278. Foundations of Modern Political Philosophy. (4) An examination of the es- 
sential writings of thinkers who broke with the past in an attempt to establish a more 
"realistic" approach to the study of politics. Representative writers are Machiavelli, 
Hobbes, and Locke. 

279. Contemporary Political Theory. (4) An examination of representative twentieth 
century political thinkers such as Arendt, Dewey, Foucault, Rawls, and Weber. 



Honors and Individual Study 

284. Honors Study. (2) Directed study and research in preparation for a major paper 
on a subject of special interest to the student. Taken in the fall semester of the senior 
year by all candidates for departmental honors. 



155 

285. Honors Study. (3) Directed study toward completion of the project begun in 
Politics 284 and to the writing and defense of an honors paper. Taken in the spring 
semester of the senior year by all candidates for departmental honors. P — 
Politics 284. 

287. Individual Study. (2, 3, or 4) Special research and writing projects conducted 
under the direction of a faculty member. Permission of instructor required. 

288. Directed Reading. (1-4) Concentrated reading in an area of study not otherwise 
available. Permission of instructor required. 

289. Internship in Politics. (2, 3, or 4) Field work in a public or private setting with 
related readings and an analytical paper under the direction of a faculty member. 
Permission of instructor required. 

Seminars 

291. Seminar in American Politics. (4) Readings, research, and independent study 
on selected topics. P — Permission of instructor. 

292. Seminar in Comparative Politics. (4) Readings, research, and independent 
study on selected topics. P — Permission of instructor. 

293. Seminar in International Politics. (4) Readings, research, and independent 
study on selected topics. P — Permission of instructor. 

294. Seminar in Political Philosophy. (4) Readings, research, and independent 
study on selected topics. P — Permission of instructor. 



Psychology 

John E. Williams, Chairman 

Professors Robert C. Beck, Robert H. Dufort, Charles L. Richman, 

John E. Williams 

Associate Professors Deborah L. Best, David W. Catron, Maxine L. Clark, 

Philippe R. Falkenberg, David Allen Hills, Cecilia H. Solano 

Assistant Professor Mark R. Leary 

Visiting Professor Janak Pandey 

Visiting Assistant Professor Susan B. Wallace 

Adjunct Associate Professor Frank B. Wood 

Adjunct Assistant Professors C. Drew Edwards, Susan R. Leonard, 

Marianne A. Schubert 

Psychology 151 is prerequisite to all courses of a higher number. Courses num- 
bered below 151 do not count toward Division IV requirements or toward the major 
in psychology. Psychology 211, or special permission of the instructor, is prerequi- 
site for all 300-level courses except 313, 335, 344, 358, and 367. 

It is recommended that students who are considering psychology as a major take 



156 



Psychology 151 in their freshman year and Psychology 211 in the fall of their sopho- 
more year. An average of C or higher in psychology courses is required at the time 
the major is elected. The major in psychology requires the completion of a minimum 
of forty credits in psychology, including 151, 211, 212, and 313. In addition, the major 
student must complete at least one course from each of the following groups: 320, 
326, 329, 331, and 333; 341, 351, 355, and 362. No more than 48 psychology credits 
may be counted toward the graduation requirements of 144 credits. 

The minor in psychology requires twenty credits in psychology, distributed as 
follows: 151 (4 credits); 211 (5 credits); at least one of the following courses: 320, 326, 
329, 331, 333 (4 credits each); and seven additional credits in courses numbered 200 or 
above. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to participate in the honors 
program in psychology. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Psycholo- 
gy," the student must complete satisfactorily a special sequence of courses (381, 383) 
and pass an oral or written examination. In addition, the honors student normally 
has a non-credit research apprenticeship with a faculty member. For more detailed 
information members of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 



100. Learning to Learn. (2, 3, or 4) A workshop to help people improve their learning 
skills through the application of basic principles of learning, remembering, and so 
forth. Students at all levels welcomed. No prerequisite. Pass/Fail only. 

102. Exploration of Career Planning. (2, 3, or 4) Examination of educational/ 
vocational planning as a personal process, based on knowledge of self and the work 
world. No prerequisite. 

151. Introductory Psychology. (4) A systematic survey of psychology as the scientific 
study of behavior. Prerequisite to all courses of a higher number. 

211, 212. Research Methods in Psychology. (5, 5) Introduction to the design and 
statistical analysis of psychological research. Lab — twice weekly. P — Psychology 151 
and permission of instructor. 

239. Altered States of Consciousness. (4) Examination of altered states of conscious- 
ness with special reference to sleep and dreams, meditation, hypnosis, and drugs. 
P — Psychology 151. 

241. Developmental Psychology. (4) Survey of physical, emotional, cognitive, and 
social development in humans from conception to death. P — Psychology 151. 

245. Survey of Abnormal Behavior. (4) Study of problem behaviors such as depres- 
sion, alcoholism, antisocial personality, the schizophrenias, and pathogenic per- 
sonality patterns, with emphasis on causes, prevention, and the relationships of 
these disorders to normal lifestyles. P — Psychology 151. 

250. Psychology Abroad. (4) The study of psychology in foreign countries. Content 
and travel plans vary from year to year depending upon interests of faculty and 
students. Usually offered in summer. P — Psychology 151. 



157 

255. Personality. (4) Survey of theory and research on the structure and function of 
human personality, with attention to the relationship to cognition, emotion, motiva- 
tion, and behavior. P — Psychology 151. 

260. Social Psychology. (4) A survey of the field, including theories of social be- 
havior, interpersonal attraction, attitudes and attitude change, and group behavior. 
P — Psychology 151. 

265. Human Sexuality. (4) An exploration of the psychological and phvsiological 
asepects of human sexualitv, with attention to sexual mores, sexual deviances, 
sexual dysfunction, and sex-related roles. P — Psychology 151. 

268. Psychology of Business and Industry. (4) Psychological principles and methods 
applied to problems commonly encountered in business and industry. P — 
Psychology 151. 

270. Topics in Psychology. (1, 2, or 3) The student selects from among a group of 
short one-credit courses dealing with topics of special interest. The courses meet 
sequentially, not concurrently, and options are offered in each portion of the semes- 
ter. P — Psychology 151. 

270A Aggression 270K Psychology and Politics 

270D Brain/ Behavior Relations 270L Sex Stereotypies and Roles 

270E Emotion 270M The Gifted and Creative Person 

270H Intelligence 270N Liking and Loving Relationships 

2701 Race and Young Children 270P Animal Flying Behavior 

270} Memory 

280. Directed Study. (1-4) Student research performed under faculty supervision. 
P — Psychology 151 and approval of faculty member prior to registration. 

313. History and Systems of Psychology. (4) The development of psychological 
thought and research from ancient Greece to present trends, with emphasis on 
intensive examination of original sources. P — Psychology 151. 

320. Physiological Psychology. (4) Neurophysiological and neuroanatomical expla- 
nations of behavior. P — Psychology 211 or permission of instructor. 

323. Animal Behavior. (4) A survey of laboratory and field research on animal 
behavior. This course may count as biology or psychology but not both; choice to be 
made at registration. P — Permission of instructor. 

326. Learning Theory and Research. (4) Survey of concepts and research in learning, 
with particular emphasis on recent developments. P — Psychology 211. 

329. Perception. (4) Survey of theory and research findings on various sensory 
systems (vision, hearing, touch, taste). P — Psychology 211. 

331. Cognition. (4) Current theory and research in cognitive processes. Emphasis 
on memory, attention, visual and auditory information processing, concept 
identification/formation, and language. P — Psychology 211. 



158 

333. Motivation of Behavior. (4) Survey of basic motivational concepts and related 
evidence. P — Psychology 211. 

335. Fundamentals of Human Motivation. (4) Description and analysis of some 
fundamental motivational phenomena, with special reference to human problems; 
includes reward and punishment, conflict anxiety, affection, needs for achievement 
and power, aggression, creativity, and curiosity. P — Psychology 151. 

341. Research in Child Development. (4) Methodological issues and selected re- 
search in child development. Research projects required. P — Psychology 211. 

342. Current Issues in Developmental Psychology. (4) Intensive examination of 
selected theoretical or research issues in this area. P — Psychology 211 and 341. 

344. Abnormal Psychology. (4) Descriptive analysis of the major types of abnormal 
behavior with attention to organic, psychological, and cultural causes and major 
modes of therapy. Offered in the summer. P — Psychology 151. 

346. Psychological Disorders of Childhood. (4) Survey of problems including con- 
duct disorders, attention deficits disorders, depression, and autism. Emphasis on 
causes, prevention, treatment, and the relationships of disorders to normal child 
development and family life. P — Psychology 245 or 344 or permission of instructor. 

351. Personality Research. (4) The application of a variety of research procedures to 
the study of human personality. Research projects required. P — Psvchologv 211. 

355. Research in Social Psychology. (4) Methodological issues and selected research 
in the study of the human as a social animal. Research projects required. P — 
Psychology 211. 

357. Cross-Cultural Psychology. (4) An examination of differences in psychological 
processes (e.g., attitudes, perception, mental health, organizational behavior) 
associated with cultural variation. P — Psychology 151. 

358. Psychology of Woman. (4) Intensive study of the behavior of women and its 
personal application, including consideration of biological, social, and motivational 
factors. P — Psychologv 151. 

361. Operant Conditioning and Behavior Modification. (4) Principles, theory, and 
experimental research in operant learning, with applications to the modification of 
behavior in various populations and situations. P — Psychology 211. 

362. Psychological Tests and Measurements. (4) Theory and application of psycho- 
logical assessment procedures in the areas of intelligence, aptitude, vocational inter- 
est, and personality. P — Psychology 211. 

363. Survey of Clinical Psychology. (4) An overview of the field of clinical psycholo- 
gy. P — Psychology 245 and senior standing or permission of instructor. 

367. Effectiveness in Parent/Child Relations. (4) A survey of popular approaches to 
child-rearing, with examination of the research literature on parent/child interaction 
and actual training in parental skills. P — Psychologv 151. 



159 



369. Contemporary Applications of Psychology. (4) Supervised field experience in 
applied psychology. P — Psychology 151 and permission of instructor. 

378. Instrumentation for Psychological Research. (2-4) Lecture/demonstration pres- 
entation of electrical and mechanical equipment, followed by practical application in 
small group project work. Assumes no prior knowledge of electricity or construction. 
P — Permission of instructor. 

381. Honors Seminar. (3) Seminar on selected problems in psychology. Intended 
primarily for students in the departmental honors program. P — Psychology 211 and 
permission of instructor. 

383. Honors Research. (3) Seminar in selected issues in research design, followed bv 
independent empirical research under the supervision of a member of the de- 
partmental faculty. P — Psychology 211 and permission of instructor. 

392. Contemporary Problems in Psychology. (4) Seminar treatment of current theory 
and research in several "frontier" areas of psychology. Principally for senior majors 
planning to attend graduate school. P — Psychology 211 and senior standing. 




160 

Religion 

Carlton T. Mitchell, Chairman 

Professors John William Angell, George McLeod Bryan, 

Emmett Willard Hamrick, Fred L. Horton Jr., James A. Martin, 

Carlton T. Mitchell, Charles H. Talbert 

Associate Professors John E. Collins, Ralph C. Wood Jr. 

Adjunct Associate Professor Thomas E. Dougherty Jr. 

Assistant Professor Stephen B Boyd 

Instructor Sharyn E. Dowd 

The department offers courses designed to give every student an opportunity to 
acquire at least an introduction to the life, literature, and most important movements 
in the field of religion. It also seeks to provide the foundational courses needed for 
professional religious service in ministry, counseling, chaplaincy, and the like. 

A course in religion is required for all degrees. Anv 100-level course offered by the 
department is accepted to meet the Division III requirement. 

A major in religion requires a minimum of thirty-two credits, at least half of which 
must be in courses above the 100 level. 

A minor in religion requires twenty credits, eight of which must be above the 100 
level. The required courses may include one pass/fail course if the course is offered 
on the pass/fail basis only. The department will provide advisers for students elect- 
ing the minor in religion. 

Pre-ministerial students are advised to include in their program of study, in 
addition to courses in religion, courses in psychology, ancient history, public speak- 
ing, and two languages (Greek or Latin and German or French). 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors program in religion. To be graduated with the designation "Honors in 
Religion," they must apply to the chairman of the department for admission to the 
honors program, normally by February of the junior year. Upon completion of all the 
requirements the candidate is graduated with "Honors in Religion." For additional 
information members of the departmental facultv should be consulted. 

111. Introduction to the Old Testament. (4) A survev of the Old Testament designed 
to introduce the student to the history, literature, and religion of the ancient He- 
brews. 

112. Introduction to the New Testament. (4) A survev of the literature of the New 
Testament in the context of early Christian history. 

120. Introduction to the Bible. (4) A consideration of prominent themes found in the 
Old and New Testaments. 

131. Basic Christian Ethics. (4) The Biblical and theological foundation of the Chris- 
tian ethic and its expression in selected contemporary problems. 

161. World Religions. (4) The place of religion in life and the origin, nature, and 
accomplishments of the living religions of the world, studied from the historical 
point of view. 



161 



164. The Formation of the Christian Tradition. (4) A survey of the history of the 
Christian Church from its origins to the Reformation. 

165. History of Christianity in Modern Times. (4) A survey of the historv of the 
Christian Church from the Reformation to the present. 

166. American Religious Life. (4) A study of the history, organization, worship and 
beliefs of American religious bodies, with particular attention to cultural factors. 

171, 172. Meaning and Value in Western Thought. (4, 4) A critical survey of religion 
and philosophy in the Western world from antiquity to modern times. Either 
Religion 171 or 172 satisfies the philosophy or religion requirement; both 171 and 172 
satisfy both the philosophv and religion requirements; choice made at registration. 

173. An Introduction to Christian Theology. (4) A studv of the ground, structure, 
and content of Christian belief. 

177. Faith and Imagination. (4) A study of modern writers, including C. S. Lewis 
and J. R. R. Tolkien, who seek to retell the Christian story in imaginative terms. 

209. The Pre-exilic Prophets. (2) A study of the background, personal characteristics, 
function, message, and permanent contribution of the prophets from Samuel 
through Jeremiah. 

210. The Post-exilic Prophets. (2) A study of the background, personal characteris- 
tics, function, message, and permanent contribution of the prophets from Ezekiel to 
the end of the Old Testament era. 

212. The Wisdom Literature. (2) An introduction to the Wisdom Literature of the Old 
Testament, with special attention to Proverbs. 

213. Introduction to Palestinian Archaeology. (2) A survey of twentieth century 
archaeology in Palestine with attention to its importance for Biblical studies. 

215. Visions of the End: Jewish and Christian Apocalyptic. (2, 4) Reading and study 
of Biblical and non-Biblical apocalvptic texts. This course mav be divided into halves 
for two credits each. 

215. (a) Daniel and Jewish Apocalyptic 

215. (b) Revelation and Christian Apocalyptic 

217. Old Testament Apocrypha. (2) Reading of the books of the Apocrypha, with 
special attention to their origin and significance, and with a consideration of the 
ambivalence of Judaism and Christianity toward this literature. 

218. Seminar in the Mediterranean World. (4) Travel and studv in such countries as 
Greece, Italy, Turkey, Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, and Israel. 

236. Church and Community. (4) An examination of the basic needs and trends of 
the contemporary community, especially the rural and suburban, in the light of the 
Christian norms for "the good community." 

237. Black Religion and Black Churches in America. (4) Survey of literature on these 



162 



themes with an examination of the historical background and special attention to the 
contemporary era. 

238. Religion and Science. (4) An analysis of the relationship between science and 
religion in world culture. 

240. Principles of Religious Education. (4) A study of the theory and practice of 
religious education, with emphasis on the basic foundations in religon and educa- 
tion. 

261. Judaism in the First Three Centuries of the Common Era. (4) A study of the 
development of Rabbinic Judaism out of the sects and movements of first century 
Judaism. 

262. Contemporary Judaism. (2) A survey of Judaism today, including a study of 
some major religious, political, and literarv figures. 

263. Contemporary Catholicism. (2) An introduction to recent thought and practice 
in the Roman Catholic Church. 

266. Religious Sects and Cults. (4) An examination of certain religious sects in 
America, including such groups as Jehovah's Witnesses, communal groups, and 
contemporary movements. 

267. The Baptists. (2) A survey of Baptist historv, thought, and polity, including an 
examination of various Baptist groups and a study of important controversies. 

270. Theology and Modern Literature. (4) An introduction to such modern theolo- 
gians as Karl Barth and Reinhold Niebuhr, and to literary figures who share their 
concerns, including Flannerv O'Connor and Walker Percv. 

273. Studies in Ecumenical Theology. (4) A study of various images and models of 
the church, their interrelationships and implication for ecumenism. 

276. The Problem of Evil from Job to Shakespeare. (4) A comparative analysis of the 
source and remedy of evil in Job, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Plato, Dante, and Shake- 
speare. 

277. Christian Literary Classics. (4) A study of Christian texts which are master- 
pieces oi literature as well as faith, including works by Augustine, Dante, Pascal, 
Bunyan, Milton, and Newman. 

282. Honors in Religion. (4) A conference course including directed reading and the 
writing of a research project. 

286, 287. Directed Reading. (1-4, 1-4) A project in an area of study not otherwise 
available in the department, permitted upon departmental approval of a petition 
presented by a qualified student. 

292. Teaching Religion. (4) A study of the teaching of religion in church, school, and 
community. 

300. Meaning of Religion. (4) A phenomenological study of different wavs of 



163 

defining religion, including the views of representative philosophers, psychologists, 
sociologists, anthropologists, theologians, and historians of religion. 

301. Myth. (4) A study of the approaches to the interpretation of myth, with a focus 
on the meaning and values implicit in the mvths of contemporary culture. 

302. Studies in Mysticism. (2, 4) A student mav choose to study mysticism as an 
independent phenomenon or to study mysticism in dialogue with the theories of 
contemporary science. 

302 (a) Phenomenology of Mysticism 
302 (b) Mysticism and Psychology 

311. Poetic Literature of the Hebrew Bible. (2, 4) A study of Hebrew poetrv in 
English translation with special attention to its types, its literary and rhetorical 
characteristics, and its importance for our understanding of the religion and culture 
of ancient Israel. (The first half of the course may be taken for two credits and is a 
prerequisite for the second half.) 

314. Ancient Israel and her Neighbors. (2) A study of ancient Near Eastern archeol- 
ogy with special emphasis on Israel's relationships with surrounding peoples. 

315, 316. Field Research in Biblical Archeology. (4, 4) A study of the religion and 
culture of the ancient Near East through the excavation and interpretation of an 
ancient site. 

320. Jesus and the Synoptic Gospels. (4) A study of Jesus' proclamation and activity 
in light of modern critical research on the Gospels. 

321. The Quest for the Historical Jesus. (4) An investigation of the possibility and 
relevance of historical knowledge about Jesus through a consideration of the seminal 
"Lives of Jesus" since the eighteenth centurv. 

322. The General Epistles. (4)An exegetical studv of two or more of the general 
Epistles, with emphasis on the setting of the epistles in the life of the Earlv Church. 

326. Early Christian Theologians: Paul. (4) An introduction to the Pauline interpreta- 
tion of Christianitv and its place in the life of the Earlv Church. 

327. Early Christian Theologians: The Fourth Evangelist. (4) An examination of the 
Johannine interpretation of Jesus and the Christian faith. 

328. The New Testament and Ethics. (4) A study of selected ethical issues in the New 
Testament within the context of Mediterranean culture. 

332. Religion and the Social Crisis. (4) An interdisciplinary approach to the study of 
society today, with particular attention to views of human nature and social in- 
stitutions as reflected in religion, the social sciences, and related disciplines. 

334. Christian Ethics and Contemporary Culture. (4) A study of the encounter 
between the Christian ethic and the value systems implicit in the social areas such as 
economics, politics, race, and sex. 

(a) Bio-medical Decisions (b) Feminist Theology 



164 

346. Theological Foundations of Religious Education. (4) A study of theological 
methodology, theories of learning, and philosophies of education in terms of their 
implications for religious education. 

350. Psychology of Religion. (4) An examination of the psychological elements in the 
origin, development, and expression of religious experience. 

354. Religious Development of the Individual. (4) A study of growth and develop- 
ment through childhood and adolescence to adulthood, with emphasis on the role of 
the home and the church in religious education. 

355. Theology of Pastoral Care and Counseling. (4) A study of the relationship 
between theologv and the purpose, theories, and methods of pastoral care. P — 
Permission of instructor. 

360. Hinduism. (4) A study of the fundamental features of the Hindu tradition. 

361. Buddhism. (4) A study of the Buddhist tradition, its fundamental features, and 
its impact on the culture of Asia. 

262. Zen Buddhism. (4) The history and teaching of Zen. 

363. Hellenistic Religions. (4) Consideration of available source materials, questions 
of method, and bibliography related to such Hellenistic religions as the mysteries, 
Hellenistic Judaism, and Gnosticism. 

364. Islam. (4) A study of the fundamental concepts of Islamic thought and the 
historical context of its development. Both ancient and contemporary impact of the 
teachings of Islam considered. 

365. History of Religions in America. (4) A study of American religions from colonial 
times until the present. 

367. The Mystics of the Church. (4) A historical studv of the lives and thought of 
selected Christian mystics with special attention to their religious experience. 

368. The Protestant and Catholic Reformations. (4) A studv of the origin and 
development of Reformation theology and ecclesiology. 

369. Radical Christian Movements. (4) A study of selected radical movements in the 
Christian tradition and their relation to contemporarv issues. 

372. History of Christian Thought. (2, 4) A study of the history of Christian thought, 
beginning with its Hebraic and Greek backgrounds and tracing its rise and develop- 
ment to modern times. The course may be divided into halves for two credits each. 

372 (a) Patristic Thought 

372 (b) Medieval and Reformation Thought 

374. Contemporary Christian Thought. (4) An examination of the major issues and 
personalities in modern theology. 

375. Major Themes in Catholic Theology. (4) A detailed examination of the central 



165 

themes of Christian theology through the study of major Roman Catholic theolo- 
gians. 

376. The Origins of Existentialism. (4) A study of the principal nineteenth century 
figures who form the background for twentieth century existentialism: Goethe, 
Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Dostoevsky, and Tolstoy. 

378. Aesthetics and Religion. (2-3) An examination of aesthetic and religious theo- 
ries of selected thinkers, noting what the arts and religion have in common as modes 
of perception and expression. 

Hebrew 

111, 112. Elementary Hebrew. (4, 4) A course for beginners in the classical Hebrew of 
the Bible, with emphasis on the principles of Hebrew grammar and the reading of 
Biblical texts. Both semesters must be completed. 

153. Intermediate Hebrew. (4) Intensive work in Hebrew grammar and syntax based 
upon the readings of selected texts. Readings emphasize post-Biblical Hebrew. 
P — Hebrew 111, 112, or the equivalent. 

211. Hebrew Literature. (4) The reading and discussion of significant Biblical Hebrew 
texts. P — Hebrew 153. 

212. Hebrew Literature II. (4) The reading and discussion of significant Biblical and 
post-Biblical texts. Offered on demand. P — Hebrew 153. 

301. Introduction to Semitic Languages. (4) A studv of the historv and structure of 
four languages from the Hamito-Semitic family. 

Romance Languages 

Shasta M. Bryant, Chairman 

Professors Shasta M. Bryant, Kathleen M. Glenn, 

John E. Parker Jr., Mary Frances Robinson 

Associate Professors Doranne Fenoaltea, Milorad R. Margitic, 

Candelas M. Newton 

Assistant Professors Margaret Snook, Antonio Vitti, Kari Weil, Byron R. Wells 

Visiting Assistant Professors Sarah Barbour, Michele Drouart, 

Gilberto Gomez, Kenneth Hall, Susan Linker 

Lecturers Bianca Artom, Kikuko T. Imamura, Matthew P. Murray, 

Eva Marie Rodtwitt 

Instructors Whangbai Bahk, Barbara Clark, Mary Frye, Anna Krauth, 

Gail McNeill, Susan Mraz, Sheryl Postman, Bianca Rivera, 

Jennifer Sault, Anna-Vera Sullam (Venice) 

The major in French requires a minimum of thirty-six credits above French 153. 
French 216, 217, 219, 221, or their equivalents are required, as are four additional 
literature courses. History 321 and 322 are recommended. An average of at least C 
must be earned in all courses taken in the major. 



166 

The minor in French language and culture requires twenty credits in French above 
French 153. It includes French 219, 221, 224, or their equivalents. The minor in French 
literature requires twenty credits in French literature above French 153. 

The major in Spanish requires a minimum of thirtv-six credits above Spanish 153. 
Spanish 217, 218, 219, 221, 223, 224, 230, and 232, or their equivalents, are required. 
Spanish 181, 1829, and 187 may not count toward the major. An average of at least C 
must be earned in all courses taken in the major. 

The minor in Spanish language and culture requires twenty credits in Spanish 
above Spanish 153. It includes 217 or 218, plus 219, 221, 223, and 224. The minor in 
Hispanic literature requires twenty credits in Spanish above Spanish 153. It includes 
217 or 218, plus 230, 232, and two additional advanced courses in literature. For both 
Spanish minors, with departmental approval, equivalent courses may be selected 
from the programs in Salamanca or Bogota, and certain other substitutions mav be 
made. 

A joint major is offered in French and Spanish, consisting of fifty-six credits in the 
two languages and literatures, excluding elementary language. Required courses for 
this major are French 153x, 216, 217, 219, 221, and 224; Spanish 153x, either 217 or 
218, 219, 221, either 223 or 224, 230, and 232. Equivalents may be substituted. An 
average of at least C must be earned in all courses taken in the major. 

All majors are stronglv urged to take advantage of the department's study abroad 
programs and to live for at least a semester at the French House or the Spanish 
House, foreign language residence centers for students of French and Spanish. 

Highly qualified majors are invited by the department to apply for admission to the 
honors programs in French or Spanish. To be graduated with the designation 
"Honors in Romance Languages," a candidate must complete French or Spanish 280 
and 281 and pass a comprehensive written and oral examination. The oral examina- 
tion may be conducted, at least in part, in the major language. For additional 
information members of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 



French 

111, 112. Elementary French. (4, 4) A course for beginners, covering the principles of 
French grammar and emphasizing speaking, writing, and the reading of elementary 
texts. Lab required. 

113. Intensive Elementary French. (5) A one-semester course covering the elements 
of grammar and skills presented in French 111, 112. Intended for students whose 
preparation for French 153 is inadequate. Not open to students who have received 
credit for French 112. Lab required. 

153. Intermediate French. (5) A review of grammar and composition with practice in 
conversation. Reading of selected texts. Lab required. P — French 112, 113, or two 
years of high school French and placement. 

153x. Intermediate French. (4) Open to students by placement or permission. Lab 
required. 



167 

164. A Classic in Comedy. (2 or 4) Participants plan and present a production of a 
French comedv. The play is rehearsed and performed in French; students are in- 
volved in all aspects of production. For four credits, students also read and discuss 
other dramatic works. Course may be repeated for credit, but only four credits may 
be counted toward the major. P — Permission of instructor. 

181. Swiss French Civilization. (4) The course is designed to acquaint the student 
with the Swiss people and their civilization through living for a few weeks with 
families. Visits are made to points of cultural interest, historical, literarv, and artistic. 
A journal and a paper describing in detail some aspect of Swiss French civilization, 
both in French, are required. Usually offered in the summer. 

185. Paris, Cultural Center of France. (4) A study of Paris monuments on location to 
explore the development of the city as capital and cultural center of France. No 
prerequisites. Usually offered in the summer. 

199. French Individual Study. (2-4) P — Permission of the department. 

213. Masterpieces of French Literature I. (4) Reading of selected texts in French. 
Particular periods, genres, and authors may vary from section to section. Parallel 
reading and reports. Only one course in masterpieces may count toward the major or 
minor, but either may satisfv the basic or divisional requirement. P — French 153 or 
equivalent. 

214. Masterpieces of French Literature II. (4) Reading of selected texts in French. 
Particular periods, genres, and authors may vary from section to section. Parallel 
reading and reports. Only one course in masterpieces may count toward the major or 
minor, but either may satisfy the basic or divisional requirement. P — French 153 or 
equivalent. 

216. Survey of French Literature from the Middle Ages through the Eighteenth 
Century. (4) Studv of selected texts, parallel reading, and studv of trends and 
movements. P — French 153 or permission of instructor. 

217. Survey of French Literature of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. (4) 

Study of selected texts, parallel reading, and studv of trends and movements. 
P — French 153 or permission of instructor. 

219. Composition and Review of Grammar. (4) A svstematic review of the fun- 
damental principles of comparative grammar, with practical training in writing 
idiomatic French. Required for major. P — French 153 or equivalent. 

221. Conversation and Composition. (4) Practice in speaking and writing French, 
stressing correctness of sentence structure, phonetics, pronunciation, fluency, and 
vocabulary for everyday situations. Required for major. Lab required. P — French 153 
or equivalent. 

224. French Civilization. (4) An introduction to French culture and its historical 
development. Emphasis on intellectual, artistic, political, social, and economic life of 
France. P — French 221 or permission of instructor. 



168 

229. Business French. (4) A study of French used in business procedures, emphasiz- 
ing specialized vocabulary pertaining to business correspondence, corporate organ- 
ization, banking, and governmental relations, with practice in translation and in- 
terpretations, oral and written. P — French 219 and 221 or permission ot instructor. 

231. Medieval French Literature. (2-4) A survey of French literature of the Middle 
Ages with cultural and political backgrounds. Selected masterpieces in original form 
and modern transcription. P — French 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

233. Sixteenth Century French Literature. (4) The literature and thought of the 
Renaissance in France, with particular emphasis on the works of Rabelais, Mon- 
taigne, and the major poets of the age. P — French 216 or 217 or permission of 
instructor. 

241. Seventeenth Century French Literature. (4) A studv of the outstanding writers 
of the Classical Age. P — French 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

242. Seminar in Seventeenth Century French Literature. (4) A study of selected 
topics of the period. Topics mav vary from year to vear. P — French 216 or 217 or 
permission of instructor. 

251. Eighteenth Century French Literature. (2-4) A survey of French literature of the 
eighteenth century with culture and political backgrounds. P — French 216 or 217 or 
permission of instructor. 

252. Seminar in Eighteenth Century French Literature. (2-4) Studv of selected topics 
of the period. Topics vary from year to year. P — French 216 or 217 or permission of 
instructor. 

261. Nineteenth Century French Literature. (4) A studv of French literature of the 
nineteenth century with cultural and political backgrounds. P — French 216 or 217 or 
permission of instructor. 

262. Seminar in Nineteenth Century French Literature. (4) Study of selected topics of 
the period. Topics varv from vear to year. P — French 216 or 217 or permission of 
instructor. 

263. Trends in French Poetry. (4) A study of the development of the poetic genre with 
analysis and interpretation of works from each period. P — French 216 or 217 or 
permission of instructor. 

264. French Novel. (4) A broad survev of French prose fiction, with critical studv of 
several masterpieces in the field. P — French 216 or 217 or permission of instructor. 

265. French Drama. (4) A studv of the chief trends in French dramatic art, with 
reading and discussion of representative plavs. P — French 216 or 217 or permission 
of instructor. 

271. Twentieth Century French Literature. (4) A study of general trends and repre- 
sentative works of the foremost prose writers, dramatists, and poets. P — French 216 
or 217 or permission of instructor. 



169 



272. Seminar in Twentieth Century French Literature. (4) Study of selected topics of 
the period. Topics vary from year to year. P — French 216 or 217 or permission of 
instructor. 

280. Directed Research. (2) Required for honors in French. 

281. Directed Study. (3, 4) Extensive reading and/or research to meet individual 
needs. Required for departmental honors. P — Permission of the department. 



Semester in France 

The department sponsors a semester in France in Dijon, the site of a well- 
established French university. Students go as a group in the fall semester, accom- 
panied by a departmental faculty member. 

No particular major is required for eligibility. However, a student (1) should be of 
junior standing and (2) should have taken as prerequisite French 221 or its equiv- 
alent or at least one French course beyond the intermediate level. At least one 
semester's residence in the French House is strongly recommended. 

Students are placed in language courses according to their level of abilitv in 
French, as ascertained by a test given at Dijon. Courses are taught by native French 
professors. The resident director supervises academic, residential, and ex- 
tracurricular affairs and has general oversight of independent study projects. 

2232. Advanced Oral and Written French. (4) Studv of grammar, composition, 
pronunciation, and phonetics, with extensive practice in oral and written French. 

2282. Contemporary France. (4) A studv of present-day France, including aspects of 
geography and consideration of social, political, and educational factors in French 
life today. 

2292. French Civilization. (4) An introduction to French culture and its historical 
development. Field trips to museums and to points of historical and cultural signifi- 
cance in Paris and the French provinces. 

2402. Independent Study. (2-4) One of several fields; scholar's journal and research 
paper. Supervision by the director of the semester in France and evaluation by the 
department for which credit is granted. Work may be supplemented by lectures on 
the subject given at the Universite de Bourgogne Faculte des Lettres et Sciences 
Humaines. 

2752. French Literature. (2) Topics in the novel, theatre, and poetry of France, largely 
of the period since 1850. 

2762. Literary Pilgrimage. (2-4) Reading of selected French texts, with visits to sites 
having literary associations. A studv of the relationship between milieux and works. 

Art 2712. Studies in French Art. (2) Lectures and field trips in French painting, 
sculpture, and architecture, concentrating on the eighteenth and nineteenth centu- 
ries. 



170 



History 2262. The Golden Age of Burgundy. (2) Burgundian society, culture, and 
government in the reigns of Philip the Bold, John the Fearless, Philip the Good, and 
Charles the Rash, 1384-1477. 



Spanish 

111, 112. Elementary Spanish. (4, 4) A course for beginners, covering grammar 
essentials and emphasizing speaking, writing, and the reading of elementary texts. 
Lab required. 

113. Intensive Elementary Spanish. (5) A one-semester course covering the elements 
of grammar and skills presented in Spanish 111, 112. Intended for students whose 
preparation for Spanish 153 is inadequate or who have demonstrated proficiency in 
another language. Not open to students who have received credit for Spanish 112. 
Lab required. 

153. Intermediate Spanish. (5) A review of grammar and composition with practice 
in conversation. Reading of selected texts. P — Spanish 112 or 113 or two years of high 
school Spanish or equivalent. Lab required. 

153x. Intermediate Spanish. (4) Open by placement or permission. Lab required. 

162. A Panorama of Drama. (2-4) A brief sampling of Spanish drama from its early 
period to the contemporary theatre, studying in Spanish representative works from 
each major period. Approximately six plavs. The class selects one play to present in 
Spanish, with students having directing and acting responsibilities. 




171 



181. Colombia: Study Tour of Bucaramanga, Cali, and Medellin. (4) Travel in 
Colombia and residence in one of its major cities in homes of private families for a 
period of three weeks. Students receive instruction in spoken Spanish and in Colom- 
bian literature and anthropology and political, social, or economic history. Does not 
count toward the major. Usually offered in the summer. 

187. Culture and Language. (4) A study of Spanish culture and language, tailored to 
various levels of student ability. Taught only in the Spanish-speaking world. Does 
not count toward the major. Usually offered in the summer. 

199. Individual Study. (2-4) P — Permission of the department. 

214. Introduction to Hispanic Literature. (4) Selected readings in Spanish and 
Spanish American literature. Designed as a substitute for either Spanish 215 or 216. 
Offered in the summer. P — Spanish 153 or equivalent. 

215. Major Spanish Writers. (4) Reading of selected texts. No student allowed credit 
for both 215 and 217. P — Spanish 153 or equivalent. 

216. Major Spanish American Writers. (4) Reading of selected texts. No student 
allowed credit for both 216 and 218. P — Spanish 153 or equivalent. 

217. Masterpieces of Spanish Literature. (4) Study of selected texts, trends, and 
movements. Intended for students interested in continuing Spanish beyond the 
basic requirement. No student allowed credit for both 215 and 217. P — Spanish 153 
or permission of instructor. 

218. Masterpieces of Spanish American Literature. (4) Studv of selected texts, 
trends, and movements. Intended for students interested in continuing Spanish 
beyond the basic requirement. No student allowed credit for both 216 and 218. 
P — Spanish 153 or permission of instructor. 

219. Advanced Grammar and Composition. (4) A systematic review of the fun- 
damental principles of comparative grammar, with practical training in writing 
idiomatic Spanish. Lab required. P — Spanish 153 or equivalent. 

221. Conversation and Composition. (4) Practice in speaking and writing Spanish, 
stressing correctness of sentence structure, phonetics, pronunciation, fluencv, and 
vocabulary of everyday situations. Lab required. P — Spanish 153 or equivalent. 

222. Spanish Phonology. (4) An introduction to Spanish linguistics through a 
systematic analysis of the phonemes and allophones of spoken Spanish. Standard 
pronunciation as well as dialectal variations will be stressed. P — Spanish 219 and 221 
or permission of instructor. 

223. Latin American Civilization. (4) The culture and its historical development; 
emphasis on intellectual, artistic, political, social, and economic life. P — Spanish 215 
or 216 or 217 or 218. 

224. Spanish Civilization. (4) The culture and its historical development; emphasis 
on intellectual, artistic, political, social, and economic life. P — Spanish 215 or 216 or 
217 or 218. 



172 

229. Commercial, Official, and Social Correspondence. (4) Instruction in the special 
vocabularies, formats, and styles required in written and telegraphic com- 
munications. Students write in Spanish communications appropriate to each type of 
correspondence. P — Spanish 219 and 221 or permission of instructor. 

230. Spanish American Literature. (4) Extensive reading and study of works from the 
colonial through the contemporary periods, with emphasis on the late nineteenth 
and twentieth centuries. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

231. Medieval and Pre-Renaissance Spanish Literature. (4) Studv of the major 
literary works of the Middle Ages and pre-Renaissance. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or 
permission of instructor. 

232. Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century Spanish Literature. (4) Studv of the major 
literarv works of the Golden Age. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

233. Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Century Spanish Literature. (4) Study 
of the major literarv works of the last three centuries. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or 
permission of instructor. 

234. Spanish Prose Fiction before Cervantes. (4) A studv of several types of prose 
fiction, such as the sentimental, chivalric, pastoral, Moorish, and picaresque novels, 
prior to 1605. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

241. Golden Age Drama. (4) A study of the major dramatic works of Lope de Vega, 
Calderon de la Barca, Tirso de Molina, Ruiz de Alarcon, and others. P — Spanish 217 
or 218 or permission of instructor. 

243. Cervantes. (4) Intensive studv of the life and works of Cervantes, with special 
attention on the Quixote and the novelas ejemplares. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

244. Seminar in Cervantes. (2-4) A study of special aspects of Cervantes' works, such 
as the novelas ejemplares and his dramatic works. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission 
of instructor. 

252. Seminar in Hispanic Poetry. (2-4) A study of selected topics, such as gongorismo, 
the Romancero, and the Generation of 1927. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of 
instructor. 

261. Nineteenth Century Spanish Novel. (4) A study of the novels of Valera, Pereda, 
Galdos, Pardo Bazan, Blasco Ibahez, and their contemporaries. P — Spanish 217 or 
218 or permission of instructor. 

264. Spanish American Short Story. (4) Intensive study of the twentieth century 
Spanish American short story with emphasis on major trends and representative 
authors, such as Quiroga, Rulfo, Borges, Cortazar, Donoso, Garcia Marquez. P — 
Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

265. Spanish American Novel. (4) A study of the novel in Spanish America from its 
beginning through the contemporary period. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of 
instructor. 



173 

266. Seminar in Spanish American Novel. (2-4) A study of one or more categories of 
Spanish American novels, such as romantic, indianista, realistic, gauchesca, and social 
protest. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

269. Nineteenth Century Spanish Drama. (4) A studv of the principal dramatic 
works from neoclassicism to the end of the century- P — Spanish 217 or 218 or 
permission of instructor. 

271. Modern Spanish Drama. (4) A study of the principal dramatic works from the 
end of the nineteenth century through the contemporary period. P — Spanish 217 or 
218 or permission of instructor. 

273. Modern Spanish Novel. (4) A study of representative Spanish novels from the 
Generation of 1898 through the contemporary period. P — Spanish 217 or 218 or 
permission of instructor. 

274. Seminar in Modern Spanish Literature. (2 or 4) An analysis of selected contem- 
porary works representative of the novel, poetry, theatre, and essay. P — 
Spanish 217 or 218 or permission of instructor. 

275. Special Topics. (2-4) Selected special topics in Spanish or Spanish American 
literature, such as the Spanish Romancero or the contemporary Spanish American 
novel. Offered at irregular intervals. 

280. Directed Research. (2) Required for honors in Spanish. 

281. Directed Study. (3-4) Extensive reading and/or research, to meet individual 
needs. Required for departmental honors. P — Permission of the department. 

Semester in Spain 

The department offers a semester in Spain at Salamanca, the site of a well- 
established Spanish university. Students go as a group in the spring semester, 
accompanied bv a professor from the College. 

No particular major is required for eligibility. However, students (1) should be of 
junior standing, (2) should have completed Spanish 221, and (3) should be 
approved by both their major department and the department of Romance lan- 
guages. At least one semester's residence in the Spanish House is strongly recom- 
mended. 

1829. Introduction to Spain. (2-4) Familiarization with the Spanish people, Spanish 
culture, and daily life in Spain. Classes in conversational and idiomatic Spanish, 
excursions to points of historical and artistic interest, and lectures on selected topics. 

2019. Intensive Spanish. (2) Intensive study and practice of the oral and written 
language. P — Permission of instructor. 

2029. Advanced Spanish. (2) Studv of grammar, composition, and pronunciation, 
with extensive practice of the written and oral language. P — Permission of instructor. 



174 

2049. Spanish Phonetics and Phonology. (4) Theory and practical application of the 
elements involved in speaking correct Spanish. 

2059. History of the Spanish Language. (4) Evolution and historical development of 
the Spanish language, including regional dialects and present-dav variations in the 
spoken and written form. 

2259. Survey of Spanish Literature from the Middle Ages through the Seventeenth 
Century. (4) Extensive reading and study of trends and influences. 

2279. Spanish American Literature. (4) Extensive reading and study of works from 
the colonial through the contemporary periods, with emphasis on the late 
nineteenth and twentieth centuries. 

2419. Spanish Literature of the Golden Age. (4) A survey of the most important 
authors and genres of the Golden Age, with particular emphasis on the novel and the 
drama. 

2759. Contemporary Spanish Literature. (4) A study of general trends and represen- 
tative works of selected prose writers, dramatists, and poets from the modern 
period. 

Sociology 2029. Social-Political Structures of Present-Day Spain. (4) A studv of the 
various social and political elements which affect the modern Spanish state. 

History 2019. General History of Spain. (4) History of Spain from the pre-Roman 
period to the present dav. 

Art 2029. Spanish Art and Architecture. (4) A study of the development and unique- 
ness of Spanish art and architecture within the framework of Mediterranean and 
Western art in general. 

Chinese* 

111, 112. Elementary Chinese. (4, 4) Emphasis on the development of listening and 
speaking skills in Mandarin. Brief introduction to the writing system. Basic sentence 
patterns covered. Lab required. 

199. Individual Study. (2-4) P — Permission of the department. 

Hindi* 

111, 112. Elementary Hindi. (4, 4) Attention given mainly to basic Hindi grammar, 
vocabulary building, simple composition, and conversation. Lab required. 

153. Intermediate Hindi. (4) Advanced practice in Hindi composition and conversa- 
tion and introduction to literary Hindi. Lab required. P — Hindi 111, 112, or the 
equivalent. 



*These courses are attached to the department of Romance languages for administrative purposes only. 



175 

211. Hindi Literature. (4) Reading and translation of selected texts in prose and 
poetry and journalistic Hindi. Lab required. P — Hindi 153. 

Italian 

111, 112. Elementary Italian. (4, 4) A course for beginners, covering grammar 
essentials and emphasizing speaking, writing, and the reading of elementary texts. 
Lab required. 

113. Intensive Elementary Italian. (5) Intensive course for beginners, emphasizing 
the structure of the language and oral practice. Recommended for students in the 
Venice program and for language majors. Lab required. Lecture — five hours. Offered 
every semester. 

153. Intermediate Italian. (5) Continuation of 113, with emphasis on reading and 
speaking. Lab required. Lecture — five hours. P — Italian 113 or two years of high 
school Italian. 

153x. Intermediate Italian. (4) Open by placement or permission. Lab required. 

199. Individual Study. (2-4) P — Permission of instructor. 

215. Introduction to Italian Literature I. (4) Reading of selected texts in Italian. 
Satisfies basic requirement in foreign language. Offered in the spring. P — Italian 153 or 
equivalent. 

216. Introduction to Italian Literature II. (4) May alternate with 215. Satisfies basic 
requirement in foreign language. P — Italian 153 or equivalent. 

221. Conversation and Composition. (4) Practice in speaking and writing Italian, 
stressing correctness of sentence structure, phonetics, pronunciation, fluencv, and 
vocabulary for everydav situations. P — Italian 153 or equivalent. 

Semester in Venice 

2213. Spoken Italian. (4) Course in oral Italian, offered onlv in Venice. Students are 
placed in small groups according to their levels of fluencv. Elective credit. 

Japanese* 

111, 112. Elementary Japanese. (4, 4) Emphasis on the development of listening and 
speaking skills. Brief introduction to the writing svstems. Basic sentence patterns 
covered. Lab required. 

Portuguese 

111, 112. Elementary Portuguese. (4, 4) A course for beginners, covering grammar 
essentials and emphasizing speaking, writing, and the reading of elementary texts. 
Lab required. 



''These courses are attached to the department of Romance languages for administrative purposes only. 



176 

Other Languages 

101. Self-Instructional Language. (4) A self-instructional language course covering 
the principles of grammar and pronunciation in one of the less commonly taught 
languages, such as Swedish, Arabic, or Thai. Individual self-instruction in the 
language of the student's choice through the use of recorded material and textbooks. 
Admission by petition to the Foreign Language Placement Review Committee. 
Elective credit only; does not satisfy basic or divisional course requirements. 



Sociology 

Philip J. Perricone, Chairman 

Professor John R. Earle 

Associate Professors William H. Gulley, Philip J. Perricone, 

Catherine T. Harris, Willie Pearson Jr. 

Assistant Professor Ian M. Taplin 

Visiting Assistant Professor H. Kenneth Bechtel 

A major in sociology requires thirty-seven credits and must include Sociology 151, 
371, and 372. A minimum average of 2.0 in sociology courses is required at the time 
the major is declared. A minimum grade point average of 2.0 in all sociology courses 
is required for graduation. 

A minor in sociology requires twenty credits and must include Sociology 151 and 
Sociology 371. A minimum grade point average of 2.0 in sociology courses is re- 
quired at the time the minor is declared. A minimum grade point average of 2.0 in 
sociology courses is required for certification as a minor. Students who intend to 
pursue a sociology minor are encouraged to notify the department early in their 
junior year, and they are invited to participate in all departmental functions. 

To be graduated with the designation "Honors in Sociology, " highlv qualified 
majors are invited to apply to the department for admission to the honors program. 
They must complete a senior research project, document their research, and satis- 
factorily defend their work in an oral examination. For additional information mem- 
bers of the departmental faculty should be consulted. 

151. Principles of Sociology. (4) General introduction to the field; social organization 
and disorganization, socialization, culture, social change, and other aspects. 

152. Social Problems. (4) Survey of contemporary American social problems. P — 
Sociology 151. 

205. Photography in the Social Sciences. (4) Explores the use of photography as a 
research technique for the social sciences; camera and darkroom instruction in- 
cluded. Not open to students who have had Art 119. P — Permission of instructor. 

248. Marriage and the Family. (4) The social basis of the family, emphasizing the 
problems growing out of modern conditions and social change. 

301. Religion as a Social Institution. (4) A study of the various forms of religion, such 



177 

as denomination, cult, sect. The relationship between religious factors and other 
social factors. Civil religion and religiosity in the US. P — Sociology 151. 

302. Bureaucracy and Society. (4) The sociological analysis of complex organizations 
focusing on bureaucracy, power, authority, decision-making, and change. Attention 
will be given to business as well as government and other non-profit organizations. 
P — Sociology 151. 

305. Male and Female Roles in Society. (4) Changing male and female roles in the 
context of societal institutions and sociological theories that explain such changes. 
Consideration of feminism as a social movement and of consequences of changing 
roles for human interaction. P — Sociology 151. 

308. Sociology of Art. (2) Art as an institution, its functions, organization, relation- 
ship to social change and to the communication of meanings. P — Sociology 151 or 
permission of instructor. 

309. Sex and Human Relationships. (4) Study of the societal forces that impinge on 
human sexual behavior, emphasizing the effects of social change, the implications of 
changing gender roles, crosscultural and subcultural variations, and the influence of 
the mass media. P — Sociology 151 or permission of instructor. 

310. Death and Dying. (2) Study of some of the basic issues and problems of modern 
man in accepting and facing death. P — Sociology 151 or permission of instructor. 

311. Women in Professions. (4) Emphasis on the status of women in professional 
occupations (e.g., law, medicine, science, business, etc.) in socio-historical perspec- 
tive. P — Sociology 151. 

321. Criminal Justice — The Police. (2, 4) Introduction to the structure, organization, 
and operation of the American police system. P — Sociology 151 or permission of 
instructor. 

322. Criminal Justice — The Courts. (2) The operation and social organization of 
American criminal courts. Issues of plea bargaining, court overload, and the court's 
role in crime prevention will be discussed. P — Sociology 151 or permission of in- 
structor. 

323. Criminal Justice — Punishment and Corrections. (2) The purpose, structure, 
and practice of correctional institutions. Includes a review of the philosophical 
principles of punishment and deterrence, the historical development of prisons, and 
an evaluation of current alternatives to incarceration. P — Sociologv 151 or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

325. Self and Society: An Interactionist Perspective. (4) An analysis of the effects of 
social relationships upon self-development, self-preservation, and the learning of 
social roles and norms, with special emphasis on language and svmbolic interaction. 
P — Sociology 151. 

333. The Urban Community. (4) A survey of materials relating to the community as a 
unit of sociological investigation, with emphasis on the urban setting. Of particular 



178 



value for social work or community planning. P — Sociology 151 or permission of 
instructor. 

334. Society and Higher Education. (4) An analysis of the social forces that shape 
educational policies in the US. Assessment of significant contemporary writings on 
the manifest and latent functions of education. P — Sociology 151. 

335. Medical Sociology. (4) Analysis of the social variables associated with health 
and illness and with the practice of medicine. P — Sociology 151. 

337. Aging in Modern Society. (4) Basic social problems and processes of aging. 
Social and psychological issues discussed. Course requirements will include field 
placement in a nursing home or similar institution. P — Sociology 151 and permission 
of instructor. 

339. Sociology of Violence. (4) A survey of the societal factors associated with 
individual and collective violence. Discussion will focus on the contemporary and 
historical conditions which have contributed to various patterns of violence in 
American society. P — Sociology 151. 

340. Sociological Issues in Human Development. (4) Socialization through the life 
span in the light of contemporary behavioral science, emphasizing the significance of 
changes in contemporary society. P — Sociology 151. 

341. Criminology. (4) Crime, its nature, causes, consequences, methods of treat- 
ment, and prevention. P — Sociology 151. 

342. Juvenile Delinquency. (4) The nature and extent of juvenile delinquency; an 
examination of prevention, control, and treatment problems. P — Sociology 151 or 
permission of instructor. 

343. Sociology of Law. (4) Consideration will be given to a variety of special issues: 
conditions under which laws develop and change, relationships between the legal 
and political system, the impact of social class and stratification upon the legal order. 
P — Sociology 151 or permission of instructor. 

344. The Sociology of Deviant Behavior. (4) A sociological analysis of the nature and 
causes of and societal reaction to deviant behavior patterns such as mental illness, 
suicide, drug and alcohol addiction, sexual deviation, and criminal behavior. P — 
Sociology 151. 

346. Seminar on Social Utopias. (4) Survey of major Utopian literature; emphasis is 
placed upon both the social organization in Utopian proposals and their implicit 
critique of current society and social ideologies. P — Sociology 151. 

347. Society, Culture, and Sport. (4) An examination of the interrelationship of sport 
and other social institutions. Emphasis on the study of both the structure of sport and 
the functions of sport for society. P — Sociology 151. 

348. Sociology of the Family. (4) The family as a field of sociological study. Assess- 
ment of significant historical and contemporary writings. An analysis of the struc- 
ture, organization, and function of the family in America. P — Sociology 151. 



179 

349. Sociology of Science. (4) Emphasis on the origins and growth of science in 
socio-historical perspective, reciprocal relations between science and society in the 
twentieth century, science as a social system. P — Sociology 151 or permission of 
instructor. 

350. Mass Communications and Public Opinion. (4) The study of the increasing 
importance of collective behavior, emphasizing the relationship between the media 
and a changing society. P — Sociology 151. 

358. Population and Society. (4) Techniques used in the study of population data. 
Reciprocal relationship of social and demographic variables. P — Sociologv 151. 

359. Race and Ethnic Relations. (4) Racial and ethnic group prejudice and dis- 
crimination and their effect on social relationships. Emphasis on psychological and 
sociological theories of prejudice. P — Sociology 151. 

360. Social Stratification. (4) The studv of structured social inequalitv with particular 
emphasis on economic class, social status, and political power. P — Sociology 151. 

361. Sociology of the Black Experience. (4) A survey and an analysis of contempo- 
rary writings on the status of black Americans in various American social institutions 
(e.g., education, sport, entertainment, science, politics, etc.). P — Sociology 151. 

362. Sociology of Work. (4) Changing trends in the US labor force. The individual's 
view of work and the effect of large organizations on white and blue collar workers. 
Use of some cross-cultural data. P — Sociology 151. 

363. Markets and Industry. (4) An analysis of industrial organization, including 
discussion of market relations and the behavior of firms, the structure of industrial 
development, and labor relations and the growth of trade unions. P — Sociology 151 
or permission of instructor. 

364. Political Sociology. (4) Examination of the structure and organization of power 
in society with emphasis on political socialization, political ideology, and the growth 
of the welfare state. P — Sociology 151 or permission of instructor. 

365. Dependency Needs and Social Services. (4) Examination of various forms of 
dependency, such as social, economic, emotional, and physical, and community 
social agencies designed to meet these needs. Use of relevant literature, field experi- 
ence, and resource persons. 

371, 372. The Sociological Perspective. (4, 5) A two-semester course dealing with the 
development and application of major theories and research methods in sociology. A 
continuing effort is made to enable the student to deal with current theoretically 
oriented research. Regularly scheduled computer labs will be arranged during the 
Sociology 372 portion of the course. P — Sociology 151 or permission of instructor. 

380. Social Statistics. (4) Basic statistics, emphasizing application in survey research. 
(A student who receives credit for this course mav not also receive credit for 
Biology 380, Business 201, Mathematics 109, or Anthropology 380. A sociology ma- 
jor may take Anthropology 380 in lieu of Sociology 380 to meet major requirements. ) 



180 

385, 386. Special Problems Seminar. (4) Intensive investigation of current scientific 
research within the discipline which concentrates on problems of contemporary 
interest. P — Permission of instructor. 

398, 399. Individual Study. (1—4, 1-4) Reading, research, or internship courses 
designed to meet the needs and interests of selected students, to be carried out under 
the supervision of a departmental facultv member. 



Speech Communication and Theatre Arts 

Donald H. Wolfe, Chairman 

Professors Julian C. Burroughs Jr., Harold C. Tedford, Donald H. Wolfe 

Adjunct Professor Darwin R. Payne 

Associate Professor Michael David Hazen 

Assistant Professor Jill Jordan McMillan 

Visiting Assistant Professor Jo Whitten May 

Instructors Allen D. Louden, Helen B. Warren, David C. Williams 

Lecturers Jonathan H. Christman, Caroline S. Fullerton, Mary R. Wayne 

Visiting Lecturer James H. Dodding 

Debate Coach Ross K. Smith 

For convenience in advising majors, the department divides the study of speech 
communication and theatre arts into the following fields: (1) communication'public 
address, (2) radio/television/film, (3) theatre arts, and (4) speech pathology/ 
correction. It is possible for a student either to concentrate in one of the first three 
fields or to take courses across the breadth of the discipline. Specific courses of study 
for both majors and minors are worked out in consultation with departmental facultv 
members. 

A major in speech communication and theatre arts consists of a minimum of forty 
credits, at least eight of which must be at the 300 level. In order for a course to count 
toward a student's major, the student must earn a grade of C or higher in the course. 

A minor in the first three fields listed in the first paragraph above requires six 
courses for a minimum of twenty-four credits, at least eight of which must be at the 
300 level. 

Those students majoring in speech education and theatre arts education are 
expected to take specific courses which meet the requirements for teacher certifica- 
tion. Information concerning the courses mav be obtained from departmental facultv 
members. 

Highlv qualified majors are invited by the department to applv for admission to the 
honors program in speech communication and theatre arts. To be graduated with the 
designation "Honors in Speech Communication and Theatre Arts," thev must 
successfullv complete 281 . For additional information, members of the departmental 
facultv should be consulted. 

280. Special Seminar. (2-4) The intensive study of selected topics in communication. 
Topics may be drawn from any theory or concept area of communication, such as 
persuasion, organizational communication, film, or theatre. 



181 

281. Honors in Speech Communication and Theatre Arts. (4) A conference course 
involving intensive work in the area of special interest for selected seniors who wish 
to graduate with departmental honors. P — Permission of instructor. 

282. Individual Study. (1-4) Special research and readings in a choice of interest to be 
approved and supervised by a faculty adviser. P — Permission of instructor. 

283. 284. Debate, Radio/Television/Film, Communication, or Theatre Arts Prac- 
ticum. (2, 2) Individual projects in the student's choice of debate, radio/television/ 
film, communication, or theatre arts; includes organizational meetings, facultv 
supervision, and faculty evaluation. No student mav register for more than two 
credits of practicum in any semester. No student is allowed to take more than a total 
of eight credit units in practicum, only four credits of which may be counted toward a 
major in speech communication and theatre arts. Pass/Fail onlv. P — Permission of 
instructor. 

Communication/Public Address 

151. Public Speaking I. (4) A study of the nature and fundamentals of speech 
communication. Practice in the preparation and delivery of short speeches. 

152. Public Speaking II. (4) The preparation and presentation of short speeches to 
inform, convince, actuate, and entertain. P — Speech Communication 151. 

153. Interpersonal Communication. (4) The course is divided into three parts: com- 
munication theory, person-to-person communication, and small group interaction. 

155. Group Communication. (4) An introduction to the principles of discussion and 
deliberation in small groups, with practice in group problem-solving and discussion 
leadership. 

156. Oral Interpretation of Literature. (4) Fundamentals of reading aloud, with 
emphasis on selection, analysis, and performance. 

158. Debate and Advocacy. (4) The use of argumentative techniques in oral advoca- 
cy: research, speeches, and debate. 

161. Voice and Diction. (4) A studv of the principles of voice and production, with 
emphasis on phonetics as a basis for correct sound formation. 

250. Introduction to Communication and Rhetoric. (4) An introduction to the theo- 
ries, research, and analysis of verbal and nonverbal processes by which human 
beings share meanings and influence one another. 

251. Persuasion. (4) A study of the variables and contexts of persuasion in contempo- 
rary society. 

255. Introduction to Rhetorical Criticism. (4) An introduction to the theory and 
practice of rhetorical criticism with emphasis on contemporary rhetorical acts. 

261. Clinical Management of Speech and Language Disorders. (4) Methods used to 
correct speech disorders of voice, rhvthm, language, and articulation; observation of 



182 

methods used with selected cases in clinical or public school settings. Offered in 
alternate fall semesters. 

262. Communication Disorders of the Hearing Impaired. (4) The etiology and effect 
of hearing impairment on communication. The fundamentals of auditory training, 
speech reading, and other resources for the rehabilitation of the hearing impaired 
individual. 

263. Speech and Language Disorders I. (4) Study of the disorders of language, 
articulation, and rhythm, with special emphasis on functional disorders; focus is on 
the role the therapist plays in assisting the speech-handicapped child. Offered in 
alternate fall semesters. 

264. Speech and Language Disorders II. (4) Consideration of etiology and symptoms 
of speech and language problems due to organic disorders of voice, articulation, 
language, and hearing. Offered in alternate spring semesters. 

280. Special Seminar. (2-4) (See previous description.) 

281. Honors Course. (4) (See previous description.) 

282. Individual Study. (1-4) (See previous description.) 

283. 284. Debate Practicum. (2, 2) (See previous description.) 

353. British Public Address. (4) A historical and critical survey of leading British 
speakers and their speeches from the sixteenth century to the present. 

354. American Rhetorical Movements. (4) Critical analysis of major rhetorical move- 
ments in American history; examines the relationship between rhetoric, ideology, 
and the development of American culture. 

S355. Directing the Forensic Program. (2, 4) A pragmatic study of the methods of 
directing high school and college forensics with work in the High School Debate 
Workshop. Offered in the summer. 

356. The Rhetoric of Race Relations. (4) A study of race relations in America as 
reflected in the rhetoric of selected black and white speakers. Students apply the 
historical/critical method in exploring the effects of discourse on attempts at in- 
terracial communication. 

357. The Rhetoric of the Women's Rights Movement. (4) A rhetorical study of the 
documents, speeches, and protests of American feminists. The course traces the 
evolution of women's rights movements in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries 
and draws contrasts and parallels between them. 

358. Argumentation Theory. (4) An examination of argumentation theory and criti- 
cism; examines both theoretical issues and social practices. 

371. Research in Communication. (4) An introduction to design and statistical 
procedures for research in communication. 



183 

372. A Survey of Organizational Communication. (4) An introduction to the role of 
communication in organizations, with emphasis on field applications. 

373. Intercultural Communication. (4) An introduction to the study of communica- 
tion phenomena between individuals and groups with different cultural back- 
grounds. 

374. Mass Communication Theory. (4) Theoretical approaches to the role of com- 
munication in reaching mass audiences and its relationship to other levels of com- 
munication. Offered in alternate years. 

375. Communication and Conflict. (4) A study of communication in conflict situa- 
tions on the interpersonal and societal levels. Offered in alternate years. P — Speech 
Communication 153 or permission of instructor. 

378. Semantics and Language Behavior. (4) A study of the syntactic and semantic 
aspects of communicative messages. 

Radio/Television/Film 

141. Radio-TV Speech. (4) An introduction to announcing and performing on radio 
and television. 

142. Writing for Radio-TV-Film. (4) An introduction to writing for radio, television, 
and film. Emphasis will be on informational and persuasive writing (news, features, 
public service announcements, commercials, political announcements, news analy- 
sis, commentaries, and editorials). 

241. Introduction to Broadcasting. (4) A study of the historical, legal, economic, and 
social aspects of broadcasting. 

242. Radio Production. (4) A study of the basic elements of radio production. 

243. TV Production. (4) A study of the basic elements of television production. 

245. Introduction to Film. (4) Historical introduction to motion pictures through the 
study of various kinds of films and their relationship to society. 

246. Film Production. (4) A study of the basic elements of motion picture production. 

280. Special Seminar. (2-4) (See previous description.) 

281. Honors Course. (4) (See previous description.) 

282. Individual Study. (1-4) (See previous description.) 

283. 284. Radio/Television/Film Practicum. (2, 2) (See previous description.) 

342. Seminar in Radio/Television. (4) Extensive readings in and discussion of fun- 
damental theory and current issues in radio and television. Offered in spring, 1988. 
P — Speech Communication 241. 

344. Advanced Radio Production. (4) Study of advanced radio forms: documentary 
and drama. P — Speech Communication 242. 



184 

345. Advanced TV Production. (4) Individual production of complex forms of televi- 
sion such as documentary and drama. P — Speech Communication 243. 

346. Film Criticism. (3 or 4) A study of film aesthetics through an analysis of the work 
of selected film makers and film critics. Offered in spring, 1989. P — Speech Com- 
munication 245. 

348. Advanced Film Production. (4) Individual production of complex films such as 
drama, animation, and documentary. P — Speech Communication 246. 



Theatre Arts 

121. Introduction to the Theatre. (4) A survev of all areas of theatre art. Experience in 
laboratory and University Theatre productions. May be used to satisfv a requirement 
in Division I. Lab — three hours. 

122. Introduction to Theatre Technology I. (4) An introductory course in theatre 
technologv focusing on the basic techniques of stagecraft, lighting, drafting, and 
sound. This course is of special interest to potential majors. Lab — three hours. Offered 
in the fall. P— Theatre Arts 121. 

123. Introduction to Theatre Technology II. (4) An introductory course in theatre 
technology focusing on the basic techniques of costume construction, makeup, scene 
painting, and stage management. This course is of special interest to potential 
majors. Lab — three hours. Offered in the spring. P — Theatre Arts 121. 

218. Technical Graphics and Lighting. (4) The theory and practice of stage lighting 
including the techniques and terminology used in making both working and con- 
struction drawings for theatrical use. P — Theatre Arts 122. 

219. Advanced Stage Makeup. (4) The theories, materials, and techniques of theatri- 
cal makeup. P — Theatre Arts 123. 

220. Advanced Costume Construction. (4) Pattern drafting, cutting, and construc- 
tion techniques of period theatrical costumes. P — Theatre Arts 123. 

221. Mime. (4) An introductory study of basic mime forms. The student will gain 
skills and understanding of this theatrical form through practical exercises, readings, 
rehearsals, and performances. 

223. Stagecraft. (4) A study of the basic elements of theatre technology. Practical 
experience gained in laboratory and University Theatre productions. Open to fresh- 
men and sophomores by permission of instructor. Lab — five hours. 

226. Theories of Acting. (4) A study of acting theories and fundamental acting 
techniques. Open to freshmen and sophomores bv permission of instructor. Lab — 
two hours. 

227. Theatre Speech. (4) An intensive course in the analysis and correlation of the 
physiological, physical, and interpretative aspects of voice and diction on the stage. 



185 

228. The Contemporary English Theatre. (2, 3, or 4) An examination of the English 
theatre through reading, lectures, seminars, and attendance at numerous live 
theatre performances. The participants are expected to submit written reactions to 
the plavs which are seen. Ample time to allow visits to museums, libraries, and 
historic places. Taught in Loudon. P — Permission of instructor. 

280. Special Seminar. (4) (See previous description.) 

281. Honors Course. (4) (See previous description.) 

282. Individual Study. (1-4) (See previous description.) 

283. 284. Theatre Arts Practicum. (2, 2) (See previous description.) 

3110. The English Theatre, 1660-1940. (4) A study of the major developments in the 
English theatre from the Restoration to World War II, including the plavs, play- 
wrights, actors, audiences, theatre architecture, theatre management, costumes, 
and sets. Field trips include visits to theatres, museums, and performances. Offered in 
London. 

316. Acting Shakespeare. (4) A practical study of varving styles in interpreting and 
acting Shakespeare's plays from the time of the Elizabethans to the present day. 
P— Theatre Arts 226. 

317. Theatrical Lighting Design. (4) The intensive studv of the tools and aesthetics of 
the designer's craft with practical experience in designing for proscenium, thrust, 
and arena staging. P — Theatre Arts 125. 

318. Theatrical Special Effects. (4) A survev of the various special scenographic and 
lighting effects used in modern theatre. Special emphasis will be placed on effects 
used in productions done during the term. P — Theatre Arts 223 and 125. 

319. Costume: History and Design. (4) A studv of the evolution of costume through 
the ages and the design of historic costume for the stage. P — Theatre Arts 121. 

320. Theatrical Scene Design. (4) A studv of the theories and stvles of stage design 
and their application to the complete plav. P — Theatre Arts 121 and 223 or permis- 
sion of instructor. 

321. Play Directing. (4) An introduction to the theory and practice of play directing. 
A grade is not granted for this course until the student has completed Theatre 
Arts 322. Lab — two hours. P — Theatre Arts 121 and 226 or permission of instructor. 

322. Play Production Laboratory. (2) A laboratory in the organization, the tech- 
niques, and the problems encountered in a dramatic production. The production of a 
play for public performance is required. P — Theatre Arts 321. 

323. Period and Style in Acting. (4) A studv of social customs, movement, dances, 
and theatrical styles relating to the performance of drama in historical settings as well 
as in period plays. The course includes performances in class. P — Theatre Arts 226. 

324. Advanced Mime. (4) This course enlarges upon skills and techniques acquired 



186 



in Theatre Arts 221 (Mime), with the addition of other mime forms. The course 
includes exercises, rehearsals, and performances. P — Theatre Arts 221. 

325. Advanced Acting. (4) A concentrated study of the actor's art through theory and 
practice. P — Theatre Arts 226 or permission of instructor. 

326. Performance Techniques. (4) A course in advanced acting techniques, focusing 
on acting styles appropriate to various modes of theatrical production. Specializied 
techniques such as dance, singing, stage combat, etc., mav also be included. P — 
Theatre Arts 226. 

327. Theatre History I. (4) A survey of the development of the theatre from its origins 
to 1870; includes lectures, readings, and reports. 

328. Theatre History II. (4) A survey of the development of the modern theatre from 
1870 to the present day; includes lectures, readings, and reports. 

329. Advanced Theatre Speech. (4) Specific study in the theory and personal de- 
velopment of vocal melodv, rhythm, color, and harmony according to the form, 
style, and mood of a theatrical production. P — Theatre Arts 227 or permission of 
instructor. 

3300. Modern British and Continental Drama. (4) An examination of the works of 
major British playwrights of the modern period (from approximately 1875 to the 
present) to include, among others, Shaw, Galsworthv, Osborne, Shaffer, Stoppard, 
and Bond. At the same time, participants will study plays by major continental 
writers of the same periods, including Ibsen, Chekhov, Pirandello, Weiss, Handke, 
etc. Whenever possible, the class will attend performances of relevant plays. Taught 
in London. 

3310. A Survey of English Theatre History. (4) Beginning with the Elizabethan 
period and continuing through the Restoration, the eighteenth centurv, the 
nineteenth century, and into the twentieth century, this course will focus on the 
major periods of English theatrical activities, relevant personalities, and representa- 
tive dramas. Field trips, museums, and performances will be part of the studv of this 
course. Taught in London. 



187 

School of Business and Accountancy 

Thomas C. Taylor, Dean 

Professors Eddie V. Easley, Delmer P. Hylton, Jeanne Owen, Thomas C. Taylor 

Associate Professors Umit Akinc, Leon P. Cook Jr., A. Sayeste Daser, 

Arun P. Dewasthali, Stephen Ewing, Thomas S. Goho, 

Dale R. Martin, Ralph B. Tower 

Adjunct Associate Professor Carol Elbing 

Assistant Professors John S. Dunkelberg, Timothy P. Summers 

Lecturers Lee Stokes, Olive S. Thomas 

Instructors S. Douglas Beets, Kim W. Driesbach 

Objectives 

The School of Business and Accountancy has four objectives: 

1. to offer sound academic programs in business and accountancv leading to the 
Bachelor of Science degree; 

2. to undertake on a continuous basis the professional development of its faculty; 

3. to serve the University communitv; and 

4. to maintain a productive association with the public, especially the business 
communitv. 

Two programs of studv leading to the Bachelor of Science degree are offered. 
Students may choose a major in either business or accountancv. 

The primary goal of the business program is to provide a general studv of business 
which will enable graduates to enter the business world with a breadth of un- 
derstanding of relevant business problems and concepts. The general, as opposed to 
specialized, orientation of the major in business is appropriate for Wake Forest 
University in light of both its strong liberal arts tradition and its small size. 

The major goal of the accountancv program is to give students a thorough un- 
derstanding of accounting theory and methodology. Studv of the basic functions in 
business operations is included in the curriculum. The role of the accountant in 
analyzing and controlling operations is considered. Contemporary issues in account- 
ing practice are discussed. 

Both the business and accountancv programs are accredited bv the American 
Assemblv of Collegiate Schools of Business. 

Admission 

Admission to the School is by formal application, and applicants will be screened 
by the Committee on Admission and Continuation of the School of Business and 
Accountancy. Before being considered for admission to the School, the applicant first 
must have been admitted to Wake Forest College. Minimum requirements for admis- 
sion to the School of Business and Accountancy are completion of sixty-five credits 
and a grade point average of 2.0 on all courses attempted. 



188 



Students are encouraged to have completed two semesters of Principles of Account- 
ing, one semester of Principles of Economics, and Mathematics 108 or 111 before 
admission to the School. 

The number of students who can be accommodated is limited. Therefore, the 
School reserves the right to grant or to deny admission or readmission to any student 
who meets the minimum requirements. Readmission to the School of Business and 
Accountancy first requires readmission to Wake Forest College, requirements for 
which are discussed on page 44. 

Transfer of Credit from Other Schools 

It is expected that most work toward degrees offered bv the School of Business and 
Accountancy will be taken in the School. For students wishing to transfer credit from 
other schools, the following general guidelines apply: 

(a) Courses at another school passed with the minimum passing grade at that 
school mav not be transferred. 

(b) Courses transferred in business and accountancy mav be subject to validating 
examinations. 

(c) No work in courses numbered 200 and above will be accepted from two-year 
schools. 

(d) Courses taken elsewhere in subjects not offered at the School of Business and 
Accountancy may not be counted toward the credits required in the School of 
Business and Accountancy. 

For the BS in business, a minimum of forty credits must be earned in the School of 
Business and Accountancy at Wake Forest University; for the BS in accountancy, the 
minimum credits earned in this School must total fifty-two. 

Requirements for Continuation 

In addition to the requirements stated on pages 43-44, a student must be academi- 
cally responsible and must show satisfactory progress towards completing the re- 
quirements for the degree. The dean of the School of Business and Accountancy will 
notify the student if satisfactory progress is not being made and, after consultation 
with the Committee on Admission and Continuation, will decide if the student may 
continue as a major in this school. 

Requirements for Graduation 

The School of Business and Accountancy confers the Bachelor of Science degree 
with majors in accountancy and business. For the major in business, a student must 
complete the following course work: Accounting 111 and 112; Business 201, 203, 
211, 221, 231, 241, 251, 261, and 271; Economics 150; Mathematics 108 or 111; 
Speech 151 or 153 or 155; and a minimum of three courses from Business 212, 213, 
214, 222, 223, 224, 225, 232, 233, 234, 237, or Accounting courses numbered 200 or 
above. One elective mav be taken from economics courses numbered 200 or above. 



189 



For the major in accountancy, the following course work must be completed: 
Accountng 111, 112, 211, 212, 252, 254, 261, 265, 271, 272, and 273; Business 201, 211, 
221, 231, 241, 251, 252, 261, and 271; Economics 150; Mathematics 108 or 111; and 
Speech 151 or 153 or 155. 

In addition to the courses stipulated above, the student in business and accountan- 
cy must also meet the following requirements for graduation: 

(a) a minimum of 144 credits, including the basic and divisional requirements 
established by Wake Forest College; 

(b) a minimum grade point average of 2.0 on all work attempted at Wake Forest; 

(c) a minimum grade point average of 2.0 on all work attempted at other in- 
stitutions; and 

(d) an overall 2.0 grade point average on all business and accountancv courses, 
exclusive of courses repeated with a C grade or better. 

Senior Honors Program 

Students with a grade point average of at least 3.0 on all college work and 3.3 on all 
work in business and accountancy are invited to apply for admission to the honors 
program in business and accountancy. A project, paper, or readings, and an oral 
examination are required. Those who successfully complete the requirements speci- 
fied by the School are graduated with the designation "Honors in Business" or 
"Honors in Accountancy" For additional information interested students should 
consult a member of the faculty of the School of Business and Accountancv. 



Courses of Instruction 

Business 

201. Business Statistics. (4) Techniques of analysis of numerical data, including 
descriptive statistics, probability theory, sampling theory, statistical inference, chi- 
square analysis, analysis of variance, and regression and correlation analysis. 

203. Quantitative Analysis. (4) Development and understanding of quantitative 
decision tools and models to be applied to the managerial decision process. Models 
include linear programming (graphic, algebraic, and simplex algorithm; sensitivity 
analysis; duality; transportation and assignment algorithm); decision theory; Mar- 
kov analysis; and queuing. P — Business 201. 

211. Organizational Theory and Behavior. (4) The studv of macro and micro organi- 
zational design — structure, processes, development, climate, behavior, and per- 
formance evaluations. 

212. Advanced Organizational Behavior and Human Resources Management. (4) 

The application of concepts from Business 211 to human resource problems faced by 
general managers and their organizations. Activities include class discussions, case 
analyses, and projects. P — Business 211. 



190 

213. History of Management Thought. (4) A study of past and present contributions 
to the art of management — forces and institutions which control and influence the 
exercise of managerial activities through time. Ethical and philosophical issues are 
included. P — Business 211. 

214. Labor Policy. (4) A study of selected topics in labor-management relations in 
both the business and the public sector from the view of labor, management, and the 
public. P — Business 211. 

221. Principles of Marketing. (4) A study of the role of marketing in business and the 
economy. Emphasis is on the examination of marketing concepts, functions, in- 
stitutions, and methods. P — Economics 150. 

222. Marketing Strategy. (4) Managerial techniques in planning and executing 
marketing programs in business and nonbusiness organizations. Emphasis is on the 
group experience in decision-making related to market segmentation, product inno- 
vation and positioning, channels of distribution, pricing, and promotion. Extensive 
use of cases, readings, and team presentations. P — Business 201 and 221. 

223. International Marketing. (4) Study of problems and opportunities in marketing 
overseas, analysis of cultural, economic, and political environment of foreign 
marketing operations, organization, and control of the multinational company. 
P — Business 221 and senior standing. 

224. Marketing Research. (4) Introduction to fundamentals of research methodology 
and use of research information in marketing decision-making. Topics include re- 
search design, data collection methods, scaling, sampling, and alternate methods of 
statistical data analysis. Students design and execute their own research projects. 
P— Business 201 and 221. 

225. Buyer Behavior. (4) Study of basic behavioral science applications in buver 
motivation and behavior and in buying decisions. Emphasis on current research and 
theory relating to consumer behavior. P — Business 221. 

231. Principles of Finance. (4) An introduction to the field of finance including 
financial management, investment analvsis, and financial institutions and markets. 
Emphasis is placed on financial management at the level of the business entity or 
non-profit organization. P — Accounting 112 and Economics 150. 

232. Advanced Financial Management. (4) Management decision-making applied to 
the financial function, including investment, financing, dividend, and working 
capital decisions and their impact on the value of the firm. P — Business 231. 

233. Investment Analysis. (4) Study of investment alternatives, expected returns, 
and corresponding risks; valuation of stocks and bonds applving both fundamental 
and technical analysis; survey of past and current methods of stock selection tech- 
niques, including portfolio considerations. P — Business 231. 

234. Multinational Financial Management. (4) Analysis of the international aspects 
of managerial finance. Emphasis upon institutional and environmental factors in- 
fluencing capital acquisition and allocation. P — Business 231. 



191 

237. Taxes and Their Role in Business and Personal Decisions. (4) A review of the 
basic principles of income, property, sales, and pavroll-related taxes and an examina- 
tion of their impact on business and personal decisions. Introduction to tax return 
preparation and tax planning techniques. Not open to accounting majors; credit not 
granted for both Business 237 and Accounting 271. P — Accounting 112. 

241. Production and Operations Management. (4) A study of the problems of the 
operations function in organizations, their interfaces with other functional areas, 
and the methods of their solutions. Topics include process selection, forecasting, 
aggregate planning, job shop scheduling, project management, MRP inventory 
management, facilities location and design, qualitv planning and control. P — 
Business 201. 

251. Management Information Systems. (4) Study of the development, design, and 
implementation of management information systems with introduction to the ter- 
minology, concepts, and trends in computer hardware and software. 

252. Management Information Systems. (4) Study of the development, design, and 
implementation of management information systems. Attention is given to account- 
ing information systems and the flow of information through the purchasing, pro- 
duction, and sales cycles with emphasis on administrative and accounting controls. 
Open only to accounting majors. 

261. Legal Environment of Business. (4) A study of the legal environment in which 
business decisions are made in profit and non-profit organizations. Emphasis is put 
upon how the law develops and how economic, political, social, and ethical con- 
siderations influence this development. 

270. Business Law. (4) A study of the law applicable to business transactions with 
accounting and auditing implications. Open only to senior accounting majors. P — 
Business 261. 

271. Business Policy. (4) Application of the case method to problems of business 
policy formulation and strategic planning. P — Business 202, 211, 221, 231, and 241. 

281. Reading and Research. (2, 3, or 4) Directed study in specialized areas of 
business. P — Permission oi instructor. 



Accountancy 

111. Accounting Principles I. (4) The basic accounting process and underlying 
principles pertaining to the preparation and interpretation of published financial 
statements. Sophomore standing. 

112. Accounting Principles II. (4) A continuation of Accounting 111 and an introduc- 
tion to management accounting. P — Accounting 111. 

211. Intermediate Accounting I. (4) A detailed analvsis of theorv and related pro- 
blems for tvpical accounts in published financial statements. P — Accounting 112. 



192 

212. Intermediate Accounting II. (4) A continuation of Accounting 211. P — 
Accounting 211. 

252. Cost Accounting. (4) Advanced study of management accounting, including 
budgeting, product-costing, cost allocation, standard costs, transfer-pricing, differ- 
ential analysis, and cost-behavior analysis. P — Accounting 112. 

254. Accounting in the Not-for-Profit Sector. (3) An examination of accounting 
theory and practice in governmental and eleemosynary organizations. P — 
Accounting 211. 

261. Advanced Accounting Problems. (4) A study of the more complex problems 
found in business operations, business combinations, reorganizations, and dissolu- 
tion. P — Accounting 212. 

265. Contemporary Issues in the Accounting Profession. (1) A seminar course in 
which current issues in accounting theory and practice are examined. Open only to 
senior accounting majors. P — Accounting 211. 

271. Income Tax Accounting I. (4) A survey of basic income tax concepts associated 
with individuals, partnerships, corporations, estates, and trusts. Introduction to tax 
research and planning. P — Accounting 212. 

272. Income Tax Accounting II. (2) A survey of basic income tax concepts associated 
with corporations; review of current changes in the federal income tax law. P — 
Accounting 271. 

273. Auditing. (4) Examination of basic auditing concepts and relationships, and the 
auditor's reporting and professional responsibilities. Study of auditing procedures 
commonly used in public accounting and internal auditing. P — Accounting 212 and 
Business 252. 

275. CPA Review-Accounting Practice and Theory. (4) An intensive study of CPA- 
type problems found on the accounting practice and accounting theory sections of 
the CPA exam. P — Accounting 252 and 261. 

278. Reading and Research. (2, 3, or 4) Directed study in specialized areas of 
accountancy. P — Permission of instructor. 



193 



Degrees Conferred 



May 19, 1986 
Bachelor of Arts 



Khalil Elias Abu-Saba 

Bobbi Jo Acord, summa cum laude, 

with honors in politics 
Lisa Elaine Adams, cum laude 
Katherine MacKav Allan, cum laude, 

with honors in Romance languages 
Mary Carolyn Alleman 
Jeanette D. Allen, summa cum laude 
Walter Dale Anderson 
Cara Lynn Andreoli 
Thomas Carl Aquilina, 

magna cum laude 
George Herbert Armstrong Jr. 
Raquel Maria Aronhime, cum laude 
Todd David Auch 
Betty Lvnn Bailev 
David Eric Baker 
Garv Baldinger 
David Allan Barbera 
Rickv Lee Bare, cum laude 
David Todd Barker 
Robert Neal Barrett 
Alice Ann Basinger 
Emory Bass, cum laude 
Daniel Ralph Bassett, cum laude 
Jennifer Joan Baucom, cum laude 
Pete Hudson Bazemore Jr. 
Allen Dickerson Beck 
Robin Nannette Beeson 
John Michael Bell 
David Perry Bernat 
Walter F. Berry 
Jennifer Anne Betts 
Catherine Elisabeth Bevan 
Edward Krell Bilich, summa cum laude 
John Fleming Blair 
Thomas Sullivan Blalock Jr. 
Joseph Thomas Block 
Marv Dawson Booe 



John Whitnev Boswell 

Molly Morris Bowman, cum laude 

Kevin Myers Bovanovvski 

Catherine Ann Brereton, cum laude 

Patrick Todd Brewer, cum laude 

Sara Elizabeth Bright 

Janna Helen Brooks, magna cum laude 

Georgia Wilburn Brown, cum laude 

Pierre Andri Brown 

Markham Hunt Brovhill 

Wayne Thomas Bunch II 

Laurie Jo Burch 

Kathleen Louise Bureau 

Joseph Eugene Burns, cum laude 

Paul Brewster Burroughs 

Wellington Richardson Burt IV 

Richard Collins Butz 

Dennis Patrick Calvert 

Cynthia Denise Campbell, cum laude 

Robert West Canfield III 

Julie H. Caplan 

Michele Annette Carpenter 

Caren Louise Carter 

Douglas Alan Cartel, cum laude 

Kevin Andre Carter, cum laude 

William Wilson Carter 

Kenneth Lee Caudle, cum laude 

Edwin B. Cheek 

Bridget Wynne Chisholm, cum laude 

Linda Denise Chouquette 

Bobbv Dale Church 

David Theodore Clark 

Michael Garv Clendenin 

Randv Cornell Clipp, 

mag}ia cum laude 
Corey William Cochran 
Phvllis Celine Coe, cum laude 
Catherine Marie Coles, cum laude 
Janice Marie Collins 



194 



Bruce Edwin Cook 

Kaye Frances Cook, cum laude 

Carolyn Marie Cooper, summa cum 

laude, with honors in English 
William Kenneth Cooper, cum laude 
Sarah Jeanne Cross 
William H. Crow II, magna cum laude 
Suzanne Renee Cunningham, 

cum laude 
Allyson Lynn Currin, cum laude 
Gene Taylor Daniel 
Mary Margaret Davis, 

magna cum laude 
Allen DeWitt Decker 
Ronald Dwyatt Dempsev Jr., 

cum laude, with honors in 

psychology 
Virginia Lynne Dennis 
Kimberlv Ann Dickey, 

magna cum laude 
Mark Dwayne Dodson 
Donald Allen Downs 
Allison Leigh Doyle, cum laude 
Mark Allen Durham, magna cum 

laude, with honors in physics 
Mariam Annette Dvorak, cum laude, 

with honors in psychology 
Mark Allen Earnest, magna cum laude 
Glenn Roderick Eiband 
Kristin Kaila Eldridge, magna cum laude 
Angela Gail Ellis, cum laude 
Bryan Craig Ellison, cum laude 
David Paul Ensor 
Amy Elizabeth Erickson, cum laude 
Raymond Benjamin Farrow III, 

cum laude, with honors in politics 
Neal Watts Feigles 
Marianne Feringa 
Jeffrey Todd Ferner 
Louis Joseph Fisher IV 
Angela Moore Fleming, cum laude 
Curtis Hilliard Fletcher 
Stephen Michael Flynn 
Carol Elaine Folkman 
Janet Lynn Fontana, cum laude 
Robert Edward Foote II, cum laude 



Gloria Ann Forrester, cum laude 
Dixie Lvnn Friend 
Paul Bartholomew Garber 
Christopher Allen Garner, cum laude 
Rebecca Louise Gaskin, cum laude, 

with honors in history 
Virginia Lee Gelston 
Cvnthia Loren Gibson, magna cum 

laude, with honors in history 
Robert Stuart Gilchrist 
Robert Nicholas Giraldi Jr. 
Sally Catherine Glass 
Julee Ann Glaub 
Mark Andrew Gomez 
Ricardo Juan Gomez 
Virginia Winfree Gooch 
Elizabeth Brooks Gordon, cum laude 
Robert Charles Gorham II 
Kenneth Garfield Grantham 
Lois Ardrey Gray, cum laude 
Katherine Marie Greenleese, 

cum laude 
Gina Rae Grubbs, cum laude 
Patricia Lynn Guffey 
Susan Hill Gunter, cum laude 
John Hardv Hall Jr., cum laude 
Mark Alexander Hall 
Richard Lee Harkey 
Addie Marica Harris 
Janet Sheryl Harris, summa cum laude, 

with honors in anthropology 
Lisa Dawn Harrod 
Walter Hedrick Hart 
Sonja Kay Harvey 
Thomas Andrew Healy 
Kimberlv Sue Helmintoller, cum laude 
Christopher Edwin Hendricks, 

cum laude, with honors in history 
John Patrick Henretta, magna cum 

laude, with honors in chemistry 
Roger William Herrmann Jr. 
Joseph Forest Hill 
William Mark Hines 
M. Linda Hippler, cum laude 
Laurie A. Hockman, cum laude 
Rose Elizabeth Holleran 



195 



Rosemary Sue Hondros, 

magna cum laude 
James Edward Hoots 
Noel Christopher Hunter 
Bernard Philip Hvozdovic Jr. 
William Leighton Her, cum laude 
Linda Jo Imboden, cum laude 
Bernard Alexander Ingram 
Christine Wilson Jacobs 
Dawn Tiffanv Jameson 
Douglas Peter Jankowski 
Joseph Edward Jeffreys 
Stephen James Jeffries 
Brooks Kemper Johnson, cum laude 
Duncan MacNeill Johnson 
Denise Joan Jolliffe 
Cecil Barclay Jones 
Virginia Skinner Jones 
Herbert David Jovner Jr. 
Karen Leigh Keiger, cum laude 
Alavna Jane Keller, magna cum laude, 

with honors in Romance languages 
David Roval Kellogg, cum laude, 

with honors in English 
Jeffrey John Kennerdell 
Floyd Jones Kenyon 
Rogan Thomas Kersh, summa cum 

laude, with honors in politics 
John Michael Kilbv, summa cum laude, 

with honors in English 
John Davis Kimberlv 
James Croom Kirkpatrick 
Caroline Anne Klem, cum laude 
Karen Eileen Korteling, cum laude 
William Thier Kraus, cum laude 
Neil William Kunkel 
Laura A. Lacina, magna cum laude, 

with honors in speech communication 

and theatre arts 
Lesley Anne LeFave, cum laude, 

with honors in psychology 
Ned Warner Laird, cum laude 
Penny Lynn Lampros 
Kimberlv Ann Lanane, cum laude 
James Ford Lang, cum laude, 

with honors in politics 



Dena Beth Langley, cum laude 

John Mitsch Lapinski 

Mark Steven Latti 

Richard Anthonv Leadem 

Elizabethe A. Ledbetter, cum laude 

Angela Warren Lee 

Debora Claire Lentz, cum laude 

Larrv Alvin Lindsay II 

William Germer Lindsay III, 

cum laude 
John Dixon Lineberger IV 
Mary Ellen Llovd, cum laude 
Richard Thomas Lombard 
Dale Andrew Louda 
Thomas Halbert Lowe Jr. 
Kathleen Rosalie Lufkin 
James Francis Madden 
Kevin Scott Magee, cum laude 
David Scott Magness 
Theresa Carolvn Malis, cum laude 
Brian Leslie Maness 
Marv Stark Watkins Marshall 
Deborah Yvonne Martin, cum laude 
Elizabeth Shuping Maunev 
Sallv Move Mavo 
Joseph DeLoan McCotter III 
Piper Beth McDaniel 
Noel Bruce McDevitt Jr. 
Bonnie Charlotte McEachern, 

cum laude 
Richard G. McGimsev Jr. 
Sheila McGrorv, magna cum laude 
Charles Wyatt McKeller, cum laude 
Kelle Barabenov McPeters 
Robvn Ann Mever, cum laude 
Lisa Karen Miller, cum laude 
Mark Emerson Miller 
Michael T. Miller, cum laude 
Carey Francis Mills 
Michael William Mitchell 
Robert Andrew Mitchum, cum laude, 

with honors in psychology 
Paul William Moore 
Janet Lea Moredock, summa cum laude 
Lawrence Anderson Moretz, 

cum laude 



196 



Robert Paul Morgan 

Scott Andrew Morrison, magna cum 

laude, with honors in psychology 
Scott Worthington Morrison II 
Spencer K. Morrison 
Martha Eugenia Morton 
Joseph J. Mullanv, cum laude 
Kenneth William Mvers, 

magna cum laude 
Julia Elizabeth Nash 
Gerard Robert Nazziola Jr., cum laude 
Vickie Lee Nelon, cum laude 
Mary Lorraine Nelson 
Vaughn Paul Nelson, cum laude 
Dann Newby 
Jeffrey Wayne Norris 
David Anthonv Norton, cum laude, 

with honors in art 
Laura Lee Novatnv, cum laude 
George Russell Nuce, 

magna cum laude 
Osman Sved Omer 
Frances Marie O'Roark 
Michael Scott Orfinger, cum laude 
Lisa Ormand, summa cum laude, 

with honors in English 
Arthur Wooten Orr 
Duane Billv Owens 
Christopher Todd Page 
Andrew David Payerle 
Laura Elizabeth Payne, 

summa cum laude 
Lee Ann Perdue, magna cum laude 
Brian Richard Perkinson, cum laude, 

with honors in psychology 
John Douglas Phillips 
Jeanne Burden Pilgrim 
Mark Anthonv Pilson 
Glenna Elam Poindexter, cum laude, 

with honors in music 
Alan Jefferv Prince, cum laude 
Richard George Protasewich 
Mary George Pullen 
Kirk J. Raslowskv 
James Joseph Ratchford III 
Alex Andrew Reeves 



Anne Turner Reichert, cum laude 

Karen Lvnn Reinert 

Mark Alexander Rhoades 

Tracev Parks Rich, cum laude 

Karen Reaves Richardson, cum laude 

Ronald Jeffrev Rick 

Scott Edward Riffe 

Jennifer Sue Rinehart, cum laude, 

with honors in speech communication 

and theatre arts 
Joseph Thomas Ring 
Wavne Allen Ritchie II 
Donna Kav Roberson, cum laude 
Christian Louis Rodenhaver 
Patricia Anne Rogers, cum laude 
Susan Clarke Rogers, 

summa cum laude 
Gregg Howard Rosenblatt, cum laude 
Linda Ruble 
Edwin Thorn Rumberger Jr., 

cum laude 

Regine Susanne Sack 

Alfred N. Sallev Jr., magna cum laude, 

'with honors in psychology 
Charles Samaha 
Robert Charles Schamay, 

magna cum laude 
William Roger Schmitt 
Forrest Franklin Schrum III, 

magna cum laude 
Joseph Francis Scibelli 
William Guin Scoggin, cum laude 
Karrin Kristine Scoggins 
George Giffen Searcv 
Michael Gerard Sebesta 
Frederick David Seeley 
Paul Stuart Seelman 
Darla Jo Shell, cum laude 
Melinda Rave Shoemaker 
James Orren Sims, cum laude 
Jean R. Sinclair 
Randall B. Singleton 
Martha Ann Sloop 
Rena Catherine Small 
Christopher John Smith 



197 



Sarah Elizabeth Desaulniers Smith, 

magna cum laude 
Steven Haworth Fielden Smith 
Terrv Elaine Smith, cum laude 
John G. Snover 
James C. Snvder Jr. 
Jeannette Aimee Sorrell, 

summa cum laude 
Laura Lee Southard 
Robert Alan Southern 
Cathrvn Pauline Steeves, magna cum 

laude, with honors in art 
Cynthia Lynn Stevens 
Robert S. Stevens, cum laude 
Russell Stuart Stogner 
William Todd Strawn 
Robert Richmond Stroupe 
Teresa Rae Summerlin 
Francis George Surprenant, 

magna cum laude 
Marv Elizabeth Sutton, 

summa cum laude 
James Andrew Talbert 
Virginia Susan Tant 
Garland Scott Tavlor Jr. 
Charles Roval Tedder Jr., cum laude 
Scott Colvin Tepper 
Sheila Marion Thabet 
Emerson McLean Thompson III 
Janet T. Thompson 
Cynthia Elaine Tompkins 
James M. Trustv, cum laude 



Stephen Andrew Tufo 
Katharine Anne Tuggle, cum laude 
Brian Leslie Upchurch 
Frank Douglas Valchar 
Cynthia Gail Vardiman, 

magna cum laude 
Robert S. Vaughan Jr. 
Arthur William Vernon Jr., cum laude 
Marv Spivev Vick, summa cum laude 
Emmett James Walsh III, cum laude 
Walter A. Ward III 
David Thomas Washington 
Amy Leigh Waters 
James Mitchell Watson 
Marv Katharine Watts, cum laude 
William M. Wellman Jr. 
Scott Jerome Whalen 
Jill Annette Whatlev 
Foy Hill White 
Catherine Hudson Whiting 
John Francis Wible, summa cum laude 
Nancv Jean Williams, cum laude 
Scott Jonathan Williams 
Carol Theresa Willis 
Nedra Lvnn Wilson 
David Wheeler Wood 
Kevin Rav Woodv, cum laude 
Scott Anthonv Wright 
Harrv Lane Wurster Jr. 
Michael Brian Wveth 
Lawrence Thomas Zehfuss Jr. 
John Mull Ziegler Jr. 



May 19, 1986 
Bachelor of Science 



David Blair Alligood, cum laude 
Stephen Michael Ansley 
Trevor Leigh Bailev 
David Perry Barksdale, 

magna cum laude 
Christianne L. Baucom, summa cum 

laude, with honors in mathematics 
Elizabeth Conrad Becton, cum laude 



Chyrise Anne Bergen, cum laude 

Reginald Brent Blaylock 

Kimberlv Ann Bodoh 

Melissa Jean Brethauer 

Kelli Denise Brewer, cum laude 

John Norris Broughton 

Javne Leah Bunton, magna cum laude 

James Andrew Carnev, cum laude 



198 



Richard Oliver Chapman, 

summa cum laude 
Robert Gary Chapman 
Kelly Sue Chlad 
Ruben Cintron 

Larry Van-Thomas Crisco, cum laude 
Terrence Allan Cronin Jr. 
Edward John Czarnecki, 

magna cum laude 
Nancy Leigh Davidson, cum laude 
Fred T. Davis 
Anna Arrington Draughn, 

magna cum laude 
Celia Gayle Duke, summa cum laude 
Thomas Calvin Freeman II 
Larrv Bruce French, cum laude 
Kathy Anne Frve 

Thomas Gerard Gettinger, cum laude 
Susan Lynn Hand, summa cum laude 
Susan Lvnn Hannv, cum laude 
Dana Jeanne Hedges 
Paige Elizabeth Higgins, 

magna cum laude 
Hans Leighton Hinson 
Jonathan Cordell Hinson, cum laude 
Chad Ashley Holder, 

summa cum laude 
Angela Holum 

Mark Taylor Hooten, magna cum laude 
Cvnthia Lynn Jetter 
William Edward Keating 
Harriet Lynn Kolmer, cum laude 
Eric Ford Kuehn, summa cum laude 
Angela Jane Langenfeld 
Angela Dawn Leatherman 
Sherry Elizabeth Lee 
Troy Allen Leight 
Mark David Lins, cum laude 
John Wesley Luidens 
Eric Meyer Martin 
Carl Bruce Massev Jr., cum laude 
Carolyn Martin Massey 
Richard James Mathers 
Martha Hardy McCrorey 
Paul Swicegood McCubbins Jr. 
William Kuhn McGreevev, cum laude 



Muriel Brooks McLean, summa cum 

laude, with honors in mathematics 
Peggv Luanne Medlin 
Douglas A. Mikaelian 
Barbara Ann Minton, cum laude 
Beverly Dawn Moose, 

summa cum laude 
Julie Ann Moreau 
Molli Ann Moricle, cum laude 
Janice A. Morrill 
Judith Newman 
Jill Adele Noles 
Michael Gordon Palumbo 
Sharon Kaye Parks, cum laude, 

with honors in chemistry 
Michael Lewis Pate, cum laude 
Brian Maurice Peek, cum laude 
Lars Arthur Pekav 
Jon Lewis Phillips, cum laude 
Beverly Karen Pickett 
Dale Arthur Roach Jr. 
Mark Windsor Roberson, magna cum 

laude, with honors in mathematics 
Peter Bakewell Rodes, cum laude 
Margie Ree Rodgers, cum laude 
Helen Louise Rogers, cum laude, 

with honors in mathematics 
Brian Frederick Rollfinke, 

summa cum laude 
Sherry Lynn Savage 
James Sidney Michael Scibetta, 

cum laude 
Thomas Edward Sharon Jr., 

magna cum laude 
Jerry Reagin Smith Jr. 
Sharon Anne Smith 
Gerald Mendoza So, cum laude 
Roy Walter Sprinkle 
Lani Luise Staiger, magna cum laude 
Lisa Dawn Stockton, cum laude 
Laurie Beth Stratton, cum laude 
Terri Michelle Stump, cum laude 
Steven Glenn Sutton, cum laude 
David Frederick Swaile 
Kristie Ellen Thompson 
Jeffrev Niels Thordahl, cum laude 



199 



Richard Ulloa Tobar, cum laude 
Julie Kristine Truax, cum laude 
James Kurt Tucker, cum laude 
Maribeth Tyson, summa cum laude 
Timothy Michael Viner 
Catherine Eskridge White 
Jonathan Gaines White, cum laude 
Todd Clark White, summa cum laude 



Brian Glenn Widenhouse, cum laude 
John Mark Williams, summa cum laude 
Wanda Carol Williams, cum laude 
Jonsye Dickens Wurthmann 
Janet Elizabeth Yancey, cum laude 
Douglas Montell Yoder 
Amy Jeanette Holland Ziglar, 
magna cum laude 



May 19, 1986 

Bachelor of Science 

The School of Business and Accountancy 



Brent William Ambrose 
Elizabeth Karen Bailev, 

magna cum laude 
Timothv Winfred Bailev, cum laude 
Vonda Leigh Bass, cum laude 
Jeffrey Rogers Bates 
Ellison Elizabeth Baynes 
Kevin Edward Beeson 
Jennifer Dawn Blackburn 
Melanie Ann Blackburn 
Jennifer Marion Brading 
William Thomas Bundick Jr. 
Kevin Michael Burket 
Martha Hatley Burns, cum laude 
William Devin Busko II 
Frances Marion Carlton, cum laude 
Michael Gearheart Carter 
James Bryan Cash 
Charles Hamilton Cate Jr. 
Mari-Ann Christy 
John Charles Clark Jr. 
Carolyn Courtney Coleman 
Karen Reed Conley 
Pamela Jill Cox 
Laura Frances Davis 
Lesley-Jane Dixon 
Susan Hayes Dore cum laude 
Michael A. Dowell 
Alison Ann Dubbs, cum laude 
Douglas Michael Ellis 
Frederick Wesley Eubank II 



Gary A. Fairbanks 

Kenneth James Fairman 

Vernon Scott Flowers, cum laude 

Ames Bishop Flynn 

Jennifer McKeithen Gibson 

Shellv Anne Glontz 

Herman Theron Goins Jr., cum laude 

Gary Scott Gray, cum laude 

John Shepherd Greenwood 

Gail Elizabeth Haase 

Matthew Pullen Hadlev 

James F. Hahn III 

Mary Carolyn Hall, cum laude 

Linda Virginia Havens, cum laude 

Michael Carter Hedrick 

Kimberly Michelle Hewitt 

Daniel Kelly Hogan 

H. Russell Holland III 

Edward Dallas Hollingsworth 

Todd Stephen Howard 

Clinton Gray Hubbard 

Daniel Ivan Hunt, magna cum laude 

Thomas Yoshito Ikegami 

Anthony Clark Johnson 

Steven Kenneth Juhasz 

Duncan Black Kerr 

William Douglas King Jr. 

Thomas Karl Koppein 

Thomas John Kunik 

Dan Carl Langford 

Tamara Susan Lindley 



200 



James Allan Logie 

Marco E. Lucioni, magna cum laude 

Catherine Davis Malone 

John Christopher Martin 

Amv Burton McNeer, cum laude 

Cvnthia Ruth Miller, cum laude 

Charles Hampton Munn Jr., 

cum laude 
Daniel V. Murphy 
Thomas Gerard Ondrof 
Diane Renee Ott, cum laude 
Kenneth Scott Pasquith, cum laude 
Sara Ellen Phipps, cum laude 
Jose Tuason Quimson 
Steven Lee Reeder 
Robert Joseph Reger, cum laude 
Susan Marie Rheaume 
Laura Jeanne Richards 
Elizabeth Ellen Roddv, 

magna cum laude 
Timothy Michael Ruane 
Elizabeth Belle Rucker, cum laude 
James Grav Rucker 
David Howard Rupp 
Paul Walter Schacht, cum laude 
Susan Jean Schoenwald 
Kathrvn Hess Sena 



James Walston Shearin 

Allvson Denise Shepard 

Robert Anthonv Sileo 

Kris Denise Sirhan 

Martha Ellen Skidmore 

Joseph Corev Slepp 

Kelly Monroe Smith, cum laude 

Ralph Mattox Snow III, cum laude 

Richard Paul Soja, cum laude 

Kelly Linn Spooner 

Wade Austin Stanlev 

Donna Sue Stevens 

Christopher Thomas Taylor 

Roberta Ruth Taylor 

Elizabeth Dibrell Thomas 

Clifton Clark Tvson 

Anne Marie Warren 

Steven Eric Warren 

Barbara Jean Weger 

David Sanders Wegerek 

Maria Marve Whalen 

John Lawrence Wolf 

Walter Thomas Wood Jr. 

Laura Ellen Woodford 

Andrew Paul Zalman 

Janet Ann Zucker, cum laude 



August 9, 1986 
Bachelor of Arts 



Maxwell James Bartholomew 
Tricia Fisher Brown 
Gregory Jackson Carter 
James William Clark 
Corina Criticos 
Daniel Joseph Doherty III 
William Edward Durham Jr. 
Margaret Joan Falkenberg 
Paul Minges Farlev 
Jan Russell Fiske 
Robert Kye Goalbv 
Suzanne Marie Grimes 



Michael Lawrence Henry 
James Douglas Illing 
Frank George Kavounis 
Thomas Ward Kitchen III 
John Gavin Knight 
Donald Patrick McCauley 
Brian Keith Paschal 
Alexander Ruthven Perry 
Rebecca Loeen Proctor, 

summa cum laude 
Richard A. Reavis Jr. 
Scott Charles Lindsay Robinson 



201 



Susan Brett Roome 
Charles Randall Sharpe 
Kurt Darrick Spitz 
John Austin Stanley 
Eric David Stiff 



William Elliott Todebush 
Flovd James Alan Trivett 
David Carroll Wagoner 
Robert Laurence Dade Wall 
Temple Morris White 



August 9, 1986 

Bachelor of Science 



Brian Donald Armstrong 
Angela Eleanor Dombrowski, 

cum laudc 
Jennifer Sue Miller 



Larry Allen Pearce Jr. 
William Phillips Jr. 
Henry David Smith III 
William Thomas Steele 



August 9, 1986 

Bachelor of Science 
The School of Business and Accountancy 



Matthew Edward Ledford 
Michael Anthony Matella 
Stacev Toland Oakhill 
Elise Clark Ross 
Guido Schillig 
Andreas O. Schwarz 



Alan Penn Smith 
David Thomas Smith 
C. Michael Sotiriou 
Michael Ashburv Wilcox 
John Stephen Wilkinson 



December 16, 1986 
Bachelor of Arts 



Nancv Jo Atkinson 
Timothy John Bennett 
Scott Paul Berrier 
Carl Andrews Boggs III 
Cornelius Francis Brantley Jr., 

cum laudc, with honors in 

religion 
Kirk Brennan Brooks 
Joe Douglas Carter 
Mary Elizabeth Clark 



Julia Mae Edwards, magna cum laudc 

with honors in history 
Kevin Giles Ericksen 
Kathryn Ann Friggle 
Gilmer Glenn Green III 
Ronald Wade Grinton 
David R. Hartness 
Susan Elaine Jackson 
Gregory Martin Keeley 
Christopher L. Koontz 



202 



Robert Bradlev McCormick 
John Patrick McHugh 
Lori Elizabeth Mclntire 
Ira James McKeller 
Michael David McNeil 
Terrence Kevin Mooney 
Noel Crook Moore, cum laude 
Timothy Francis Morrison 
David Henry Paff 



James Partington IV 

Erika Anne Queen, magna cum laude 

Galen Brock Radebaugh 

William Wesley Ragland III 

Wendv Caroline Rushworth 

Susan Diane Steiger, cum laude 

Lana Lynette Tuttle 

Zane Edward Warren 

Clare Richard Wilson III 



December 16, 1986 
Bachelor of Science 



Stephen Frederick Ball 
Lance Michael Burma, 

magna cum laude 
Toby Cecil Cole Jr., magna cum laude 
Lillian Michelle Conner 
Jeffrey Scott Crews, magna cum laude 



Keith Frank Cronan 

Christine O'Neill 

Talmage Gregory Rogers III, 

cum laude 
Glennell W. Smith 
Peter Alan Wainwright Swain 



December 16, 1986 

Bachelor of Science 
The School of Business and Accountancy 



James Edward Brady 

Alex Sherman Burns 

Kris Lanada Carswell 

Brenda Margarita Corrie 

Garold Frank Crayton III 

Clayton Stewart Ferner 

John Frederick Harris, cum laude 



Margaret Lenore Johnson 
Walter Eugene Johnston IV 
Traci Ellen Noah, cum laude 
Michael Luis Sierra 
Christopher E. Timberlake 
John Russell Van Buren 



203 



Honor Societies 



Omicron Delta Kappa 

Members of the Class of 1986 



Christianne Louise Baucom 
Edward Krell Bilich 
Anne Barbara Brown 
Richard Oliver Chapman 
Bridget Wynee Chisholm 
Randy Cornell Clipp 
Mary Margaret Davis 
Mark Allen Earnest 
Caroline Lanier Fishburne 
Larry Bruce French 
Herman Theron Goins Jr. 
Sonja Kay Harvey 
Timothv Mark Hendrix 



Paige Elizabeth Higgins 
Rogan Thomas Kersh 
James Ford Lang 
Marco Enrico Lucioni 
Teresa Carolyn Malis 
Martha Hardy McCrorey 
Muriel Brooks McLean 
Robert Andrew Mitchum 
Lisa Ormand 
James Conrad Snyder Jr. 
Marv Elizabeth Sutton 
Mary Spivey Vick 



Phi Beta Kappa 

Members of the Class of 1986 



Bobbi Jo Acord 
Jeanette Denise Allen 
Elizabeth Karen Bailey 
David Perry Barksdale 
Christianne Louise Baucom 
Edward Krell Bilich 
Jayne Leah Bunton 
Richard Oliver Chapman 
Randy Cornell Clipp 
Carolyn Marie Cooper 
William Howard Crow II 
Edward John Czarnecki 
Mary Margaret Davis 
Kimberly Ann Dickev 
David Glenn Dixon 
Anna Arrington Draughn 
Mark Allen Durham 
Mark Allen Earnest 
Kristin Kaila Eldridge 
Cynthia Loren Gibson 
Susan Lynn Hand 
Janet Sheryl Harris 



Timothv Mark Hendrix 
John Patrick Flenretta 
Paige Elizabeth Higgins 
Chad Ashlev Holder 
Marv Taylor Hooten 
Daniel Ivan Hunt 
Alayna Jane Keller 
Rogan Thomas Kersh 
John Michael Kilby 
Eric Ford Kuehn 
Sheila McGrory 
Muriel Brooks McLean 
Beverlv Dawn Moose 
Janet Lea Moredock 
Kenneth William Myers 
Lisa Ormand 
Laura Elizabeth Pavne 
Lee Ann Perdue 
Brian Frederick Rollfinke 
Mark Windsor Roberson 
Elizabeth Ellen Roddy 
Susan Clarke Rogers 



204 



Alfred N. Sallev Jr. 
Forest Franklin Schrum III 
Thomas Edward Sharon Jr. 
Jeanette Aimee Sorrell 
Lani Luise Staiger 
Cathrvn Pauline Steeves 
Francis George Surprenant 



Mary Elizabeth Sutton 
Maribeth Tvson 
Marv Spivev Vick 
Todd Clark White 
John Francis Wible 
John Mark Williams 




Reynolds Professor of American Studiei 
Maya Angelou 



205 



Enrollment 



Fall 1986 






Men 


Women 


Total 


458 


333 


791 


480 


347 


827 


498 


410 


908 


550 


324 


874 


47 


82 


129 



71 


147 


218 


13 


2 


15 





5 


5 



The Undergraduate Schools 

Seniors 

Juniors 

Sophomores 

Freshmen 

Unclassified 

Total 2,033 1,496 3,529 

The Graduate School 

(Reynolda Campus) 
Master's Program 
Doctoral Program 
Unclassified 

Total 84 154 238 

The Graduate School 

(Hawthorne Campus) 
Master's Program 
Doctoral Program 
Unclassified 

Total 

The School of Law 

The Babcock Graduate 
School of Management 

Master's Program 144 53 197 

Executive Program 53 18 71 

Total 197 71 268 

The Bowman Gray 

School of Medicine 283 142 425 

Allied Health Programs 16 144 160 

Total 2,981 2,233 5,214 



4 


4 


8 


42 


46 


88 


5 


2 


7 


51 


52 


103 


317 


174 


491 



206 



Geographic Distribution — Undergraduates 



Alabama 

Alaska 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia 

Florida 

Georgia 

Hawaii 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 



Men 


Women 


Total 


18 


17 


35 


2 





2 


3 


1 


4 


1 


1 


2 


11 


3 


14 


2 


2 


4 


43 


12 


55 


21 


11 


32 


4 


2 


6 


139 


77 


216 


94 


69 


163 


1 


2 


3 











17 


12 


29 


6 


1 


7 


1 





1 


2 


4 


6 


26 


19 


45 


5 


3 


8 


4 





4 


106 


60 


166 


27 


13 


40 


8 


9 


17 


4 


4 


8 


3 





3 


1-2 


2 


14 


1 





1 


1 


1 


2 











6 





6 


104 


45 


149 


1 


1 


2 


99 


40 


139 


708 


686 


1,394 


1 





1 


58 


25 


83 


1 


2 


3 


1 


1 


2 


91 


34 


125 


4 





4 


63 


47 


110 





1 


1 


38 


27 


65 



207 



Texas 


8 


5 


13 


United States Territories 











Utah 











Vermont 


1 


1 


2 


Virginia 


176 


131 


307 


Washington 


1 


2 


3 


West Virginia 


45 


22 


67 


Wisconsin 


1 


5 


6 


Wyoming 


1 
Other Countries 


1 


2 




Men 


Women 


Total 


Canada 





1 


1 


Dominican Republic 





2 


2 


Guyana 





1 


1 


Israel 


2 





2 


Japan 


2 


1 


3 


Mexico 


2 





2 


Netherlands 





1 


1 


New Zealand 





1 


1 


Pakistan 


1 





1 


Saudi Arabia 





1 


1 


Sweden 


1 





1 


Switzerland 





1 


1 


United Kingdom 


6 


3 


9 


West German Federal Republic 


1 


1 


2 




Dean of the College Thomas E. Mullen 



208 

The Board of Trustees 

Terms Expiring December 31, 1987 

Joseph Branch, Raleigh Constance F. Gray, Winston-Salem 

Louise Broyhill, Lenoir William W. Leathers III, Rockingham 

D. Wayne Calloway, Purchase, NY W. Harold Mitchell, Valdese 

Frank R. Campbell, Danville, VA D. E. Ward Jr., Lumberton 

Richard A. Williams, Newton 

Terms Expiring December 31, 1988 

Clifton L. Benson Jr., Raleigh James E. Johnson Jr., Charlotte 

Charles W. Cheek, Greensboro Russell W. Meyer Jr., Wichita, KS 

Thomas H. Davis, Winston-Salem Zachary T. Smith, Winston-Salem 

C. C. Hope Jr., Washington, DC Lonnie B. Williams, Wilmington 

Terms Expiring December 31, 1989 

Albert L. Butler Jr., Winston-Salem John G. Medlin Jr., Winston-Salem 

Austine O. Evans, Ahoskie W. Bovd Owen, Waynesville 

Lawrence D. Hopkins, Winston-Salem J. Guv Revelle Jr., Murfreesboro 

Petro Kulynych, Wilkesboro M. Mahan Siler Jr., Raleigh 

James W. Mason, Laurinburg Barbara D. Whiteman, Raleigh 

Terms Expiring December 31, 1990 

Douglas D. Brendle, Elkin Joseph W. Luter III, Arlington, VA 

Jean H. Gaskin, Charlotte Alton McEachern, Greensboro 

Weston P. Hatfield, Winston-Salem Elwyn G. Murray III, Winston-Salem 

Hubert B. Humphrey Jr., Greensboro Charles M. Shelton, Winston-Salem 

Albert R. Hunt Jr., Washington, DC J. Lanny Wadkins Jr., Dallas, TX 

Honorary Lifetime Members 

Bert Bennett, Pfafftown Lex Marsh, Charlotte 

Henry L. Bridges, Raleigh George W. Paschal Jr., Raleigh 

Robert P. Caldwell Sr., Gastonia J. Robert Philpott, Lexington 

Egbert L. Davis, Winston-Salem Leon L. Rice Jr., Winston-Salem 

Floyd Fletcher, Durham Samuel C. Tatum, Greensboro 

John C. Hamrick Sr., Shelby T. Eugene Worrell, 

Addison Hewlett Jr., Wilmington Charlottesville, VA 

J. Samuel Holbrook, Statesville J. Smith Young, Lexington 

Officers 

(For one-year terms beginning January 1, 1987) 

Joseph Branch, Raleigh, Chairman 

D. Wayne Calloway, Purchase, NY, Vice-Chairman 



209 



Leon H. Corbett jr., Winston-Salem, Vice President for Legal Affairs and 

University Secretary and Secretary to the Board of Trustees 
John G. Williard, Winston-Salem, Treasurer and Assistant Secretary 
Womble Carlyle Sandridge & Rice, Winston-Salem, General Counsel 




Vice President and Treasurer John G. Williard 



210 

The Board of Visitors 



Arnold Palmer, Youngstown, Pennsylvania 
Chairman, University Board of Visitors 

F. Hudnall Christopher Jr., Winston-Salem 
Chairman, College Board of Visitors 

Wake Forest College and Graduate School 

Terms Expiring December 31, 1987 

Charles Blitzer, Research Triangle Lawrence D. Hopkins, Winston-Salem 

Park Hubert Humphrev, Greensboro 

John Chandler, Washington, DC Roberto J. Hunter, Scarsdale, NY 

Barbara Massey Clark, Brentwood, TN Jeanette W. Hyde, Raleigh 

Edward E. Crutchfield Jr., Charlotte Jean F. Lybrook, Clemmons 

Merrimon Cuninggim, Winston-Salem James Alfred Martin, Winston-Salem 

Arthur E. Earley, Singer Island, FL Russell W. Meyer Jr., Wichita, KS 

Bill Greene Jr., Elizabethton, TN John R. Reardon, Santa Fe, NM 

Charles U. Harris, Delaplane, VA Zacharv T. Smith, Winston-Salem 

Terms Expiring December 31, 1988 

Thomas M. Belk, Charlotte Stanley Frank, Greensboro 

Connie Brothers, Nashville, TN Deborah Small Harris, Charlotte 

David Bryant, Charleston, WV Nancy Kester, New York, NY 

Jere A. Drummond, Charlotte John F. McNair III, Winston-Salem 

Frank Forsvth, Winston-Salem Edwin S. Melvin, Greensboro 

Barbara Babcock Millhouse, New York, NY 

Terms Expiring December 31, 1989 

Elizabeth Bagley, Washington, DC Thomas W. Lambeth, Winston-Salem 

Germaine Bree, Winston-Salem Gillian Lindt, New York, NY 

Herbert Brenner, Winston-Salem Robert Maloy, Washington, DC 

F. Hudnall Christopher Jr., C. Edward Pleasants, Winston-Salem 

Winston-Salem Frances Pugh, Raleigh 

James B. Hunt Jr., Raleigh K. Wayne Smith, Chicago, IL 
Judy Woodruff, Washington, DC 

Terms Expiring December 31, 1990 

Samuel H. Adler, Rochester, NY L. Richardson Preyer, Greensboro 

Jerry B. Attkisson, Atlanta, GA Robert F. Rink, Philadelphia, PA 

Paul Griffin, Chicago, IL Adelaide A. Sink, Tampa, FL 

Barbee C. Myers, University Park, PA Allene B. Stevens, Lenoir 

Eugene Owens, Charlotte J. Tvlee Wilson, Winston-Salem 



Ex Officio Members 

Earle A. Connelly, President, Alumni Council, Troy 
Constance F. Gray, Trustee Liaison, Winston-Salem 



211 




212 



School of Business and Accountancy 



Advisory Council 



Jan W. Blackford, Greensboro 

Paul J. Breitbach, Winston-Salem 

Douglas D. Brendle, Elkin 

B. Macon Brewer, New York, NY 

Wallace J. Conner, Newport 

Loyd R. Daniel Jr., Winston-Salem 

J. William Disher, Charlotte 

Marvin D. Gentry, King 

H. Wade Gresham, Durham 

Ray C. Hunt Jr., Charlottesville, VA 

W. Eugene Johnston III, Greensboro 

Phillip W. Wi 



J. Leonard Martin, Winston-Salem 
Michael S. Michalec, Winston-Salem 
Robert E. Moore, Greensboro 
Craven B. Page, Winston-Salem 
David C. Rose, Henderson 
John D. Royster, Winston-Salem 
James N. Smith, Winston-Salem 
William H. Snow, Winston-Salem 
S. Gray Steifel Jr., Greensboro 
Robert Stanlev Vaughan Sr., Charlotte 
Boyce R. Wilson Sr., Winston-Salem 
son, Greensboro 




213 



The Administration 



Date following name indicates year of appointment. 



University 

Thomas K. Hearn Jr. (1983) President 

BA, Birmingham-Southern; BD, Southern Baptist Seminary; 
PhD, Vanderbilt; LHD, Alabama-Birmingham 

Edwin Graves Wilson (1946, 1951) Provost 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Harvard 

Laura Christian Ford (1984) Associate Provost 

BA, Wake Forest; EdM, JD, Virginia; AM, PhD, Princeton 

Richard Janeway (1966) Vice President for Health Affairs and 

BA, Colgate; Executive Dean of the 

MD, Pennsylvania Bowman Gray School of Medicine 

John G. Williard (1958) Vice President and Treasurer 

BS, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); CPA, North Carolina 

John P. Anderson (1984) Vice President for Administration 

BS, MS, PhD, Georgia Institute of Technology; and Planning 

MBA, Alabama-Birmingham 

G. William Joyner Jr. (1969) Vice President for University Relations 

BA, Wake Forest 

Leon H. Corbett Jr. (1968) Vice President for Legal Affairs 

BA, JD, Wake Forest and Secretary of the University 

Ernest Wade (1986) Director of Minority Affairs 

BS, Johnson C. Smith; MS, Wisconsin; PhD, Michigan State 

College 

Thomas E. Mullen (1957) Dean of the College 

BA, Rollins; MA, PhD, Emory 

Toby A. Hale (1970) Associate Dean 

BA, Wake Forest; MDiv, Duke; EdD, Indiana 

Patricia Adams Johansson (1969) Assistant Dean 

BA, Winston-Salem State; MA, Wake Forest 

William S. Hamilton (1983) Assistant Dean 

BA, MA, PhD, Yale 

Graduate School 

Gerald W. Esch (1965) Dean of the Graduate School 

BS, Colorado College; MS, PhD, Oklahoma 

Nancy J. Cotton (1977) Director of Master of Arts 

BA, Texas; MA, Wisconsin; PhD, Columbia in Liberal Studies Program 



214 



School of Law 



John D. Scarlett (1955, 1979) Dean of the School of Law 

BA, Catawba; JD, Harvard 

Kenneth A. Zick II (1975) Associate Dean, Academic Affairs 

BA, Albion; JD, Wayne State; MLS, Michigan 

James Taylor Jr. (1983) Associate Dean, External Affairs and 

BA, JD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) Director of Clinical Programs 

Llovd K. Rector (1984) Director of Continuing Legal Education 

BS, JD, Wake Forest 

Melanie E. Nutt (1969) Director of Admissions and Financial Aid 

Jean K. Hooks (1970) Director of Computer Services 

and Administration 

Linda J. Michalski (1983) Director of Professional and 

BS, North Carolina (Greensboro) Public Relations 

Connie A. Harrison (1986) Registrar 

BA, Virginia Intermont; MBA, Wake Forest 

Susan M. Gossman (1986) Director of Placement 

BA, Oakland; MA, Chicago 

Babcock Graduate School of Management 

Robert W. Shively (1970, 1982) Dean of Babcock Graduate School 

BA, Colgate; MEd, Harvard; PhD, Cornell of Management 

Jean B. Hopson (1970) Assistant Dean 

BA, Murray State; MS in LS, George Peabodv; and Librarian 

MBA, Wake Forest; PhD, Vanderbilt 

James G. Ptaszynski (1984) Director of Admissions 

BA, North, Carolina (Chapel Hill); MS, Shippensburg and Financial Aid 

J. Timothy Heames (1983) Director of MBA Executive Program 

BS, Youngstown State; MS, Carnegie-Mellon 

Peter R. Peacock (1970) Director of Evening MBA Program 

BA, Northeastern; MS, Georgia Tech; MBA, PhD, Chicago 

Brooke A. Saladin (1983) Director of Resident MBA Program 

BS, PhD, Ohio State; MBA, Bowling Green 

James D. Hlavacek (1985) Director of Institute 

BA, Southern Illinois; for Executive Education 

MBA, Louisiana Tech; PhD, Illinois 

M. Willisia Holbrook (1982) Assistant Dean for External Relations 

BA, Mercer; and Director of Career Planning 

MEd, EdD, Georgia and Placement 

Bowman Gray School of Medicine 

Richard Janeway (1966) Vice President for Health Affairs 

BA, Colgate; MD, Pennsylvania and Executive Dean 



215 

Nat E. Smith (1976) Associate Dean 

BA, Erskine; MD, Georgia 

James N. Thompson (1979) Deputy Associate Dean 

BA, DePauw; MD, Ohio State 

Russell J. Armistead Jr. (1976) Associate Dean for 

BS, Virginia Polytechnic; MBA, Wake Forest Administrative Services 

William C. Park Jr. (1973) Assistant Dean for Clinical Services 

BS, The Citadel; MBA, Wake Forest 

B. Hofler Milam (1981) Assistant Dean for Planning and 

BS, Wake Forest Resource Management 

J. Kiffin Penry (1979) Associate Dean for Research Development 

BS, MD, Wake Forest 

Lawrence D. Smith (1983) Assistant Dean for Research Development 

BS, MS, Illinois 

Paul Waugaman (1985) Assistant Dean for Research Administration 

BA, MS, American; MPA, Indiana 

John D. Tolmie (1970) Associate Dean for Student Affairs 

BA, Hobart; MD, McGill 

Patricia L. Adams (1979) Deputy Associate Dean for Student Affairs 

BA, Duke; MD, Wake Forest 

Lewis H. Nelson (1976) Associate Dean for Admissions 

BS, North Carolina State; MD, Wake Forest 

Emerv C. Miller Jr. (1955) Associate Dean for Continuing Education 

'BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); MD, Johns Hopkins 

James C. Leist (1974) Assistant Dean for Continuing Education 

BS, Southeastern Missouri State; MS, EdD, Indiana 

J. Dennis Hoban (1978) Director of the Office of 

BA, Villanova; MS, EdD, Indiana Educational Research and Service 

Velma G. Watts (1983) Director of Minority Affairs 

BS, MA, North Carolina A & T; 
MEd, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); PhD, Duke 

School of Business and Accountancy 

Thomas C. Taylor (1971) Dean of the School of Business 

BS, MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); and Accountancy 

PhD, Louisiana State; CPA, North Carolina 

Ralph B. Tower (1980) Coordinator of Accountancy Program 

BS, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); MBA, Cornell 

Stephen Ewing (1971) Coordinator of Business Program 

BS, Howard Payne; MBA, Baylor; DBA, Texas Tech 

Summer Session 

Percival Perry (1939, 1947) Dean of the Summer Session 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, Rutgers; PhD, Duke 



216 

Planning and Administration 

John P. Anderson (1984) Vice President for Administration 

BS, MS, PhD, Georgia Institute of Technology; and Planning 

MBA, Alabama-Birmingham 

Lula M. Leake (1964) Assistant Vice President for 

BA, Louisiana State; Administration and Planning 

MRE, Southern Baptist Seminary 

Ross A. Griffith (1966) Planning Analyst and Director 

BS, Wake Forest; MEd, North Carolina (Greensboro) of Space Management 

Larrv R. Henson (1981) Director of the Computer Center 

BA, Berea; MS, Missouri (Rolla) 

Ben M. Seelbinder (1959) Director of Records and 

BA, Mississippi Delta State; Institutional Research 

MS, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Margaret R. Perry (1947) Registrar 

BS, South Carolina 

Student Services 

John P. Anderson (1984) Vice President for Administration 

BS, MS, PhD, Georgia Institute of Technology; and Planning 

MBA, Alabama-Birmingham 

Brian M. Austin (1975) Assistant Vice President for Student Affairs 

BA, Monmouth; MS, PhD, Southern Illinois 

Mark H. Reece (1956) Dean of Students 

BS, Wake Forest 

Michael Ford (1981) Associate Dean of Students for Student Development 

BA, Wake Forest; MDiv, Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary 

Dennis Gregory (1986) Director of Residence Life and Housing 

AA, Ferrum; BA, James Madison; MA, Virginia 

Shannon E. Browne (1984) Associate Director of Residence Life 

BA, MEd, EdF, Virginia and Housing 

Bruce Bunce (1986) Housing Manager 

BA, Western Michigan; MS, Radford 

Mary T. Beil (1985) Director of the Student Union 

BA, Hiram; MEd, Kent State 

Edgar D. Christman (1956, 1961) Chaplain 

BA, JD, Wake Forest; BD, Southeastern Baptist Seminary; 
STM, Union Seminary 

N. Rick Heatlev (1970) Director of Career Planning and Placement 

BA, Baylor; MA, PhD, Texas 

Carol A. Tenhagen (1985) Assistant Director of 

BS, MS, Florida State Career Planning and Placement 

Marianne Schubert (1977) Director of the University 

BA, Dayton; MA, PhD, Southern Illinois Counseling Center 



217 



Mary Ann H. Taylor (1961, 1978) Director of University Student 

BS, MD, Wake Forest Health Services 

Campus Ministry 

Edgar D. Christman (1956, 1961) Chaplain 

BA, JD, Wake Forest; BD, Southeastern Baptist Seminarv; 
STM, Union Seminary 

David L. Fouche (1982) Assistant Chaplain and 

BA, Furman; MDiv, Southeastern Baptist Seminarv Baptist Campus Minister 

Records and Institutional Research 

Ben M. Seelbinder (1959) Director of Records and 

BA, Mississippi Delta State; Institutional Research 

MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Margaret R. Perry (1947) Registrar 

BS, South Carolina 

Hallie S. Arrington (1977) Assistant Registrar 

BA, Wake Forest 

Computer Center 

Larry R. Henson (1981) Director of the Computer Center 

BA, Berea; MS, Missouri (Rolla) 

Sarah M. Burton (1985) Microcomputer Cotter Coordinator 

BA, North Carolina (Greensboro) 

Personnel 

James L. Ferrell (1975) Director of Personnel 

BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); MS, Virginia Commonwealth 

Admissions and Financial Aid 

William G. Starling (1958) Director of Admissions and 

BBA, Wake Forest Financial Aid 

Shirley P. Hamrick (1957) Associate Director of Admissions 

BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); MA in Ed, Wake Forest 

W. Douglas Bland (1975) Assistant Director of Admissions 

BA, MA in Ed, Wake Forest and Financial Aid 

Thomas O. Phillips (1982) Assistant Director of Admissions and 

BA, MA, Wake Forest Scholarship Officer 

Martha Allman (1982) Assistant Director of Admissions 

BA, Wake Forest 

Vonda F. Reece (1965) Assistant Director of Financial Aid 

BA, Salem 

Georgia W. Brown (1986) Admissions Counselor 

BA, Wake Forest 



218 



Wayne E. Johnson (1985) Admissions Counselor 

BA, Northwestern; JD, Wake Forest 

Career Planning and Placement 

N. Rick Heatley (1970) Director of Career Planning 

BA, Baylor; MA, PhD, Texas and Placement 

Carol A. Tenhagen (1985) Assistant Director of Career Planning 

BS, MS, Florida State and Placement 

Public Information 

Sandra C. Connor (1981) Director of Public Information 

BA, North Carolina (Charlotte); MEd, Converse 

Teresa Brown Grogan (1976) Supervisor of Publications 

Terry Hvdell (1982) Magazine Editor and Associate University 

BA, Oberlin Publications Editor 

J. Rodney Meyer (1970) Director of Activities and 

BA, Brown; MA, PhD, Minnesota Information Management 

Jane Navlor Roberson (1961) Media Relations Officer 

BA, Wake Forest 

University Relations 

G. William Joyner Jr. (1969) Vice President for University Relations 

BA, Wake Forest 

Julius H. Corpening (1969) Assistant Vice President for Development 

BA, Wake Forest; BD, Southern Baptist Seminary 

Robert D. Mills (1972) Assistant Vice President and 

BA, MBA, Wake Forest Director of Alumni Activities 

Minta Aycock McNally (1978) Assistant to the Vice President 

BA, Wake Forest for University Relations 

Robert T. Baker (1978) Assistant Director of Development 

BA, MS, George Peabody 

Elizabeth Bass (1985) Development Officer 

BA, Wake Forest 

James R. Bullock (1985) Director of Lawyer Alumni Activities 

BA, Wake Forest 

Gareth Clement (1985) Staff Writer 

BA, Wake Forest 

Molly Welles Lineberger (1983) College Fund Officer 

BA, Wake Forest 

Kay Doenges Lord (1985) Alumni Officer 

BA, Wake Forest 

Claudia A. Stitt (1978) Director of Records and Support Services 

BS, East Tennessee State 



219 

Henry B. Stokes (1977) Director of Denominational Relations 

BA, Wake Forest; ThB, Southern Baptist Seminary 

Robert D. Thompson (1982) Director of the College Fund 

BA, Wake Forest 

Kimberly R. Waller (1985) Grants and Contracts Officer 

BA, Wake Forest 

Graylyn Conference Center 

Thomas P. Gilsenan (1985) General Manager and Director of the 

BS, California (Berkeley) Graylyn Conference Center 

Jane Rachlin (1979) Assistant Director of the 

Graylyn Conference Center 

Financial Affairs 

John G. Williard (1958) Vice President and Treasurer 

BS, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); CPA, North Carolina 

Carlos O. Holder (1969) Controller and Assistant Treasurer 

BBA, MBA, Wake Forest 

W. Derald Hagen (1978) Assistant Controller 

BS, Virginia Polytechnic 

Libraries 

Merrill G. Berthrong (1964) Director of Libraries 

BA, Tufts; MA, Fletcher; PhD, Pennsylvania 

Richard J. Murdoch (1966) Assistant to the Director and 

BA, Pennsylvania Military; MS in LS, Villanova Curator of Rare Books 

Thomas M. Steele (1985) Director of Law Library Services 

BA, Oklahoma State; MLS, Oregon; JD, Texas 

Jean B. Hopson (1970) Librarian of the Babcock Graduate 

BS in Ed, Murray State; School of Management 

MS in LS, George Peabody; MBA, Wake Forest; PhD, Vanderbilt 

Michael D. Sprinkle (1972) Director, Coy C. Carpenter Library, 

BA, MS in LS, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) Bowman Gray 

School of Medicine 

Athletics 

G. Eugene Hooks (1956) Director of Athletics 

BS, Wake Forest; MEd, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 
EdD, George Peabody (Vanderbilt) 

Dorothy Casey (1949) Director of Women's Athletics 

' BS, North Carolina (Greensboro); 
MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Public Service 

T. Cleve Callison (1982) WFDD Station Manager 

BA, Duke; MA, PhD, Wisconsin (Madison) 



220 



Other Administrative Offices 



Mary Jane Berman (1986) Curator, Museum of Man 

BA, Harpur; MA, SUNY (Binghamton) 

Nicholas B. Bragg (1970) Executive Director of Reynolda House 

BA, Wake Forest 

T. Cleve Callison (1982) WFDD Station Manager 

BA, Duke; MA, PhD, Wisconsin (Madison) 

Audrey L. Carr (1983) Coordinator of the Educational Media Center 

BA, MA, Wake Forest 

Richard T. Clay (1956) Director of University Stores 

BBA, Wake Forest 

Thomas M. Elmore (1962) Director of Counselor Education 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, George Peabody; PhD, Ohio State 

Victor Faccinto (1978) Director of the Art Gallery 

BA, MA, California State (Sacramento) 

Brian Gorelick (1984) Director of Choral Ensembles 

BA, Yale; MM, Wisconsin (Madison) 

Paul M. Gross Jr. (1959) Coordinator of the Honors Program 

BS, Duke; PhD, Brown 

David W. Hadley (1966) Coordinator of London Programs 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Harvard 

Beth N. Hopkins (1985) Staff Attorney and Equal Opportunity Officer 

BA, Wake Forest; JD, William and Mary 

John H. Litcher (1973) Director of Teacher Education 

BS, Winona State; MA, PhD, Minnesota 

Harold S. Moore (1953) Director of the Physical Plant 

BME, Virginia 

James Reid Morgan (1980) Assistant University Counsel 

BA, JD, Wake Forest 

Martin Province (1982) Assistant Director of Instrumental Ensembles 

BA, Wake Forest and Director of Bands 

Irene M. Smith (1985) Curator of Slides and Prints 

BA, MS, Florida State 

Ross Smith (1984) Debate Coach 

BA, Wake Forest 

Harold C. Tedford (1965) Director of Theatre 

BA, Ouachita; MA, Arkansas; PhD, Louisiana State 

George William Trautwein (1983) Director of Instrumental Ensembles 

BMus, Oberlin; and Director of the Artists Series 

MMus, Cleveland Institute of Music; MusD, Indiana 

Robert L. Utley Jr. (1978) Director of the Tocqueville Forum 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Duke 



221 



Jeanne P. Whitman (1983) 

BA, MBA, Wake Forest; MA, Virginia 

Donald H. Wolfe (1968) 

BS, MS, Southern Illinois; PhD, Cornell 



Assistant to the Provost 
Associate Director of Theatre 
tm\- .M '•*.: r • -\ysgF4 

'Sim : M 




222 

The Undergraduate Faculties 

Date following name indicates year of appointment. 

Umit Akinc (1982) Associate Professor of Business 

BS, Middle East Technical Institute (Turkey); 
MBA, Florida State; PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Brian Allen (1977) Lecturer in Art (London) 

BA, East Anglia; MA, PhD, London (Part-time, Fall 1986) 

Charles M. Allen (1941) Professor of Biology 

BS, MS, Wake Forest; PhD, Duke 

Nina Stromgren Allen (1984) Associate Professor of Biology 

BS, Wisconsin; MS, PhD, Maryland 

Ralph D. Amen (1962) Professor of Biology 

BA, MA, Northern Colorado; MBS, PhD, Colorado 

John L. Andronica (1969) Associate Professor of Classical Languages 

BA, Holy Cross; MA, Boston College; PhD, Johns Hopkins 

John William Angell (1955) Professor of Religion 

BA, Wake Forest; STM, Andover Newton; (On leave, Spring 1987) 

ThM, PhD, Southern Baptist Seminary 

Maya Angelou (1982) Reynolds Professor of American Studies 

LittD, Smith, Lawrence, Columbia College (Chicago), Atlanta, 
Wheaton; LHD, Mills, Wake Forest, Occidental, Arkansas, 
Claremont, Kean 

Bianca Artom (1975) Lecturer in Romance Languages 

Brian M. Austin (1975) Lecturer in Psychology 

BA, Monmouth; MS, PhD, Southern Illinois 

Whangbai Bahk (1986) Instructor in Romance Languages 

BA, Hankuk University (South Korea); MA, New Mexico 

Eugene Pendleton Banks (1954) Professor of Anthropology 

BA, Furman; AM, PhD, Harvard 

Sarah E. Barbour (1985) Visiting Assistant Professor of 

BA, Marvville; MA, Paris; PhD, Cornell Romance Languages 

James P. Barefield (1963) Professor of History 

BA, MA, Rice; PhD, Johns Hopkins 

Richard C. Barnett (1961) Professor of History 

BA, Wake Forest; MEd, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

John V. Baxley (1968) Professor of Mathematics 

BS, MS, Georgia Tech; PhD, Wisconsin 

H. Kenneth Bechtel (1981) Visiting Assistant Professor of Sociology 

BA, MA, North Dakota; PhD, Southern Illinois 

Robert C. Beck (1959) Professor of Psychology 

BA, PhD, Illinois 



223 



S. Douglas Beets (1987) Assistant Professor of Accountancy 

BS, Tennessee; MAcc, Virginia Polytechnic (Spring 1987) 

Donald B. Bergey (1978) Instructor in Health and Sport Science 

BS, MA, Wake Forest (Part-time) 

Mary Jane Berman (1986) Instructor in Anthropology 

BA, Harpur; MA, SUNY (Binghamton) 

Michael J. Berry (1985) Assistant Professor of Health and 

BS, Jacksonville State; MA, Southeastern Louisiana; Sport Science 

PhD, Texas A & M 

Merrill G. Berthrong (1964) Associate Professor of History 

BA, Tufts; MA, Fletcher; PhD, Pennsylvania 

Deborah L. Best (1972, 1978) Associate Professor of Psychology 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

David Bindman (1977) Lecturer in Art History (London) 

BA, MA, Oxford; PhD, Courtauld (Part-time) 

Mary Lucy Bivins (1985) Adjunct Instructor in Speech Communication 

BA, Salem; MA, Wake Forest and Theatre Arts 

(Part-time) 

Susan Harden Borwick (1982) Associate Professor of Music 

BM, BME, Baylor; PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Stephen B. Boyd (1985) Assistant Professor of Religion 

BA, Tennessee; MDiv, ThD, Harvard Divinity School 

Anne Bovle (1986) Visiting Assistant Professor of English 

BA,' Wilkes; MA, PhD, Rochester 

Randy Brandes (1985) Visiting Assistant Professor of English 

BA, Hanover; MA, PhD, Emory 

Robert VV. Brehme (1959) Professor of Physics 

BS, Roanoke; MS, PhD, North Carolina 

Linda Carter Brinson (1986) Lecturer in Journalism 

BA, Wake Forest (Part-time) 

Heyward G. Brown (1985) Assistant Professor of Military Science 

BS, Valdosta State; JD, Louisville 

Carole L. Browne (1980) Associate Professor of Biology 

BS, Hartford; PhD, Syracuse 

Robert A. Browne (1980) Associate Professor of Biology 

BS, MS, Dayton; PhD, Syracuse (On leave, Spring 1987) 

David B. Broyles (1966) Associate Professor of Politics 

BA, Chicago; BA, Florida; MA, PhD, California (Los Angeles) 

George McLeod Bryan (1956) Professor of Religion 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; BD, PhD, Yale 

Shasta M. Brvant (1966) Professor of Romance Languages 

BA, MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 



224 



Julian C. Burroughs Jr. (1958) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Michigan 

Francis Thomas Cancro (1987) 
BA, MA, Saint Mary; 
STB, Pontifical Faculty of Saint Mary 

Richard D. Carmichael (1971) 

BS, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Duke 

Christa G. Carollo (1985) 

BA, North Carolina (Greensboro); MA, Duke 

John A. Carter Jr. (1961) 

BA, Virginia; MA, PhD, Princeton 

Stewart Carter (1982) 

BME, Kansas; MS, Illinois; PhD, Stanford 

Dorothy Casey (1949) 

BS, North Carolina (Greensboro); 
MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

David W. Catron (1963) 

BA, Furman; PhD, George Peabodv 

Jonathan Hugo Christman (1983) 
AB, Franklin and Marshall 



Barbara A. Clark (1984) 

AB, St. Elizabeth; MA, SUNY (Binghamton) 

Maxine L. Clark (1980) 

BA, Cincinnati; AM, PhD, Illinois 



Professor of Speech Communication 

Visiting Lecturer in Religion 
(Part-time, Spring 1987) 

Professor of Mathematics 

Instructor in German 
(Part-time) 

Professor of English 
Associate Professor of Music 



Associate Professor of Health and 
Sport Science 

Associate Professor of Psychology 

Lecturer in Speech Communication 

and Theatre Arts 

(Part-time) 

Instructor in Romance Languages 

Associate Professor of Psychology 
(On leave, Fall 1986) 



Associate Professor of Religion 
(On leave, Fall 1986) 



John E. Collins (1970) 
BS, MS, Tennessee; 
BD, Southeastern Baptist Seminary; PhD, Princeton 

Jule M. Connolly (1985) Instructor in Mathematics 

BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); MEd, South Carolina 

Leon P. Cook Jr. (1957) Associate Professor of Accountancy 

BS, Virginia Polytechnic; MS, Tennessee; CPA, Arkansas 



Nancy J. Cotton (1977) 

BA, Texas; MA, Wisconsin; PhD, Columbia 

Cvclone Covey (1968) 
BA, PhD,' Stanford 

John B. Crihfield (1985) 

BA, Reed; MA, PhD, Chicago 

Patricia M. Cunningham (1978) 

BA, Rhode Island; MS, Florida State; 
EdS, Indiana State; PhD, Georgia 



Professor of English 

Professor of History 

Assistant Professor of Economics 

Associate Professor of Education 



Mary Michel Dalton (1986) 
BA, Wake Forest; 
MA, North Carolina (Greensboro) 



Adjunct Instructor in Speech Communication 

and Theatre Arts 

(Part-time) 



225 



Sayeste A. Daser (1978) Associate Professor of Business 

BA, Middle East Tech (Ankara); MS, Ege (Izmir); 
PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Huw M. L. Davies (1983) Assistant Professor of Chemistry 

BSc, University College (Cardiff); 
PhD, University of East Anglia 

Melanie DeMent (1986) Visiting Assistant Professor of Music 

BMEd, MA, Sam Houston State; DMA, North Texas State 

James W. DeVocht (1986) Assistant Professor of Military Science 

BS, Brigham Young; DC, Palmer College of Chiropractic (Iowa) 

Arun P. Dewasthali (1975) Associate Professor of Business 

BS, Bombay; MS, PhD, Delaware 

Ronald V. Dimock Jr. (1970) Professor of Biology 

BA, New Hampshire; MS, Florida State; 
PhD, California (Santa Barbara) 

James H. Dodding (1979) Visiting Lecturer in Theatre 

(Spring 1987) 

Thomas E. Dougherty Jr. (1977) Adjunct Associate Professor of Religion 

BA, Wake Forest; (Part-time) 

MDiv, PhD, Southern Baptist Seminary 

Sharon E. Dowd (1984) Instructor in Religion 

BA, Wake Forest; (Part-time) 

MDiv, Southeastern Baptist Seminary 

Kim Driesbach (1985) Instructor in Accountancy 

BS, MAcc, Kansas State (Fall 1986) 

Michele E. Drouart (1986) Visiting Assistant Professor of 

BA, New South Wales (Australia); Romance Languages 

PhD, Indiana 

Robert H. Dufort (1961) Professor of Psychology 

BA, PhD, Duke 

John S. Dunkelberg (1983) Assistant Professor of Business 

BS, Clemson; MBA, PhD, South Carolina 

John R. Earle (1963) Professor of Sociology 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Eddie V. Easlev (1984) Professor of Business 

BS, Virginia; MS, PhD, Iowa 

C. Drew Edwards (1980) Adjunct Assistant Professor of Psychology 

BA, Furman; MA, Wake Forest; PhD, Florida State (Part-time) 

Tony H. Elavia (1982) Assistant Professor of Economics 

BA, MA, Baroda; PhD, Houston 

Leo Ellison Jr. (1957) Associate Professor of Health and 

BS, MS, Northwestern State Sport Science 

Thomas M. Elmore (1962) Professor of Counseling Psychology 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, George Peabodv; PhD, Ohio State 



226 

Gerald W. Esch (1965, 1984) Professor of Biology 

BS, Colorado College; MS, PhD, Oklahoma 

Andrew V. Ettin (1977) Associate Professor of English 

BA, Rutgers; MA, PhD, Washington (St. Louis) 

Herman E. Eure (1974) Associate Professor of Biology 

BS, Maryland State; PhD, Wake Forest 

David K. Evans (1966) Professor of Anthropology 

BS, Tulane; PhD, California (Berkeley) 

Robert H. Evans (1983) Assistant Professor of Education 

BA, Ohio Wesleyan; MS, New Hampshire; PhD, Colorado 

Stephen Ewing (1971) Associate Professor of Business 

BS, Howard Payne; MBA, Baylor; DBA, Texas Tech 

David L. Faber (1984) Assistant Professor of Art 

AA, Elgin; BFA, Northern Illinois; MFA, Southern Illinois 

Victor Faccinto (1981) Lecturer in Art 

BA, MA, California State (Sacramento) (Part-time) 

Dennis M. Fahey (1985) Visiting Assistant Professor of Chemistry 

AB, Whitman; PhD, Washington State 

Phillippe R. Falkenberg (1969) Associate Professor of Psychology 

BA, Queens (Ontario); PhD, Duke 

Deborah Fanelli (1983) Instructor in Art 

BFA, Cleveland Institute of Art; 
MFA, Rhode Island School of Design 

Doranne Fenoaltea (1977) Associate Professor of Romance Languages 

BA, Mount Holyoke; AM, PhD, Harvard (On leave, 1986-87) 

Sarah Ferguson (1987) Visiting Assistant Professor of Art 

BA, New York; MA, PhD, Courtauld 

Scott A. Fernald (1983) Assistant Professor of Military Science 

BA, Norwich 

Robert F. Ferrante (1982) Assistant Professor of Chemistry 

BS, Villanova; PhD, Florida 

Eric E. Fink (1986) Instructor in Mathematics 

BS, Davidson; MS, Virginia 

Jack D. Fleer (1964) Professor of Politics 

BA, Oklahoma Baptist; MS, Florida State; 
PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Dovle R. Fosso (1964) Professor of English 

AB, Harvard; MA, Michigan; PhD, Harvard (On leave, Fall 1986) 

Ralph S. Fraser (1962) Professor of German 

BA, Boston; MA, Syracuse; PhD, Illinois 

Donald E. Frey (1972) Professor of Economics 

BA, Weslevan; MDiv, Yale; PhD, Princeton 



227 



Marv Campbell Frye (1984) 

BA, Fairmont; MA, West Virginia 

Caroline Sandlin Fullerton (1969) 

BA, Rollins; MFA, Texas Christian 



Instructor in Romance Languages 

Lecturer in Theatre Arts 
(Part-time) 



N. Ganapathisubramanian (1986) 
BS, Madura College (India); 
MS, PhD, Indian Institute of Technology (Madras) 

Ivev C. Gentrv (1949) 

BS, Wake Forest; BS, New York; MA, PhD, Duke 

J. Whitfield Gibbons (1971)) 

BS, MA, Alabama; PhD, Michigan State 

Christopher Giles (1951) 

BS, Florida Southern; MA, George Peabody 

Kathleen Glenn (1974) 

BA, MA, PhD, Stanford 

Thomas Glenn (1986) 

BS, North Carolina State; MBA, Utah 

Richard T. Godfrey (1981) 

BA, Chelsea School of Art (England) 

Thomas S. Goho (1977) 

BS, MBA, Pennsylvania State; 
PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Balkrishna Govind Gokhale (1960) 
BA, MA, PhD, Bombay 

Louis R. Goldstein (1979) 

BM, Oberlin; MFA, California Institute of the Arts; 
DMA, Eastman 

Gilberto Gomez (1986) 

Licenciado, Universidad del Quindio (Colombia); 
MA, Washington; PhD, St. Louis 

Harold O. Goodman (1958) 
BA, MA, PhD, Minnesota 



Brian L. Gorelick (1984) 

BA, Yale; MMus, Wisconsin (Madison); DMA, Illinois 

Thomas F. Gossett (1967) 

BA, MA, Southern Methodist; PhD, Minnesota 

Robert J. Griffiths (1986) 

BS, Vermont; MA, Connecticut 



Assistant Professor of Chemistry 

Professor of Mathematics 

Adjunct Professor of Biology 

Associate Professor of Music 

Professor of Romance Languages 
(On leave, Fall 1986) 

Professor of Military Science 

Lecturer in Art (London) 
(Part-time) 

Associate Professor of Business 



Professor of History and 
Asian Studies 

Associate Professor of Music 



Visiting Assistant Professor of 
Romance Languages 

Adjunct Professor of Biology 

Director of Choral Ensembles 

Professor of English 



Paul M. Gross Jr. (1959) 

BS, Duke; PhD, Brown 

William H. Gulley (1966) 

BA, MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 



Instructor in Politics 
(Part-time, Fall 1986) 

Associate Professor of Chemistry 
Associate Professor of Sociology 



228 



Saguiv A. Hadari (1983) 

BA, Tel-Aviv; MA, PhD, Princeton 

David W. Hadlev (1966) 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Harvard 

Kenneth Estes Hall (1986) 

BA, Furman; MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 
PhD, Arizona 

William S. Hamilton (1983) 
BA, MA, PhD, Yale 

Claire H. Hammond (1978) 

BA, Mary Washington; PhD, Virginia 

J. Daniel Hammond (1978) 

BA, Wake Forest; PhD, Virginia 

Emmett Willard Hamrick (1952) 

BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); PhD, Duke 

Phillip J. Hamrick Jr. (1956) 

BS, Morris Harvey; PhD, Duke 

James S. Hans (1982) 

BA, MA, Southern Illinois; PhD, Washington 

Hanna M. Hardgrave (1985) 

BA, Brown; MA, PhD, Chicago 

Katy J. Harriger (1985) 

BA, Edinboro State; MA, PhD, Connecticut 

Carl V. Harris (1956) 

BA, Wake Forest; BD, STM, Yale; PhD, Duke 

Catherine T. Harris (1980) 

AB, Lenoir Rhyne; MA, Duke; PhD, Georgia 

Lucille S. Harris (1957) 
BA, BM, Meredith 

Negley Boyd Harte (1978) 

BS, London School of Economics 

Elmer K. Hayashi (1973) 
BA, California (Davis); 
MS, San Diego State; PhD, Illinois 

Michael D. Hazen (1974) Associate Professor of Speech Communication 

BA, Seattle Pacific; MA, Wake Forest; PhD, Kansas 

Thomas K. Hearn Jr. (1983) Professor of Philosophy 

BA, Birmingham-Southern; BD, Southern Baptist Seminary; 
PhD, Vanderbilt; LHD, Alabama-Birmingham 

Robert A. Hedin (1980) 

BA, Luther; MFA, Alaska 



Assistant Professor of Politics 

Associate Professor of History 

Visiting Assistant Professor of 
Romance Languages 

Associate Professor of Russian 

Assistant Professor of Economics 

Associate Professor of Economics 

Professor of Religion 

Professor of Chemistry 

Associate Professor of English 

Lecturer in Philosophy 
(Part-time, Spring 1987) 

Assistant Professor of Politics 

Professor of Classical Languages 

Associate Professor of Sociology 

Instructor in Music 
(Part-time) 

Lecturer in History (London) 
(Part-time) 

Associate Professor of Mathematics 
and Computer Science 



Roger A. Hegstrom (1969) 

BA, St. Olaf; AM, PhD, Harvard 



Visiting Lecturer in English 
Professor of Chemistry 



229 



Robert M. Helm (1940) Worrell Professor of Philosophy 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Duke 

J. Edwin Hendricks (1961) Professor of History 

BA, Furman; MA, PhD, Virginia (On leave, Spring 1987) 

Marcus B. Hester (1963) Professor of Philosophy 

BA, Wake Forest; PhD, Vanderbilt 

Barbara S. Heusel (1985) Visiting Assistant Professor of English 

BA, Heidelburg; MA, Louisville; PhD, South Carolina 

David Allen Hills (1960) Associate Professor of Psychology 

BA, Kansas; MA, PhD, Iowa 

Willie L. Hinze (1975) Professor of Chemistry 

BS, MA, Sam Houston State; PhD, Texas A & M 

George Holzwarth (1983) Lecturer in Physics 

BA, Wesleyan; MS, PhD, Harvard 

Natalie A. Holzwarth (1983) Assistant Professor of Physics 

BS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; PhD, Chicago 

Fred L. Horton Jr. (1970) Professor of Religion 

BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 
BD, Union Seminary; PhD, Duke 

William L. Hottinger (1970) Professor of Health and Sport Science 

BS, Slipperv Rock; MS, PhD, Illinois 

Frederic T. Howard (1966) Professor of Mathematics 

BA, MA, Vanderbilt; PhD, Duke 

Michael L. Hughes (1984) Assistant Professor of History 

BA, Claremont Men's; MA, PhD, California (Berkelev) 

Delmer P. Hvlton (1949) Professor of Accountancy 

BS, MBA, Indiana; CPA, Indiana 

Kikuko T. Imamura (1985) Lecturer in Romance Languages 

Kyoto Women's College; (Part-time) 

BRE, RRA, Mennonite (Canada) 

Charles F. Jackels (1977) Associate Professor of Chemistry 

BChem, Minnesota; PhD, Washington (Part-time) 

Susan C. Jackels (1977) Associate Professor of Chemistry 

BA, Carleton; PhD, Washington (Part-time) 

Mordecai J. Jaffe (1980) Babcock Professor of Botany 

BS, CCNY; PhD, Cornell 

Patricia Adams Johansson (1969) Lecturer in English 

BA, Winston-Salem State; MA, Wake Forest 

David J. John (1982) Associate Professor of Mathematics and 

BS, Emory and Henrv; MS, PhD, Emory Computer Science 

W. Dillon Johnston (1973) Professor of English 

BA, Vanderbilt; MA, Columbia; PhD, Virginia 



230 



Jay R. Kaplan (1981) Adjunct Assistant Professor of Anthropology 

BA, Swarthmore; MA, PhD, Northwestern 



Paul H. D. Kaplan (1980) 

BA, Hampshire; MA, PhD, Boston 

Charles H. Kennedy (1985) 

BA, Eckerd; AM, MPP, PhD, Duke 

Ralph C. Kennedy III (1976) 

BA, PhD, California (Berkeley) 

William C. Kerr (1970) 

BS, Wooster; PhD, Cornell 

Charles Jeffrey Kinlaw (1986) 
BA, Wake Forest; 
MS, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary 

Ellen E. Kirkman (1975) 

BA, Wooster; MA, MS, PhD, Michigan State 

Robert Knott (1975) 

BA, Stanford; MA, Illinois; PhD, Pennsylvania 

Anna Krauth (1986) 

Licence de Lettres, Licence d'Anglais, 
Maitrise de Lettres, Sorbonne 

Raymond E. Kuhn (1968) 

BS, Carson-Newman; PhD, Tennessee 

James Kuzmanovich (1972) 

BS, Rose Polytechnic; PhD, Wisconsin 



Associate Professor of Art 

Assistant Professor of Politics 

Associate Professor of Philosophy 

Professor of Physics 

Instructor in Philosophy 
(Part-time) 

Associate Professor of Mathematics 

Associate Professor of Art 

Instructor in Romance Languages 

Professor of Biology 
Professor of Mathematics 



Hugo C. Lane (1973) 

Licenciate of the Biological Sciences, 
Doctorate of the Biological Sciences, Geneva 



Associate Professor of Biology 



Michael S. Lawlor (1986) 

BA, Texas (Austin); PhD, Iowa State 

Mark R. Leary (1985) 

BA, West Virginia Wesleyan; MA, PhD, Florida 

Win-chiat Lee (1983) 

BA, Cornell; MA, Princeton 

Susan Ruth Leonard (1983) Adjunct Assistant Professor of Psychology 

BA, Long Island (C. W. Post Center); (Part-time) 

MA, PhD, North Carolina (Greensboro) 



Assistant Professor of Economics 
Assistant Professor of Psychology 
Visiting Assistant Professor of Philosophy 



David B. Levy (1976) 

BM, MA, PhD, Eastman 

Charles M. Lewis (1968) 

BA, Wake Forest; PhD, Vanderbilt; ThM, Harvard 



Assistant Professor of Music 
Associate Professor of Philosophy 



Thomas P. Liebschutz (1987) 
BA, MA, Rochester; 
BHL, MHL, Hebrew Union; DMin, Boston University 



Visiting Lecturer in Religion 
(Part-time, Spring 1987) 



231 

Susan Mott Linker (1983) Visiting Assistant Professor 

BA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); of Romance Languages 

MA, Wisconsin; PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

John H. Litcher (1973) Professor of Education 

BS, Winona State; MA, PhD, Minnesota 

Dan S. Locklair (1982) Assistant Professor of Music 

BM, Mars Hill; SMM, Union Theological Seminary; 
DMA, Eastman 

Allan D. Louden (1977, 1985) Instructor in Speech Communication and 

BA, Montana State; MA, Montana Theatre Arts 

Robert W. Lovett (1962, 1968) Associate Professor of English 

BA, Oglethorpe; MAT, PhD, Emory 

Gene T. Lucas (1967, 1986) Lecturer in Mathematics 

BA, Phillips; MA, Denver 

Barrv G. Maine (1981) Assistant Professor of English 

BA, Virginia; MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Milorad R. Margitic (1978) Associate Professor of Romance Languages 

MA, Leiden (Netherlands); PhD, Wayne State 

Scott A. Marquardt (1986) Assistant Professor of Military Science 

BA, Santa Clara; MSEd, Southern California 

Teri E. Marsh (1985) Visiting Assistant Professor of 

AB, MA, PhD, SUNY (Buffalo) Classical Languages 

Dale R. Martin (1982) Associate Professor of Accountancy 

BS, MS, Illinois State; DBA, Kentucky- 
James A. Martin (1983) University Professor of Religion 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, Duke; PhD, Columbia (Part-time) 

George Eric Matthews Jr. (1979) Associate Professor of Physics 

BA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

J. Gavlord Mav (1961) Professor of Mathematics 

' BS, Wofford; MA, PhD, Virginia 

Jo Whitten May (1972) Visiting Assistant Professor of 

BA, Virginia; Speech Communication 

MA, PhD, North Carolina (Greensboro) (Part-time) 

W. Graham Mav (1961) Professor of Mathematics 

BS, Wofford; MA, PhD, Virginia 

Susan P. McCaffray (1985) Assistant Professor of History 

BA, Wooster; MA, PhD, Duke 

James C. McDonald (1960) Professor of Biology 

BA, Washington (St. Louis); MA, PhD, Missouri 

Jill Jordan McMillan (1983) Assistant Professor of Speech Communication 

BA, Baylor; PhD, Texas (On leave, Fall 1986) 

Gail Garrison McNeill (1986) Instructor in Romance Languages 

BA, Millsaps; MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 



232 



Dolly A. McPherson (1974) Associate Professor of English 

BA, Southern; MA, Boston; PhD, Iowa 

Stephen Philip Messier (1981) Assistant Professor of Health and 

BS, MS, Rhode Island; PhD, Temple Sport Science 

Joseph O. Milner (1969) Professor of Education 

BA, Davidson; MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Carlton T. Mitchell (1961) Professor of Religion 

BA, Wake Forest; BD, Yale; STM, Union Seminary; PhD, New York 

Diane Mitchell (1983) Lecturer in Education 

BA, Salem; MEd, Wake Forest; PhD, Duke (Part-time, Fall 1986) 

John C. Moorhouse (1969) Professor of Economics 

BA, Wabash; PhD, Northwestern 

Carl C. Moses (1964) Professor of Politics 

AB, William and Mary; MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

William M. Moss (1971) Associate Professor of English 

BA, Davidson; PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Susan M. Mraz (1984) Instructor in Romance Languages 

BA, Thiel; MA, West Virginia 

Reinhold Mueller (1984) Visiting Associate Professor of History (Venice) 

BA, St. Thomas; MA, PhD, Johns Hopkins ' (Part-time) 

Thomas E. Mullen (1957) Professor of History 

BA, Rollins; MA, PhD, Emory 

Kathleen D. Mullett (1985) Instructor in Education 

BA, Carlow 

Margaret Mulvey (1986) Adjunct Assistant Professor of Biolog}/ 

BA, MA, Connecticut; PhD, Rutgers 

Matthew P. Murray (1985) Lecturer in Romance Languages 

BA, Florida State; MA, Middleburv (Part-time, Fall 1986) 

Rebecca Myers (1981) Instructor in Health and Sport Science 

BS, MA, Ball State 

Candelas M. Newton (1978) Associate Professor of Romance Languages 

BA, Salamanca (Spain); MA, PhD, Pittsburgh (On leave, Spring 1987) 

Linda N. Nielsen (1974) Associate Professor of Education 

BA, MS, EdD, Tennessee 

Ronald E. Noftle (1967) Professor of Chemistry 

BS, New Hampshire; PhD, Washington (On leave, Fall 1986) 

John W. Nowell (1945) Professor of Chemistry 

BS, Wake Forest; PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

A. Thomas Olive (1961) Associate Professor of Biology 

BS, Wake Forest; MS, PhD, North Carolina State 

Gillian Rose Overing (1979) Associate Professor of English 

BA, Lancashire (England); (On leave, 1986-87) 

MA, PhD, SUNY (Buffalo) 



233 

F. Jeanne Owen (1956) Professor of Business Law 

BS, North Carolina (Greensboro); MCS, Indiana; 
JD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Karen L. Oxendine (1986) Adjunct Instructor in Speech Communication 

BS, Wayne State; and Theatre Arts 

MEd, North Carolina (Greensboro) (Part-time) 

Janak Pandey (1986) Visiting Professor of Psychology 

BA, Ranchi University (India); MA, Patna University (India); 
PhD, Kansas State 

John E. Parker Jr. (1950) Professor of Education and 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Syracuse Romance Languages 

Perry L. Patterson (1986) Assistant Professor of Economics 

BA, Indiana; MA, PhD, Northwestern (On leave, Spring 1987) 

Darwin R. Payne (1984) Adjunct Professor of Speech Communication 

BS, MFA, Southern Illinois and Theatre Arts 

(Part-time) 

Willie Pearson Jr. (1980) Associate Professor of Sociology 

BA, Wiley; MA, Atlanta; PhD, Southern Illinois (Carbondale) 

Mary L. B. Pendergraft (1987) Visiting Assistant Professor of Classics 

AB, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) (Spring 1987) 

Philip J. Perricone (1967) Associate Professor of Sociology 

BS, MA, Florida; PhD, Kentucky 

Percival Perrv (1939, 1947) Professor of History 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, Rutgers; PhD, Duke 

Elizabeth Phillips (1957) Professor of English 

BA, North Carolina (Greensboro); MA, Iowa; 
PhD, Pennsylvania 

Terisio Pignatti (1971) Visiting Professor of Art History (Venice) 

PhD, Padua (Part-time," Fall 1986) 

Shervl L. Postman (1984) Visiting Assistant Professor of 

' AB, Rider; MA, PhD, SUNY (Albany) Romance Languages 

Lee Harris Potter (1965) Professor of English 

BA, MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Gregory D. Pritchard (1968) Professor of Philosophy 

BA, Oklahoma Baptist; BD, Southern Baptist Seminarv; 
PhD, Columbia 

Martin R. Province (1982) Assistant Director of Instrumental Ensembles 

BA, Wake Forest (On leave, 1986-87) 

Teresa Radomski (1977) Assistant Professor of Music 

BM, Eastman; MM, Colorado (On leave, 1986-87) 

J. Don Reeves (1967) Professor of Education 

BA, Mercer; BD, ThM, Southern Baptist Seminarv; 
EdD, Columbia 



234 

W. Jack Rejeski Jr. (1978) Associate Professor of Health and 

BS, Norwich; MA, PhD, Connecticut Sport Science 

Kathleen Alice Reuter (1986) Instructor in English 

BA, Cleveland State; MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Paul M. Ribisl (1973) Professor of Health and 

BS, Pittsburgh; MA, Kent State; PhD, Illinois Sport Science 

Stephen H. Richardson (1963) Adjunct Professor of Biology 

BA, California; MS, PhD, Southern California 

Charles L. Richman (1968) Professor of Psychology 

BA, Virginia; MA, Yeshiva; PhD, Cincinnati 

Bianca Rivera (1986) Instructor in Romance Languages 

BA, Princeton; MA, Cornell 

Helen Walker Robbins (1986) Instructor in English 

AB, Smith; MA, Duke 

Leonard P. Roberge (1974) Associate Professor of Education 

BA, New Hampshire; MA, Atlanta; EdD, Maine 

Ben P. Robertson (1983) Instructor in Anthropology 

BA, Maryland; MA, Brown (Part-time, Fall 1986) 

Mary Frances Robinson (1952) Professor of Romance Languages 

BA, Wilson; MA, PhD, Syracuse 

Raymond S. Rodgers (1986) Adjunct Associate Professor of Speech 

BA, Northwestern State; Communication and Theatre Arts 

MA, Arkansas; PhD, Oklahoma (Part-time, Fall 1986) 

Eva Marie Rodtwitt (1966) Lecturer in Romance Languages 

Cand Philol, Oslo (Norway) 

John E. Rowland (1982) Visiting Assistant Professor of 

BA, William Jennings Bryan College; Classical Languages 

AM, Indiana 



Wilmer D. Sanders (1954, 1964) Professor of German 

BA, Muhlenberg; MA, PhD, Indiana 

Jennifer Sault (1984) Instructor in Romance Languages 

BA, Wake Forest (Part-time) 

John W. Sawyer (1956) Professor of Mathematics 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Missouri 

James Ralph Scales (1967) Worrell Professor of Anglo-American Studies 

BA, Oklahoma Baptist; MA, PhD, Oklahoma; 
LittD, Northern Michigan, Belmont Abbey; 
LLD, Alderson-Broadus, Duke 

Donald O. Schoonmaker (1965) Professor of Politics 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Princeton 

Marianne A. Schubert (1979) Adjunct Instructor in Psychology 

BA, Dayton; MA, PhD, Southern Illinois (Part-time) 



235 



Richard D. Sears (1964) Professor of Politics 

BA, Clark; MA, PhD, Indiana 

Ben M. Seelbinder (1959) Professor of Mathematics 

BA, Mississippi Delta State; 
MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Emilv Seelbinder (1985) Instructor in English 

' BA, Hollins; MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Timothy F. Sellner (1970) Professor of German 

BA, Michigan; MA, Wayne State; PhD, Michigan (On leave, Fall 1986) 

Dudley Shapere (1984) Reynolds Professor of Pliilosophy and 

BA, MA, PhD, Harvard History of Science 

Bynum G. Shaw (1965) Professor of Journalism 

BA, Wake Forest 

Howard W. Shields (1958) Professor of Physics 

BS, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 
MS, Pennsylvania State; PhD, Duke 

Robert N. Shorter (1958) Professor of English 

BA, Union College; MA, PhD, Duke 

Wayne L. Silver (1985) Assistant Professor of Biology 

BA, Pennsvlvania; PhD, Florida State 

Michael L. Sinclair (1968) Associate Professor of History 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Stanford 

Linda E. Sloan (1985) Adjunct Instructor in Speech Communication 

BA, Rochester; MAT, Tufts; and Theatre Arts 

MFA, North Carolina (Greensboro) (Part-time) 

David L. Smilev (1950) Professor of History 

BA, MA, Baylor; PhD, Wisconsin 

J. Howell Smith (1965) Professor of History 

BA, Bavlor; MA, Tulane; PhD, Wisconsin 

Kathleen B. Smith (1981) Associate Professor of Politics 

BA, Baldwin-Wallace; MA, PhD, Purdue 

Margaret Supplee Smith (1979) Professor of Art 

BS, Missouri; MA, Case Western Reserve; PhD, Brown 

Margaret L. Snook (1984) Assistant Professor of Romance 

BS, Southern Connecticut State; MA, PhD, Illinois Languages 

Cecilia H. Solano (1977) Associate Professor of Psychology 

BA, Harvard; MA, PhD, Johns Hopkins (On leave, Fall 1986) 

Chris Stanlev (1978) Lecturer in Theatre Arts (London) 

BA, MA, Bristol (England) (Part-time) 

DeLeon E. Stokes (1982) Lecturer in Accountancy 

BA, Duke; MBA, Michigan; CPA, North Carolina 

David H. Stroupe (1984) Instructor in Health and 

BS, Wake Forest; MAT North Carolina (Chapel Hill) Sport Science 



236 



Anna- Vera Sullam (1972) 
BA, Padua 



Instructor in Romance Languages (Venice) 

(Part-time) 



'Robert L. Sullivan (1962) 

BA, Delaware; MS, PhD, North Carolina State 

Timothv P. Summers (1985) 

BA, MBA, West Virginia; PhD, South Carolina 

Charles H. Talbert (1963) 

BA, Howard; BD, Southern Baptist Seminary; 
PhD, Vanderbilt 

Stephanie Tanis (1986) 

Berufshochschule (Germany) 

Ian M. Taplin (1985) 

The College of Architecture of Oxford University; 
BA, York; MPhil, Leicester 

Thomas C. Taylor (1971) 

BS, MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); 
PhD, Louisiana State; CPA, North Carolina 

Harold C. Tedford (1965) 

BA, Ouachita; MA, Arkansas; PhD, Louisiana State 

Stanton K. Tefft (1964) 

BA, Michigan State; MS, Wisconsin; PhD, Minnesota 

Claudia Newel Thomas (1986) 

BA, Notre Dame; MA, Virginia; PhD, Brandeis 



Olive S. Thomas (1978) 

BS, Wake Forest; MBA, North Carolina (Greensboro); 
CPA, North Carolina 



Professor of Biology 

Assistant Professor of Business 

Professor of Religion 

Lecturer in German 
(Part-time, Fall 1986) 

Assistant Professor of Sociology 

Professor of Accountancy 

Professor of Theatre Arts 

Professor of Anthropology 

Assistant Professor of English 

Lecturer in Business 



Stan J. Thomas (1983) 
BS, Davidson 

William Albert Thomas (1983) 

BA, Hamilton; MS, PhD, Princeton 

Lowell R. Tillett (1956) 

BA, Carson-Newman; MA, Columbia; 
PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Richard J. Tirrell (1977) 

BS, Purdue; MS, Kanasas State 

Harry B. Titus Jr. (1981) 

BA, Wisconsin (Milwaukee); 
MFA, PhD, Princeton 

Julie A. Tomberlin (1986) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, Texas 



Assistant Professor of Computer Science 

Assistant Professor of Biology 

Professor of History 
(On leave) 

Visiting Lecturer in Education 
"(Part-time, Spring 1987) 

Assistant Professor of Art 
(On leave, Spring 1987, Fall 1987) 

Adjunct Instructor in Speech Communication 

and Theatre Arts 

(Part-time) 



*Died on November 4, 1986. 



237 



Ralph B. Tower (1980) 



Associate Professor of Accountancy 



BA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); MBA, Cornell 

Director of Instrumental Ensembles 



George William Trautwein (1983) 

BMus, Oberlin; MM us, Cleveland Institute; 
MusD, Indiana 

Horace S. Tucker Jr. (1986) 
BS, Florida 



Jimmy Turner (1985) 

AS, Danville Community; BS, Averett; MS, Wake Forest 



Assistant Professor of Military Science 
Instructor in Chemistry 



Robert W. Ulery Jr. (1971) 
BA, MA, PhD, Yale 

Robert L. Utlev Jr. (1978) 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Duke 



Associate Professor of Classical Languages 
Associate Professor of Humanities 



Antonio Carlo Vitti (1986) Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 

BA, MA, Wayne State; PhD, Michigan 



Professor of Mathematics 
Professor of Economics 



Marcellus E. Waddill (1962) 

BA, Hampden-Svdney; MA, PhD, Pittsburgh 

J. Van Wagstaff (1964) 

BA, Randolph-Macon; MBA, Rutgers; PhD, Virginia 

Susan B. Wallace (1986) Visiting Assistant Professor of Psychology 

BS, Howard; AM, Boston University; PhD, Pittsburgh 

Helen D. Warren (1984) Instructor in Speech Communication and 

BS, Southwest Missouri State; Theatre Arts 

MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); PhD, Kansas (Part-time) 

Mary R. Wayne (1980) Lecturer in Speech Communication and 

BFA, Pennsylvania State; MFA, Ohio State Theatre Arts 

(Part-time) 

David S. Weaver (1977) 

BA, MA, Arizona; PhD, New Mexico 



Associate Professor of Anthropology 

Professor of Biology 

Visiting Assistant Professor of 

Romance Languages 

(On leave, 1986-87) 

Instructor in Health and Sport Science 

Assistant Professor of Chemistry 
BS, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); PhD, Florida State (Spring 1987) 

Assistant Professor of Romance Languages 



Peter D. Weigl (1968) 

BA, Williams; PhD, Duke 

Kari Weil (1985) 

BA, Cornell, MA, PhD, Princeton 

Janice Hall Weiss (1984) 

BA, MAT, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Mark E. Welker (1987) 



Byron R. Wells (1981) 

BA, MA, Georgia; PhD, Columbia 

Larry E. West (1969) 

BA, Berea; PhD, Vanderbilt 



Professor of German 



238 



Alan J. Williams (1974) Associate Professor of History 

BA, Stanford; PhD, Yale 

David C. Williams (1982) Instructor in Speech Communication 

BA, MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) and Theatre Arts 

(Part-time) 

George P. Williams (1958) Professor of Physics 

BS, Richmond; MS, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

John E. Williams (1959) Professor of Psychology 

BA, Richmond; MA, PhD, Iowa 

Richard T. Williams (1985) Reynolds Professor of Physics 

BS, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, Princeton 

Edwin Graves Wilson (1946, 1951) Professor of English 

BA, Wake Forest; AM, PhD, Harvard 

Donald H. Wolfe (1968) Professor of Theatre Arts 

BS, MS, Southern Illinois; PhD, Cornell 

Frank B. Wood (1971) Adjunct Associate Professor of Psychology 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; (Part-time) 

MDiv, Southeastern Baptist Seminary; PhD, Duke 

John H. Wood (1985) Reynolds Professor of Economics 

BS, Ohio; MA, Michigan State; PhD, Purdue 

Ralph C. Wood Jr. (1971) Associate Professor of Religion 

BA, MA, East Texas State; MA, PhD, Chicago 

J. Ned Woodall (1969) Professor of Anthropology 

BA, MA, Texas; PhD, Southern Methodist 

Stuart Wright (1983) Lecturer in Education 

BA, MA, MAEd, Wake Forest (Part-time) 

Ravmond L. Wyatt (1956) Professor of Biology 

BS, Wake Forest; MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

W. Buck Yearns Jr. (1945) Professor of History 

BA, Duke; MA, Georgia; (On leave, Fall 1986) 

PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Richard L. Zuber (1962) Professor of History 

BS, Appalachian; MA, Emory; PhD, Duke 



239 

Emeriti 



Dates following names indicate period of service. 

Harold M. Barrow (1948-1977) Professor Emeritus of Physical Education 

BA, Westminster; MA, Missouri; PED, Indiana 

Dalma Adolph Brown (1941-1973) Professor Emeritus of English 

BA, MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Germaine Bree (1973-1985) Kenan Professor Emerita of Humanities 

Licence, EES, Agregation, Paris; LittD, Smith, Mount Holyoke, 
Alleghany, Duke, Oberlin, Dickinson, Rutgers, Wake Forest, 
Brown, Wisconsin (Milwaukee), New York, Massachusetts, 
Kalamazoo, Washington (St. Louis), University of the South, 
Boston College, Wisconsin (Madison); LHD, Wilson, Colby, 
Michigan, Davis and Elkins; LLD, Middlebury 

Ruth F. Campbell (1962-1974) Professor Emerita of Spanish 

BA, North Carolina (Greensboro); 
MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill); PhD, Duke 

Marjorie Crisp (1947-1977) Associate Professor Emerita 

BS, Appalachian; MA, George Peabodv of Physical Education 

Hugh William Divine (1954-1979) Professor Emeritus of Law 

BS, Georgia; MA, Louisiana State; JD, Emory; 
LLM, SJD, Michigan 

Robert Allen Dyer (1956-1983) Professor Emeritus of Religion 

BA, Louisiana State; 
ThM, PhD, Southern Baptist Seminary 

J. Allen Easley (1928-1963) Professor Emeritus of Religion 

BA, Furman; ThM, Southeastern Baptist Seminary; 
DD, Furman 

Walter S. Flory (1963-1980) Babcock Professor Emeritus of Biology 

BA, Bridgewater; MA, PhD, Virginia; ScD, Bridgewater 

George J. Griffin (1948-1981) Professor Emeritus of Religion 

BA, Wake Forest; ThB, Southern Baptist Seminary; 
BD, Yale; PhD, Edinburgh 

Ysbrand Haven (1965-1983) Professor Emeritus of Physics 

Candidate, Doctorandus, Doctor, Rijks (Netherlands) 

Ralph Cyrus Heath (1954-1969) Professor Emeritus of Marketing 

BA, Princeton; MBA, DBA, Indiana 

Lois Johnson (1942-1962) Dean of Women Emerita 

BA, Meredith; MA, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Alonzo W. Kenion (1956-1983) Professor Emeritus of English 

BA, MA, PhD, Duke 

Harry L. King Jr. (1960-1981) Professor Emeritus of Romance Languages 

BA, Richmond; MA, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 



240 



Robert E. Lee (1946-1977) Professor Emeritus of Law and 

BS, LLD, Wake Forest; Dean Emeritus of the School of Eaw 

MA, Columbia; LLM, SJD, Duke 

Jasper L. Memory Jr. (1929-1971) Professor Emeritus of Education 

BA, Wake Forest; MA, Columbia 

Harry B. Miller (1947-1983) Professor Emeritus of Chemistry 

' BS, PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

James C. O'Flahertv (1947-1984) Professor Emeritus of German 

BA, Georgetown; MA, Kentucky; PhD, Chicago 

Clarence H. Patrick (1946-1978) Professor Emeritus of Sociology 

BA, Wake Forest; BD, Andover Newton; PhD, Duke 

Herman J. Preseren (1953-1983) Professor Emeritus of Education 

BS, California State (Pennsylvania); MA, Columbia; 
PhD, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 

Beulah L. Ravnor (1946-1979) Associate Professor Emerita of English 

BA, East Carolina; MA, Wake Forest 

Albert C. Reid (1917-18, 1920-1965) Professor Emeritus of Philosophy 

BA, MA, Wake Forest; PhD, Cornell 

C. H. Richards Jr. (1952-1985) Professor Emeritus of Politics 

BA, Texas Christian; MA, PhD, Duke 

Paul S. Robinson (1952-1977) Professor Emeritus of Music 

BA, Westminster; BM, Curtis; MSM, DSM, Union Seminary 

James Ralph Scales (1967-1983) President Emeritus 

BA, Oklahoma Baptist; MA, PhD, Oklahoma; 
LittD, Northern Michigan, Belmont Abbey; 
LLD, Alderson-Broaddus, Duke 

Richard L. Shoemaker (1950-1982) Professor Emeritus of 

BA, Colgate; MA, Syracuse; Romance Languages 

PhD, Virginia 

Blanche C. Speer (1972-1984) Associate Professor Emerita of 

BA, Howard Payne; MA, PhD, Colorado Linguistics 

Henry Smith Stroupe (1937-1984) Professor Emeritus of History 

BS, MA, Wake Forest; PhD, Duke 

Anne S. Tillett (1956-1986) Professor Emerita of Romance Languages 

BA, Carson-Newman; MA, Vanderbilt; PhD, Northwestern 

Carlton P. West (1928-1975) Librarian Emeritus 

BA, Boston; MA, Yale; BA in LS, North Carolina (Chapel Hill) 



241 

The Committees of the Faculty 

September 1, 1987 

The terms of members, except where otherwise shown, expire on August 31 of the 
year indicated. Each committee selects its own chair except where the chair is 
designated. All members of a committee vote except as otherwise indicated. 



Executive Committees 

The Committee on Academic Affairs 

Non-voting. Dean of Students, Associate Dean, Assistant Dean, a designated mem- 
ber of the administrative staff, and one undergraduate student. Voting. Dean of the 
College; 1989 Maxine L. Clark, Howard W. Shields; 1988 John L. Andronica, Ralph S. 
Fraser; and one undergraduate student. 

The Committee on Admissions 

Non-voting. Director of Admissions, one member from the administrative staff of the 
Office of the Dean of the College, and one undergraduate student. Voting. Dean of 
the College; 1989 Willie Pearson Jr., Harold C Tedford; 1988 Susan h" Berwick, 
Candelas M. Newton; and one undergraduate student. 

The Committee on Scholarships and Student Aid 

Non-voting. One undergraduate student. Voting. Dean of the College, Director of 
Admissions and Financial Aid, one member from the administrative staff of the 
Office of the Dean of the College; 1989 Louis R. Goldstein, Eva M. Rodtwitt; 1988 
Susan C. Jackels, Gillian R. Overing; and one undergraduate student. 

The Committee on Curriculum 

Voting. Provost, Dean of the College, Dean of the School of Business and Accountan- 
cy, Registrar, and the chairperson of each department of the College as follows: 
Division I. Art, Classical Languages, English, German and Russian, Music, Romance 
Languages, Speech Communication and Theatre Arts. Division II. Biology, Chemis- 
try, Health and Sport Science, Mathematics and Computer Science, Phvsics. Di- 
vision III. Education, Historv, Militarv Science, Philosophy, Religion. Division IV. 
Anthropologv, Economics, Politics, Psvchologv, Sociologv. (School of Business and 
Accountancy is included in Division IV for administrative purposes.) 

Advisory Committees 

The Committee on Academic Planning 

Non-voting. Provost, Dean of the School of Business and Accountancy, and one 



242 

undergraduate student. Voting. Dean of the College, Director of Libraries, one 
undergraduate student, and 1990 Nina S. Allen, Larrv E. West; 1989 Emmett W. 
Hamrick, Donald O. Schoonmaker; 1988 William C. Kerr, Andrew V. Ettin. 

The Committee on Athletics 

Non-voting. Director of Athletics. Voting. Vice President and Treasurer, Dean of the 
College, faculty representative to the Atlantic Coast Conference, and 1991 Eddie V. 
Easley, Linda N. Nielsen; 1990 James Kuzmanovich, Deborah L. Best; 1989 William 
L. Hottinger, Charles L. Talbert; 1988 John A. Carter Jr., David W. Catron. 

The Committee on Institutional Planning 

Non-voting. Provost, Vice President and Treasurer, Vice President for Administration 
and Planning, and one undergraduate student. Voting. Dean of the College, Dean of 
the School of Business and Accountancy, one undergraduate student, and 1990 
David J. John, Byron R. Wells; 1989 John W. Angell, Kathleen B. Smith; 1988 Ellen E. 
Kirkman, Paul H. D. Kaplan. 

The Committee on Nominations 

Voting. 1989 Donald E. Frey, Kathleen Glenn, Ralph B. Tower; 1988 Nancy J. Cotton, 
Donald H. Wolfe. 

The Committee on Library Planning 

Non-voting. Provost, Dean of the Graduate School, one faculty representative from 
the Committee on Academic Planning, and one undergraduate student. Voting. One 
faculty representative from each academic department of the College, Dean of the 
College, one faculty representative from the School of Business and Accountancy, 
the Director of Libraries, and one undergraduate student. 



Special Committees 

The Committee on Publications 

Voting. Dean of the College, Vice President and Treasurer, three facultv advisers of 
Old Gold and Black, The Student, and the Howler, and 1989 Harry B. Titus Jr.; 1988 
W. Dillon Johnston. 

The Committee for Teacher Education 

Voting. Dean of the College, Dean of the Graduate School, chairperson of the 
Department of Education, and 1989 Michael L. Hughes, Charles F. Jackels; 1988 
Milorad R. Margitic, Stephen P. Messier. 



243 



The Committee on Honors 

Non-voting. One student from the College. Voting. Dean of the College, the Coordi- 
nator of the Honors Program, one student from the College, and 1990 Saguiv A. 
Hadari; 1989 Gary A. Cook; 1988 John E. Collins. 

The Committee of Lower Division Advisers 

Dean of the College, chairperson of the Lower Division Advisers, and members of 
the faculty who are appointed as advisers to the Lower Division. 

The Committee on Orientation 

Dean of the College, chairperson of the Lower Division Advisers, who shall serve as 
chairperson, Dean of Students, a designated member of the administrative staff, 
President of the Student Government or a representative, and other persons from 
the administration and student bodv whom the chair shall invite to serve. 

The Committee on Records and Information 

Non-voting. Registrar. Voting. Dean of the College, Archivist, who shall be secretary, 
Vice-chairperson of the Faculty, Secretary of the Facultv, and 1989 John R. Earle; 1988 
Umit Akinc. 

The Committee on Open Curriculum 

Dean of the College, 1990 Stephen B. Boyd, Natalie A. W. Holzwarth; 1989 Dan S. 
Locklair, David A. Hills; 1988 Carole L. Browne, Patricia M. Cunningham. 

The Committee for the ROTC 

Voting. Dean of the College, ROTC Coordinator, Professor of Military Science, and 
1989 Timothy F. Sellner; 1988 Hugo C. Lane. 



Joint Faculty/Administration Committees 

The Joint Admissions Committee 

Dean of the College, Director of Admissions and Financial Aid, Provost, Deborah L. 
Best, Dollv A. McPherson, Stephen Ewing. 

The Judicial Council 

Administration. 1991 Vonda F. Reece. Alternate. 1989 Patricia A. Johansson. Faculty. 
1991 Carl C. Moses; 1990 J. Howell Smith; 1989 Raymond L. Wyatt; 1988 Alan J. 
Williams. Alternate. 1989 Kathleen B. Smith. Two students from the College and one 
student alternate. 



244 



The Committee on Student Life 

Dean of the College or his designate, Dean of Students, a designated member of the 
administration, 1989 Claire H. Hammond; 1988 W. Jack Rejeski; and three un- 
dergraduate students. 

Other Faculty Assignments 

Faculty Advisers to the Honor Council 

1989 Marcellus E. Waddili; 1988 Robert N. Shorter. 

Faculty Advisers to the Student Judicial Board 

1989 Timothy P. Summers; 1988 John H. Litcher 

Faculty Marshals 

John V. Baxlev, Richard D. Carmichael, 
Carlton T. Mitchell, Mary Frances Robinson 

University Senate 

President, Provost, Vice President for Health Affairs, Vice President and Treasurer, 

Vice President for University Relations, Vice President for Administration and 

Planning, Dean of the College, Dean of the School of Business and Accountancv, 

Dean of Graduate School, Dean of the School of Law, Dean of the Graduate School of 

Management, Dean of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Director of Libraries, 

and the following: 

Representatives of the College: 1990 Elmer K. Hayashi, Richard D. Sears; 1989 David W. 

Hadley, J. Don Reeves; 1988 Paul M. Ribisl, J. Ned Woodall. 

Representatives of the School of Business and Accountancy: 1989 Arun P. Dewasthali. 

Representatives of the Graduate School: 1990 James C. Rose; 1989 Deborah L. Best; 1988 

Elizabeth Phillips. 

Representatives of the School of Laze: 1989 Thomas E. Roberts. 

Representatives of the Babcock Graduate School of Management: 1989 J. Timothv Heames. 

Representatives of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine: 1990 Richard St. Clair; 1989 Inglis 

J. Miller Jr.; 1988 Hyman B. Muss. 

Other Committees 

University Grievance Committee 

College: 1991 Robert W. Brehme, J. Gaylord May (alternate). 
Graduate School: 1989 David W. Catron, Arnold S. Kreger (alternate). 
School of Laze: 1990 David A. Logan, H. Miles Fov (alternate). 



245 



Babock Graduate School of Management: 1988 Michael L. Rice, Melvin J. Steckler (alter- 
nate). 
Boivman Gray School of Medicine: 1987 Walter J. Bo, Henry S. Miller Jr. (alternate). 

Institutional Review Board 

Grants and Contracts Officer, University Counsel (consultant), and 1989 Michael J. 
Berry, Catherine T. Harris, Mark R. Leary, John H. Litcher; 1988 John R. Earle, 
Dennis Lynch, Linda N. Nielsen. 





246 



Index 



Academic Awards, 26 

Academic Calendar, 2, 38 

Accountancy, 191 

Accreditation, 12 

Administration, 213 

Admission Deposit, 33, 35 

Admission Requirements, 32 

Advanced Placement, 34 

Advising, 38 

Anthropology, 74 

Application for Admission, 32 

Applied Music Fees, 36 

Art, 78 

Art History, 79 

Artists Series, 29 

Asian Studies, 82 

Athletic Awards, 27 

Athletic Scholarships, 27 

Athletics, 27 

Attendance Requirement, 39 

Auditing, 39 

Babcock Graduate School of 

Management, 8 
Basic Course Requirements, 63 
Biology, 84 

Board of Trustees, 208 
Board of Visitors, 210 
Bowman Gray School of Medicine, 8 
Buildings and Grounds, 9 
Business, 189 

Business and Accountancy, 8, 187 
Calendar, 2 
Campus Ministrv, 28 
Carswell Scholarships, 47 
Case Referral Panel, 24 
Charges, 32, 33, 35, 36, 37 
Chemistry, 89 
Chinese, 174 
Class Attendance, 39 
Classical Languages, 92 
Classics, 95 
Classification, 38 
CLEP, 34 



College History and Development, 17 

Combined Degrees, 69 

Committees of the Faculty, 241 

Computer Center, 10 

Computer Science, 131 

Concessions, 57 

Course Numbers, 74 

Course Repetition, 42 

Courses of Instruction, 74 

Cultural Activities, 28 

Dance, 117 

Dean's List, 42 

Debate, 28 

Degree Requirements, 62 

Degrees, 62 

Degrees Conferred, 193 

Dentistrv Degree, 72 

Dijon Semester, 60, 169 

Distinctions, 42 

Divisional Course Requirements, 64 

Double Majors, 66 

Dropping a Course, 40 

Early Decision, 33 

East European Studies, 68 

Economics, 96 

Education, 100 

Educational Planning, 30 

Emeriti, 239 

Engineering Degree, 72 

English, 107 

Enrollment, 205 

Examinations, 40 

Exchange Scholarships, 56 

Expenses, 34 

Faculty, 222 

Fees, 34 

Fields of Study, 62 

Financial Aid, 46 

Food Services, 35 

Foreign Area Studies, 68 

Forestry and Environmental Studies 

Degree, 73 
Fraternities, 25 



247 



French, 166 

French Semester, 60, 169 

Geographical Distribution, 206 

German, 112 

German Studies, 69 

Grade Reports, 41 

Grading System, 40 

Graduate School, 8 

Graduation Distinctions, 42 

Graduation Requirements, 62 

Greek, 93 

Handicapped Students, Admission, 33 

Hankins Scholarships, 47 

Health and Sport Science, 115 

Health and Sport Science 

Requirement, 65, 115 
Health Service, 30 
Hebrew, 165 
Hindi, 174 
History, 120 
Honor Council, 24 
Honor Societies, 26, 203 
Honor System, 23 
Honors Study, 59, 128 
Housing, 37 
Humanities, 124 
Incomplete Grades, 41 
Independent Study , 61 
Indian Semester, 61 
Intercollegiate Athletics, 27 
Interdisciplinary Honors, 128 
Interdisciplinary Minors, 67 
Interfraternity Council, 25 
Intersociety Council, 25 
Intramural Athletics, 27 
Italian, 175 
Italian Studies, 69 
Joint Majors, 66 
Journalism, 109 
Judicial Board, 24 
Latin, 94 

Latin American Studies, 69 
Law Degree, 69 
Law School, 8 
Libraries, 11 
Loans, 56 



London Semester, 60 

Majors, 66 

Management School, 8 

Mathematical Economics, 96, 131 

Mathematics, 130 

Maximum Number of Courses, 66 

Medical School, 8 

Medical Sciences Degree, 70 

Medical Technology Degree, 71 

Microbiology Degree, 71 

Military Science, 135 

Ministerial Concessions, 58 

Minor in Cultural Resource 

Preservation, 67 
Minor in International 

Studies, 67 
Minor in Women's Studies, 68 
Minors, 67 
Mortar Board, 26 
Music, 136 

Music Education, 140 
Music Ensemble, 140 
Music History, 138 
Music Theory, 137 
Natural Sciences, 142 
North Carolina Student Incentive 

Grants, 52 
Omicron Delta Kappa, 26, 203 
Open Curriculum, 59 
Orientation, 38 
Part-Time Students, 38 
Pass/Fail Grades, 41 
Pell Grants, 54 
Phi Beta Kappa, 26, 203 
Philosophy, 144 
Physician Assistant Program 

Degree, 71 
Physics, 147 
Placement Service, 30 
Politics, 150 
Probation, 42 
Procedures, 30 
Professional Fraternities, 26 
Professional Schools, 8 
Proficiency in the English Language, 65 
Psychological Services, 30 



>48 



Psychology, 155 
Publications, 29 
Purpose, 15 
Radio Stations, 28 
Radio/Television/Film, 183 
Readmission Requirements, 44 
Recognition, 12 
Refunds, 37 
Registration, 38 
Religion, 160 
Religious Activities, 28 
Repetition of Courses, 42 
Requirements for Continuation, 43 
Requirements for Degrees, 62 
Residence Hall Charges, 35, 37, 38 
Residence Hall Government, 25 
Residential Language Centers, 59 
Reynolds Scholarships, 46 
Romance Languages, 165 
Room Charges, 35 
ROTC, 28, 135 
Russian, 114 

Salamanca Semester, 60, 173 
Salem College Study, 60 
Scholarships, 46 
School of Business and 

Accountancy, 187 
School of Business and Accountancy 

Advisory Council, 212 
Senior Testing, 69 
Societies, Social, 25 
Sociology, 176 



Spanish, 170 

Spanish Semester, 60, 173 
Spanish Studies, 69 
Special Programs, 59 
Speech Communication, 180 
Student/Student Spouse 

Employment, 58 
Student Government, 23 
Student Legislature, 23 
Student Life, 23 
Student Publications, 29 
Student Union, 24 
Studio Art, 81 
Study Abroad, 60 
Summer Session, 44 
Summer Study Elsewhere, 44 
Teaching Area Requirements, 101 
Theatre Arts, 184 
Transcripts, 41 
Transfer Credit, 34, 45 
Trustees, 208 
Tuition, 35 

Undergraduate Schools, 14 
University, 8 
Vehicle Registration, 37 
Venice Semester, 60, 175 
Veterans Benefits, 58 
Visitors, 210 
WAKE-AM, 28 
WFDD-FM, 28 

Withdrawal from the College, 40 
Work/Study Program, 55 



Bulletins of Wake Forest University 



The Undergraduate Schools 

Director of Admissions and Financial Aid 

7305 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109 

919-761-5201 

The Graduate School 

Dean of the Graduate School 

7487 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109 

919-761-5301 

The School of Law 

Director of Admissions 

7206 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109 

The Babcock Graduate School of Management 

Director of Admissions 

7659 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109 

919-761-5422 

The Bowman Gray School of Medicine 

Associate Dean for Admissions 

300 Hawthorne Road 

Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109 

919-748-4265 

The Summer Session 

Deam of the Summer Session 

7293 Reynolda Station 

Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109 

Terry Hydell, Editor 



Wake Forest administers all educational and employment activities without discrimination 
because of race, color, religion, national origin, age, handicap, or sex except where exempt. 




Director of Admissions 
Wake Forest University 
Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27109 



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